Psychology and Work Today / Edition 10

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Overview

an invaluable foundation for anyone entering today’s global business and industrial world. This informative, sophisticated, and entertaining text teaches students about the nature of work in modern society by focusing on the practical and applied rather than the scientific ideal. Human resource development (employee selection, psychological testing, performance appraisal, and training); leadership, motivation, job satisfaction, and job involvement; working conditions, safety, violence, and health in the workplace. An excellent handbook for all human resource employees, as well as managers, executives, and others responsible for hiring personnel.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205683581
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 3/30/2009
  • Series: MySearchLab Series for Psychology Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 456
  • Sales rank: 179,288
  • Product dimensions: 8.10 (w) x 10.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Brief TOC:

I. THE PRACTICE OF INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

1. Principles, Practices, and Problems.

2. Techniques, Tools, and Tactics.

II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES.

3. Employee Selection Principles and Techniques.

4. Psychological Testing.

5. Performance Appraisal.

6. Training and Development.

III. ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

7. Leadership.

8. Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement.

9. The Organization of the Organization.

IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKPLACE.

10. Working Conditions.

11. Safety, Violence, and Health in the Workplace.

12. Stress in the Workplace.

V. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY.

13. Engineering Psychology.

VI. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY.

14. Consumer Psychology.

References.

Glossary.

Photo Credits.

Index.

____________________________________________________________

Schultz & Schultz: PSYCHOLOGY AND WORK TODAY, 10TH EDITION

CONTENTS

PREFACE

PART ONE: The Practice of Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Chapter 1: Principles, Practices, and Problems

Would You Work If You Didn’t Have To?

Newsbreak

I-O Psychology on the Job

I-O Psychology in Everyday Life

Newsbreak

What I-O Psychology Means to Your Employer

An Overview of the Development of I-O Psychology

Pioneers in Personnel Selection

World War I and the Testing Movement

The Hawthorne Studies and Motivational Issues

Newsbreak

World War II and Engineering Psychology

Later Developments in I-O Psychology

Challenges for I-O Psychology

The Virtual Workplace

Virtual Employees

Newsbreak

Worker Involvement

New Technology Requires New Skills

The Global Workplace

Newsbreak

Ethnic Diversity in the Workplace

Different Generations? Different Values

Newsbreak

Careers in I-O Psychology

Newsbreak

Practical Problems for I-O Psychologists

Fraudulent Practitioners

Credentials and Certification

Communicating with Management

Worker Resistance to New Ideas

Research or Application?

Areas of I-O Psychology

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 2: Techniques, Tools, and Tactics

Why Study Psychological Research Methods?

Requirements of Psychological Research

Limitations of Psychological Research

Newsbreak

The Experimental Method

Designing an Experiment

Selecting the Subjects

A Sample Experiment: The Effects of Training Conditions on Turnover and Productivity

The Naturalistic Observation Method

A Sample Controlled Observation: The Friendly Behaviors of Convenience Store Clerks

Surveys and Public Opinion Polls

Newsbreak

Interviews

Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires

Newsbreak

Web-Based Surveys

Telephone Surveys

Newsbreak

Survey Questions

Sampling Methods

Employees Attitudes toward Surveys

Virtual Laboratories: Web-Based Research

Analyzing Research Data

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

PART TWO: The Development of Human Resources

Chapter 3: Employee Selection Principles and Techniques

What’s Your Ideal Job?

The Recruitment Process

Sources for Recruiting

Recruiter Characteristics

On-Campus Recruiting

Newsbreak: If the Job Sounds Too Good to be True . . .

Realistic Job Previews

An Overview of the Selection Process

Job and Worker Analyses

Recruitment Decisions

Selection Techniques

Fair Employment Practices

Adverse Impact

Reverse Discrimination

Increasing Diversity at Work

Newsbreak: Are We Still at the Back of the Bus?

Other Targets of Discrimination

Job and Work Analysis

Biographical Information

Application Blanks

Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired, Part 3: Prooof-read Your Resume.

Biodata Inventories

Interviews

Making a Good Impression

Newsbreak: How Not to Get Hired, Part 4: Are You Having Fun Yet?

Unstructured Interviews

Structured Interviews

Situational Interviews

Puzzle Interviews

Online Interviews

The Interviewer’s Judgments

References and Letters of Recommendation

Newsbreak: Recommendation Letters: What if the Employee is a Nutcase?

Assessment Centers

The In-Basket Technique

Leaderless Group Discussions

Predictive Validity of Assessment Centers

Attitudes toward Assessment Centers

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 4: Psychological Testing

Characteristics of Psychological Tests

Standardization

Objectivity

Test Norms

Newsbreak

Reliability

Validity

Newsbreak

Fair Employment Practices

Overview of a Testing Program

Newsbreak

Types of Psychological Tests

Individual and Group Tests

Computerized Adaptive Tests

Speed and Power Tests

What Do Tests Measure?

Cognitive Abilities

Newsbreak

Interests

Aptitudes

Personality

Honesty

Situational Judgment

Problems with Using Psychological Tests

Ethical and Privacy Issues

Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 5: Performance Appraisal

Fair Employment Practices

Performance Appraisal: Why Do It?

Opposition to Performance Appraisal

Newsbreak

Objective Performance Appraisal Techniques

Output Measures

Computerized Performance Monitoring

Newsbreak

Job-Related Personal Data

Subjective, or Judgmental, Performance Appraisal Techniques

Written Narratives

Merit Rating Techniques

Management by Objectives (MBO)

Performance Appraisal Methods for Managers

Evaluation Techniques

Newsbreak

360-Degree Feedback

Sources of Bias in Performance Appraisal

The Halo Effect

Other Sources of Error

Newsbreak

Ways to Improve Performance Appraisals

The Post-Appraisal Interview

Performance Appraisal: A Poor Rating?

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 6: Training and Development

The Scope of Organizational Training

Newsbreak

Goals of Organizational Training

Staffing for Organizational Training

The Pre-Training Environment

How People Learn: Psychological Issues

Newsbreak

Types of Training Programs

On-the-Job Training

Vestibule Training

Apprenticeship

Computer-Assisted Instruction

Net-Based Training

Newsbreak

Behavior Modification

Job Rotation

Case Studies

Business Games

In-Basket Training

Role Playing

Behavior Modeling

Newsbreak

Executive Coaching

Diversity Training

Career Development and Planning

Career Self-Management

Newsbreak

Evaluating Organizational Training Programs

Summary

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Additional Reading

PART THREE: Organizational Psychology

Chapter 7: Leadership

The Quality of Modern Leadership

Newsbreak

Scientific Management

The Human Relations Approach to Leadership

Theory X and Theory Y

Leadership Theories

Contingency Theory

Path-Goal Theory

The Leader-Member Exchange

Newsbreak

Implicit Leadership Theory

Leadership Styles

Authoritarian and Democratic Leaders

Transactional and Transformational Leaders

Charismatic Leaders

The Role of Power

Types of Power

Uses of Power

The Role of Expectations

Leadership Functions

The Consideration Dimension

The Initiating Structure Dimension

Newsbreak

Characteristics of Successful Leaders

First-Line Supervisors

Managers and Executives

Pressures and Problems of Leaders

First-Line Supervisors

Managers and Executives

Diversity Issues in Management: Challenges for Women, Blacks, and Other Groups

Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 8: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement

Content Theories of Motivation

Achievement Motivation Theory

Needs Hierarchy Theory

Motivator-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory

Job-Characteristics Theory

Process Theories of Motivation

Newsbreak

Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory

Equity Theory

Goal-Setting Theory

Job Satisfaction: The Quality of Life at Work

Measuring Job Satisfaction

Job Satisfaction Polling Data

Personal Characteristics and Job Satisfaction

The Impact of Unemployment

Newsbreak

Job Satisfaction and On-the-Job Behavior

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Pay

Perceived Pay Equity

Merit Pay

Newsbreak

Wage-Incentive Pay Systems

Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment

Personal Factors

Organizational Factors

Types of Commitment

Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 9: The Organization of the Organization

The Bureaucratic Organizations of the Past

High-Involvement Management and Employee Participation

Newsbreak

Total Quality Management

Success or Failure?

Self-Managing Work Teams

Virtual Self-Managing Work Teams

Newsbreak

Organizational Change

Organizational Development (OD)

Socialization of New Employees

Re-Socialization Due to Job Changes

Organizational Culture

Person-Organization Fit

Newsbreak

Labor Unions

The Grievance Process

Informal Groups: The Organization within the Organization

The Classic Hawthorne Studies

Social Loafing

Group Cohesiveness

Technological Change and Organizational Structure

Formalization of the Workplace

Virtual Meetings

Loss of Group Cohesiveness

Excessive Internet Use

Newsbreak

Electronic Monitoring

Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

PART FOUR: Characteristics of the Workplace

Chapter 10: Working Conditions

Physical Working Conditions

Newsbreak

Work Sites

Office and Workplace Design

Environmental Psychology: Landscaped Offices and Cubicles

Newsbreak

Lighting

Noise

Color

Newsbreak

Music

Temperature and Humidity

Work Schedules

Working Hours

Permanent Part-Time Employment

The Four-Day Workweek

Flexible Work Schedules

Newsbreak

Rest Breaks

Shift Work

Newsbreak

Psychological and Social Issues

Job Simplification

Boredom and Monotony

Physical Fatigue

Ethnic and Gender Harassment

Telecommuting

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 11: Employee Safety and Health Issues

The Scope of Work-Related Health Problems

Newsbreak

Understanding Accident Statistics

Causes of Accidents

Workplace Factors

Newsbreak

Personal Factors

Newsbreak

Accident Proneness

Newsbreak

Accident Prevention

Newsbreak

Accident Reports

Workplace Conditions

Safety Training

Management Support

Safety Publicity Campaigns and Contests

The Scope of Workplace Violence

Alcoholism in the Workplace

Effects on Job Performance

The Alcoholic Executive

Newsbreak

Rehabilitation Programs

Drug Abuse

Effects on Job Performance

Drug Screening Programs and Policies

Computer Use and Physical Health Issues

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Chapter 12: Stress in the Workplace

Occupational Health Psychology

Newsbreak

Physiological Effects of Stress

Psychosomatic Disorders

Job Satisfaction and Feelings of Control

Individual Differences in Responding to Stress

Newsbreak

Personality Factors

Type of Occupation

Sex Differences

Newsbreak

Work-Family Balance

Newsbreak

Organizational Assistance for Work-Family Conflicts

Newsbreak

Stressors in the Work Environment

Work Overload and Underload

Newsbreak

Organizational Change

Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict

Bad Bosses, Computers, and Other Stressors

Burnout

Workaholism

Stress-Management Programs

Organizational Efforts

Individual Efforts

Newsbreak

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

PART FIVE: Engineering Psychology

Chapter 13: Engineering Psychology

Newsbreak

The Development of Engineering Psychology

The Scope of Engineering Psychology

Newsbreak

Time-and-Motion Study

Newsbreak

Guidelines for Efficient Work

Person-Machine Systems

Allocating Functions

Automation: Reducing the Human Role

Newsbreak

The Design of Workspaces and Tools

Average Body Measurements

Seats for Work and Play

Displays: Presenting Information

Visual Displays

Newsbreak

Auditory Displays

Tactile Displays

Controls: Taking Action

Human Factors in Health Care

Human Factors in Everyday Life

Newsbreak

Human Factors and Computers

Newsbreak

Human Factors and Robots

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

PART SIX: Consumer Psychology

Chapter 14: Consumer Psychology

The Scope of Consumer Psychology

Research Methods in Consumer Psychology

Surveys and Public Opinion Polls

Newsbreak

Focus Groups

Newsbreak

Motivation Research

Observations of Shopping Behavior

Newsbreak

Neuromarketing

Testing Reactions to Ads

Newsbreak

The Nature and Scope of Advertising

Types of Advertising Appeals

Trademarks

Product Image

Product Packaging

Newsbreak

Sex in Ads

Effectiveness of Advertising Campaigns

Newsbreak

Web-Based Advertising

Newsbreak

Consumer Behavior and Motivation

Newsbreak

Brand Placement

Buying Habits and Brand Loyalty

Product Pricing

Targeted Advertising to Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians

Advertising to Children and Teens

Newsbreak

Advertising to the Over-50 Market

Advertising to the Gay Community

Advertising to People with Disabilities

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Additional Reading

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

CREDITS

INDEX

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