Psychology and Systems at Work / Edition 1

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Understand the nature of contemporary organizations through systems thinking.

Psychology and Systems at Work is a ground-breaking text for Industrial/Organizational psychology where the authors employ systems thinking, which emphasizes the relationships between parts (rather than the parts themselves) as well as the context in which an organization is nested. It is “wide-angle thinking” about an organization and the surrounding contexts, and it yields effective problem solving with a long-term as well as a short-term perspective. As an organizing principle to the entire textbook, organizational systems are identified as Level I and Level II. Level I systems include functions like the recruitment and selection of new members. Level II systems focus on the social interactions between organizational members and clients or customers as reflected in the processes of organizational culture, leadership, and conflict management. Readers will come to understand the nuts and bolts that shape organizational and individual behaviors and systems that in turn give rise to quality production of products and services.

Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, readers should be able to:

  • Design systems that are flexible in a fast-changing environment
  • Understand the basic foundations that shape organizational behavior
  • Apply material they learn to real-life scenarios

020595376X / 9780205953769 Psychology and Systems at Work Plus NEW MySearchLab with eText

Package consists of

0205239927 / 9780205239924 MySearchLab with Pearson eText -- Access Card

0205735789 / 9780205735785 Psychology and Systems at Work

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“Very comprehensive-covers all the key topics. I like the applications throughout.”

- Elise Grant-Vallone, CSU San Marcos

“The book is well written. The book includes current trends in I/O Psychology. The chapters seem to flow together.”

- Leona Johnson, Hampton University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205735785
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 10/16/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 264
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 2.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert B. Lawson earned his PhD in general-experimental psychology from the University of Delaware in 1965, and then joined the faculty at the University of Vermont (UVM). He was the first Director of the Human Visual Perception Laboratory, and rose to full professor in 1974. He served twice as Chair of the Psychology Department, Dean of the Graduate College and Associate Vice President for Research for eight years, Director of the Master’s program in Public Administration for five years, and served on a number of university-wide commissions. He was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University in 1986-1987 focusing on business administration and organizational sciences. He is the author of thirty journal articles and four textbooks, a consultant to a number of Vermont organizations, and has been an invited lecturer on organizational psychology in China, Europe, and Russia. He is a recipient of the UVM outstanding teacher award, and one of his students from the class of 1977 endowed a professorship in his name in 2008. Now Professor Emeritus, he continues to study organizations as he has been doing for over the past 45 years.

E. Doris Anderson’s multidisciplinary education and work experience afford her an acute awareness of the interdependence shared by biological, psychological, and social systems. Through the years of applied management she has developed a finely-tuned appreciation for the vital role that system’s thinking plays in understanding people and organizations.

Her emphasis on systems phenomena in organizational psychology is born of up-close support for and management of challenges inherent to a wide variety of organizations. Her organizational experiences include psychiatric, community and maternity nursing, crises counseling, youth program administration, public education program development, organizational mediation/consultation, and public administration. Doris earned a Registered Nurse (RN) degree from Good Samaritan School of Nursing, Dayton Ohio in 1972, Bachelors of Art degree in Psychology from the University of Vermont in 1978, and Master of Public Administration in 2004 from the University of Vermont. In 2001 Doris graduated from the Mediation and Conflict Management Program at Woodbury College, Montpelier, Vermont.

Currently Doris devotes her time to writing and lecturing at the University of Vermont, furthering a lifetime commitment to implementing healthful community infrastructure, cooperative work settings, and effective conflict resolution practices.

Larry Rudiger has been a student of organizations from the age of 15, when he entered the workforce. He earned his PhD from the University of Vermont in social psychology, where he was also a postdoctoral fellow in behavior genetics. For nearly ten years, he worked in the private sector, developing clinical decision-support tools for primary-care medicine, learning first-hand about founder-run companies and defense contracting. He returned to academia full-time in 2005 and began teaching organizational behavior in 2009. He is a volunteer consultant to local nonprofits, specializing in outcome evaluation. His first degree is in vocal music, and he’s happy to remain an amateur performer, conductor, and director.

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Table of Contents


Part I: Organizations as Systems

Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizations and Systems

Chapter 2: Methods of Study

Part II: Macro-Systems

Chapter 3: Organizational Culture

Chapter 4: Leadership, Power, and Politics

Chapter 5: Workforce Diversity and Ethics

Part III: Micro-Systems

Chapter 6: Hiring and Performance Management

Chapter 7: Group Dynamics and Teams

Chapter 8: Motivation and Productivity at Work

Chapter 9: Organizational Decision Making

Chapter 10: Workplace Negotiation

Chapter 11: Organizational Conflict Management

Part IV: Managing Change

Chapter 12: Organizational Change and Learning


Part I: Organizations as Systems

Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizations and Systems

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Work and Systems in the 21st Century

Work Matters

Organizations as Systems

Systems Thinking

Systems Applications

A Framework for Understanding Organizations

Global Organizations

Our World and Its People

A Brief History of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Pioneers in the Field

The Organizational Side Develops

A Changing Field for Changing Times

Questions for the Future

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 2: Methods of Study

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Instrumental Forces

Dispositional and Situational Variables


Rationality -Emotionality

Methods of Study

Case Study

Archival Research

Field Experiment

Survey- Questionnaire

Laboratory Experiment


Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics


Moderator Variables

Organizational Snapshot

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Part II: Macro-Systems

Chapter 3: Organizational Culture

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Organizational Culture

Levels of Organizational Culture



Basic Assumptions

Function of Organizational Culture

External Adaptation

Internal Integration

Cultural Directory

Organizational Culture Change

Pathways to Culture Change

Organizational Culture and Learning

Applied Cultural Change Strategies

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 4: Leadership, Power, and Politics

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives


Definition of Leadership

Power and Politics

Leaders and Managers

Models of Leadership

Trait Models

Behavioral Models

Situational Models

Charismatic Leadership

The Gifts of Charisma

The Consequences of Charisma

Transformational Leadership

What Transformational Leaders Do

The Consequences of Transformation Leadership

Power and Influence

Sources of Power

Power and Politics

Strategic Power: Machiavellianism

Influence Tactics


Emerging Trends in Leadership Studies

Leadership and Gender

Gender and Transformational Leadership

Servant Leadership

Narcissistic Leadership

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 5: Workforce Diversity and Ethics

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Workforce Diversity and Inclusion

Barriers to Diversity and Inclusion

Women in the Workforce

Barriers to Work for Women

Persons of Color in the Workforce

Barriers to Work for Persons of Color

Sexual Minorities in the Workforce

Barriers to Work for Sexual Minorities

Regulations: Laws, Court Cases, and Executive Orders

The Laws of the Land

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Organizational Justice and Ethics

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Part III: Micro-Systems

Chapter 6: Hiring and Performance Management

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Getting In, Finding Your Way, Getting Ahead

Biographical Data and Letters of Recommendation

Interview Formats

Self-Presentation Tactics


Web-Based Recruitment

Assessment Centers

Socialization, Training, and Mentoring Programs

Core Self-Evaluations and Work Environments

Employee Socialization and Training Programs


Performance Evaluation: How It Works, How It Is Done

Does Performance Evaluation Help?

Sources of Error and Bias

Rater Error

Halo Effect

Lenience, Severity, and Distributional Errors

360-Degree Feedback and Self Ratings

Dispositional Variables and Work Performances

Locus of Control


Contemporary Issues in Performance Evaluation

Electronic Performance Monitoring

Cyber loafing

Personality and Risk for Burn-Out

Performance Evaluation and The Law: Protected Groups

Protected Groups and Adverse Impact

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 7: Group Dynamics and Teams

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives


Groups and Teams: Similarities and Differences

Reasons for Joining

Types Of Groups

Stages Of Group Development

Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium

Group Roles and Norms

Group Dynamics

Group Identity As Influence On Behavior

Benefits To Group Entitativity

In-Group Bias


Types of Teams

Winning Team Formula

Team Cognition

Self and Collective Efficacy

Challenges to Quality Teamwork

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 8: Motivation and Productivity at Work

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Introduction to Motivation

Definition of Motivation

Theories of Motivation

Maslow's Need Hierarchy



Goal Setting

Motivational Tools

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

Learned Industriousness

Enhancing Motivation

Climb the Ladder to Success


Mood at Work

Motivation Dysfunction

Social Loafing


Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter: 9 Organizational Decision Making

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Introduction to Decision Making

Process and Outcome Components

Types of Decisions

Models of Organizational Decision Making


Bounded Rationality


The Garbage Can

Collective Decision Making


Abilene Paradox

Good Ideas: How to Get Them

Nominal Group Technique

Stepladder Technique

Electronic Brainstorming

Ethical and Unethical Decisions at Work

Promotion of Ethical Decision Making

Decision Making Tools

Communication Channels

Feedback Loop Systems

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 10: Workplace Negotiation

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Introduction to Negotiation

Distributive Negotiation: Focus on Now

Integrative Negotiation: Focus on Now and Later

Quality Negotiation Requires a Medley of Integrative and Distributive Negotiation

Moving from Position-based Negotiation (Low Trust) to Interest-Based Negotiation (High Trust)

BATNA: Its Appeal and Its Traps

Key Elements to Quality Negotiation

To Be Understood One Must First Seek to Understand

Resist Thinking of Negotiation as a Win/Lose Game

Resist Falling Victim To Stereotypes

Resist Power Plays With An Abundance Mindset

Displaying Emotions In Negotiation Is a Wildcard

Be Competent in Multicultural Negotiation

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Chapter 11: Organizational Conflict Management

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Introduction to Organizational Conflict

Definition of Organizational Conflict

Conflict Theory

Causal Attribution Theory

Competition Theory

Conflict Spiral

System Theory

System Dysfunction

Examples of System Dysfunction

Introduction to Workplace Conflict Management

Behavioral Level Conflict Management

Emotional Level Conflict Management

Cognitive Level Conflict Management

Organizational Conflict Management Systems

Strengthen Relations

In-House Conflict Management

Conflict Management Tools

Stakeholder Analysis

Conflict Analysis

Problem Frame

The Power of Telling One’s Story

Conflict Management Intervention

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

Part IV: Managing Change

Chapter 12: Organizational Change and Learning

Chapter Overview

Learning Objectives

Introduction to Change Management

Receptivity to Change Management and Intervention Type

Change to


Capitalizing on Punctuated Equilibrium

Maintaining Organizational Health in the Midst of Change

Change Management Pioneers (Trailblazers)

Managing Risk Taking and Innovation

Organizational Learning and Development

Models of Organizational Learning

Communities of Practice

I-P-O Model

Process Mapping (Cognitive Mapping)

Methodology for Organizational Learning

Organizational Vision and Systems in Motion

Change Management and Development

Change Management Tools

Information Gathering and Processing Tool

Chapter Summary

Chapter References

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