Psychology, 11/e, shows students why scientific and critical thinking is so important in the decisions they make. In clear, lively, warm prose, this edition continues the title’s integration of gender, culture, and ethnicity. By the end, readers will learn how to interpret research and to address and resolve controversies.
MyPsychLab is an integral part of the Wade/Tavris/Garry program. Engaging activities and assessments provide a teaching and learning system that helps students think like a psychologist. With MyPsychLab, students can watch videos on psychological research and applications, participate in virtual classic experiments, and develop critical thinking skills through writing.
Psychology, 11/e, is available in a new DSM-5 Updated edition. To learn more, click here.
This title is available in a variety of formats – digital and print. Pearson offers its titles on the devices students love through Pearson's MyLab products, CourseSmart, Amazon, and more.
Gr 9 Up-Titles in this authoritative set include History of Psychology, The Brain and the Mind, Thinking and Knowing, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology, and Abnormal Psychology. The entries vary in accessibility and length; there are 6-page introductory articles as well as 28-page essays on more substantive topics. They offer overviews of theories, terms, experiments, and history in an effective manner. There are no entries on individuals but the work of significant theorists is discussed within the articles. Research methods, cross-cultural information, and the relationship of psychology to other disciplines are clearly delineated. Sidebars present case studies, seminal experiments, and brief biographical profiles. Quotes enhance each entry. Informative, captioned, color and black-and-white photographs, charts, maps, drawings, and reproductions abound. The heavy, glossy paper adds to the quality of the reproductions. A set glossary and bibliography are included in each volume. An attractive, useful acquisition for libraries fielding questions on the history and science of the discipline.-Janice C. Hayes, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.
A thorough introduction to college level psychology focusing on the development of critical thinking skills. Culture and gender issues are well-integrated into the text rather than being tacked on, as all-too-often occurs. Includes abundant pedagogical tools including provocative questions, chapter reviews, demonstrations and mini-studies, tables contrasting theories and concepts, quizzes, and plentiful and compelling color illustrations. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
CAROLE WADE earned her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Stanford University. At the University of New Mexico she taught courses in psycholinguistics and developed the first course there on the psychology of gender. She was professor of psychology for ten years at San Diego Mesa College, then taught at College of Marin and Dominican University of California. In addition to this text, she and Carol Tavris have written Invitation to Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. Dr. Wade has long sought to make psychology accessible to students and the general public, focusing on the promotion of critical-thinking skills. She chaired the APA Board of Educational Affairs’s Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Precollege and Undergraduate Levels of Education in Psychology; presented a G. Stanley Hall lecture at the APA convention; and served on the steering committee for the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology. She is a Fellow of two divisions of the American Psychological Association and a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science.
CAROL TAVRIS earned her Ph.D. in social psychology at the University of Michigan. In addition to her other books with Carole Wade, she is coauthor, with Elliot Aronson, of Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me), and author of The Mismeasure of Woman and Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion. She has written on psychological topics for a wide variety of magazines, journals, edited books, and newspapers; some of her essays have been collected in Psychobabble and Biobunk: Using Psychological Science to Think Critically About Popular Psychology. Dr. Tavris lectures widely on topics involving science vs. pseudoscience in psychology and many other subjects of contemporary interest. She has taught in the psychology department at UCLA and at the Human Relations Center of the New School for Social Research in New York. She is a Fellow of three divisions of the American Psychological Association, a charter Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, and a member of the editorial board of the APS journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
MARYANNE GARRY earned her PhD at the University of Connecticut and did postdoctoral training at the University of Washington before moving to Victoria University of Wellington in 1996. She is best known for her research on the causes and consequences of false memories, including “imagination inflation” and its dangers as a therapeutic technique, the effects of inert substances such as fake alcohol on susceptibility to misleading information, and the power of photographs to rewrite our childhood stories and bias our decisions. In her efforts to apply psychological science to the law, she has worked with the New Zealand Law Commission and police, served as a Director of the Innocence Project New Zealand, and acted as an expert witness in criminal and civil trials worldwide on the (un)reliability of human memory. She is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and served as President of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. Dr. Garry has received her university’s Merit Awards for Excellence in Research and for Excellence in Teaching.
Put any group of introductory psychology teachers together, and you are bound to hear two familiar complaints. "Introductory psychology is supposed to be a smorgasbord," one will say, "but my students are overwhelmed by the dozens of dishes; the meal has become indigestible:" Another will venture, "My students complain that there's no `big picture' in psychology; how can we bring some sort of order to our courses?"
Nearly all of the introductory books on the market—including our own text, Psychology—take a topical approach to psychology: a chapter on the brain, a chapter on emotions, a chapter on child development, and so forth. There is certainly a place for such encyclopedias of psychology; we're quite fond of ours! Yet, for many teachers, this conventional organization has grown increasingly problematic. As findings in psychology have burgeoned, and the number of specialty areas has grown as well, textbooks have had to become longer and longer.
And so we thought it was time for a reconceptualization of the introductory course and a true alternative to the traditional, topic-by-topic way of teaching it. Many scientists and educators agree. Several years ago, the American Association for the Advancement of Science launched Project 2061, an effort to determine the best ways of increasing scientific literacy. To this end, they commissioned the National Council on Science and Technology Education to survey hundreds of scientists, engineers, and educators and draw up a report of their recommendations. The result, Science for All Americans, calls on instructors to aim fordepth rather than breadth in their introductory courses; to "reduce the sheer amount of material covered"; to "present the scientific endeavor as a social enterprise that strongly influences—and is influenced by—human thought and action"; and "to foster scientific ways of thinking" (AAAS Project 2061, 1990; for the report from the social and behavioral sciences panel, see Appley & Maher, 1989).
TEACHING FOR DEPTH
Psychology in Perspective represents our effort to meet this challenge. Typically, courses and textbooks are constructed around the question, "What do I want students to know about my field?" With the question phrased that way, the answer can only be "Everything!" None of us likes the idea of "leaving something out," especially if the introductory course is the only one a student might ever take. In this book, however, we accepted the premise of Project 2061 and asked a different question: "What should an educated citizen know about psychology?" With the question phrased that way, "Everything!" is no longer such a useful answer. For one thing, students can't remember everything. For another, specific findings change yearly, and in some areas (such as genetics and memory) they change faster than that. So we asked ourselves what kind of framework we could provide students that would help them evaluate the psychological findings and claims they will encounter when they leave the classroom. What, for example, should students know about genetics in particular, and biological approaches to behavior in general, that will help them assess someone's claim to have found "the" gene for aggression or homosexuality?
To teach for depth rather than breadth, and for ideas rather than facts alone, we have organized material not by topics or psychological specialties but by what we regard as the five major perspectives in the field: biological, cognitive, learning, sociocultural, and psychodynamic. Our aim is to provide a true introduction to how researchers in each perspective go about their business: the kinds of questions they ask, the methods they use, the assumptions they make, and their major findings. We have included many classic studies along with groundbreaking new ones, but we do not attempt to be encyclopedic. Instead, we are trying to show students the different ways of "doing" psychology. We do not wish to imply that every perspective is monolithic; we discuss many conflicting views and debates within each field. But we also show that the perspectives do differ from one another in certain key assumptions about human behavior and human nature, and in the methods they use to study them.
Writing a book for depth of concept rather than breadth of coverage means, we realize, that many instructors will find some of their favorite studies or even topics omitted entirely. Nevertheless, most of the topics of introductory psychology are in this book, although sometimes in unfamiliar places. Therefore, we encourage instructors to review the table of contents and look up topics in the index before becoming alarmed that their favorite subject is missing.
For instance, subjects that would ordinarily be in a traditional child development chapter have been broken up: Piaget and the development of reasoning abilities are in the cognitive perspective (Chapter 7); moral reasoning and the internalization of moral standards are topics we always thought appropriate for a social-cognitive learning analysis (Chapter 6); and human attachment needs, which start with the baby's innate need for contact comfort and what John Bowlby called a "secure base," are in the biological perspective (Chapter 3).
CONFRONTING THE CONTROVERSIES
Psychology in Perspective differs from traditional textbooks in yet another way. We want students to understand and appreciate the real debates and controversies within psychology—the ones psychologists talk about all the time but rarely discuss with their students. For example, the gap between research psychologists and certain psychotherapists is widening, as the split between the clinical and research constituencies of the American Psychological Association dramatically illustrates. Many researchers no longer even consider themselves "psychologists," preferring such labels as "cognitive scientist," "neuroscientist," and the like. This book candidly discusses this split-its origins, the reasons for it, and its consequences for the public (see especially Essay 5, "Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspective," and Chapter 12, which includes a discussion of the scientist-practitioner gap).
Further, each unit concludes with an essay that critically evaluates each perspective's contributions and limitations. Each evaluation cautions against the temptation to reduce behavior to only one level of explanation. Most people are familiar with the appeal of biological reductionism, but we also examine environmental reductionism ("With the right environment, anyone can become anything"), cognitive reductionism ("The mind can control everything"), sociocultural reductionism ("My culture or The System made me do it"), and psychodynamic reductionism ("Psychic reality is all that matters").
PUTTING THE PERSPECTIVES TOGETHER
In the last unit, we offer an alternative to reductionism. In Chapter 12, we show how researchers and practitioners in each perspective study, diagnose, and treat various mental disorders. And in Essay 6, we show how research from all five perspectives might be applied to understanding two universal human pleasures: music and sex. We know that many other issues lend themselves to a multiperspective analysis and would make excellent assignments for term papers, including, just for starters, love, drug use and abuse, aggression, emotional experiences, eating habits, and achievement.
Naturally, we recognize that many psychologists travel across perspectives when they do research; for example, most psychologists who study emotion are well aware that emotion involves physiology, learning, cognition, culture, and nonconscious processes. But, in practice, most psychologists do research from the vantage point of the perspective they were trained in. Biopsychologists study the physiology of emotion, social psychologists study the social construction and display of emotion, cognitive psychologists study how attributions create emotions, and so forth.
We learned quickly enough from some of our reviewers how attached psychologists can be to their favored perspective! One reviewer thought that we weren't making it clear enough that biology is the most important one, because it underlies all the others. One thought that we should have begun with the sociocultural perspective, because it influences all the others. One thought that we should have begun with learning, because the laws of classical and operant conditioning are fundamental . . . you get the idea. And, reflecting the anomalous position of psychoanalysis in a field otherwise devoted to the scientific method, almost everyone had questions about our treatment of the psychodynamic perspective: Why did we treat it so kindly? Why did we treat it so harshly? Why did we include it at all? Of course, our goal is not to be "kind" or "harsh" but to show students how researchers within each perspective see the world. We inform readers that many empirically oriented psychologists do not consider psychodynamic approaches worth considering, but we feel that students need to understand and be able to assess critically the continuing legacy and influence of Freud and his followers.
WHAT'S NEW IN THE THIRD EDITION
In response to suggestions and reactions from reviewers and adopters of the first two editions of Psychology in Perspective, we have made two major changes:
WE ADDED A NEW CHAPTER (Chapter 12) on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. This material had been covered in the second edition, but it was divided up and discussed in the various perspectives (for example, cognitive therapy was discussed in evaluating the cognitive perspective; medications for mental and emotional disorders in the biological perspective). Instructors wanted all the material in one place, and we agree that this is a better idea. Also, because so many students are interested in clinical psychology or are planning to become mental-health practitioners, we felt it was important to add a unit on clinical issues in diagnosis and therapy.
WE REDUCED THE LENGTH OF THE EVALUATION ESSAYS. Instead of being a full chapter that contained new material and applications of the perspective, each evaluation is now a much briefer assessment simply of the strengths and limitations of the perspective. Many of the specific applications of the perspective that the evaluation chapters used to contain, such as findings about children's eyewitness testimony or IQ testing, have been moved into the chapters themselves. The evaluation essays are thus briefer, punchier, and, we hope, better summaries and assessments of each perspective.
PEDAGOGICAL HELP FOR STUDENTS
As before, we include a running glossary, which defines bold-faced terms on the pages where they occur, for handy reference and study; chapter summaries and key terms at the end of each chapter, where students will find them easily; and self-tests called What Do You Know?, which encourage students to check their progress, and to go back and review if necessary. These questions do more than just test for memorization of definitions; they tell students whether they comprehend the issues. We have varied the formats and included entertaining examples to motivate students to assess their progress. Many of these self-tests also include critical-thinking items, identified by the symbol in the margin. These items invite the student to reflect on the implications of findings and consider how psychological principles might illuminate real-life issues. Although we offer some possible responses to such questions, most of them do not have a single correct answer, and students may have valid, well-reasoned answers that differ from our own.
Psychology in Perspective can be used on its own, or it can serve as a core book together with additional materials. Prentice Hall has provided a comprehensive supplements package coordinated by Nicole Girrbach:
For the Instructor
INSTRUCTOR'S RESOURCE MANUAL. Written by Carolyn Meyer of Lake-Sumter Community College, this manual addresses concerns that teachers may have when organizing their course in terms of perspectives rather than topics. For each chapter, the Instructor's Resource Manual includes a sample course syllabus, chapter summaries and outlines, teaching suggestions, classroom activities, discussion questions, suggested readings, and a listing of films and videos.
TEST ITEM FILE. Prepared by William H. Calhoun of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, this Test Item File contains approximately 2,500 multiple-choice, true/false, matching, short-answer, and essay questions. Each item is referenced by page, topic, and the skill it addresses—conceptual, factual, or applied.
PRENTICE HALL TEST MANAGER. One of the best-selling test-generating software programs on the market, Test Manager is available free to adopters in Windows and Macintosh formats and contains a Gradebook, Online Network Testing, and many tools to help you edit and create tests. The program comes with full Technical Support and telephone "Request a Test" service.
PRENTICE HALLS INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY TRANSPARENCIES, SERIES V. Designed in large-type format for lecture settings, these full-color overhead transparencies add visual appeal to your lectures by augmenting the visuals in the text with a variety of new illustrations.
PRENTICE HALL VIDEO LIBRARIES. Prentice Hall has assembled a superior collection of video materials that range from short lecture launchers to full-length detailed features for use in the Introductory Psychology course. The videos below are available to qualified adopters.
ABC NEWS VIDEOS FOR INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY, SERIES III consists Of segments from ABC's World News Tonight, Nightline, 20/20, Prime Time Live, and The Health Show. A summary, and questions designed to stimulate critical thinking for each segment, are included in the Instructor's Resource Manual.
THE ALLIANCE SERIES: THE ANNENBERG/CPB COLLECTION is the most extensive collection of professionally produced videos available with any introductory psychology textbook. Selections include videos in the following Annenberg series: The Brain, The Brain Teaching Modules, Discovering Psychology, The Mind, and The Mind Teaching Modules.
FILMS FOR THE HUMANITIES AND SCIENCES. A wealth of videos from the extensive library of Film for the Humanities and Sciences, on a variety of topics in psychology, is available to qualified adopters. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for a list of videos.
Media Support for Instructors and Students
THE PSYCHOLOGY PLACE, SPECIAL EDITION. This premier web resource for Introductory Psychology provides interactive learning activities, practice tests, "Best of the Web" site listings, current research news, an online glossary, FAQs about psychology, and other resources. Students get their subscription with the purchase of a new textbook; faculty get their subscription upon adoption of this text.
WWW.PRENHALL.COM/TAVRIS COMPANION WEBSITE. This free online Study Guide allows students to review each chapter's material, take practice tests, research topics for course projects, and more.
For the Student
STUDY GUIDE. Prepared by Christopher Kilmartin of Mary Washington College, this Study Guide is designed to reinforce the text material by providing students with a complete array of learning tools and study aids. It begins with a chapter on how to study, and it contains chapter summaries, fill-in-the-blank chapter reviews, practice tests, answer keys, learning objectives, key terms with definitions, suggested readings, and research projects.
PSYCHOBABBLE AND BIOBUNK, SECOND EDITION by Carol Tavris. This expanded and updated collection of opinion essays, written for The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, Scientific American, and other publications, encourages debate in the classroom by applying psychological research and the principles of scientific and critical thinking to issues in the news.
PSYCHOLOGY ON THE INTERNET: EVALUATING ONLINE RESOURCES. This "hands-on" internet tutorial features Web sites related to psychology and general information about using the Internet for research and how to differentiate between good and bad sources. This supplement is available free when packaged with the text and helps students capitalize on all the resources that the World Wide Web has to offer.
When we began work on the first edition of this textbook in the mid-1980s, we had five goals, some of which then were considered quite daring: (1) to make critical thinking integral to the introductory psychology course; (2) to represent psychology as the study of all human beings by mainstreaming research on culture and gender; (3) to keep ahead of the curve in coverage of new research and directions in the field; (4) to acknowledge forthrightly the many controversies in psychology; and (5) to foster active learning, so that students would become involved with the material and see how it applies to their personal and social lives.
Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking
Our first ambition, unique to textbooks at the time, was to get students to reflect on what they were learning—to show them what it is like to think like a psychologist. Psychology is not just a body of knowledge; it is also away of approaching and analyzing the world. From the beginning, therefore, our approach has been based on critical thinking, the understanding that knowledge is advanced when people resist leaping to conclusions on the basis of personal experience alone (so tempting in psychological matters), when they apply rigorous standards of evidence, and when they listen to competing views. Because many students equate the word "critical" with "negative," we later added an emphasis on the creative, forward-moving aspects of critical thinking—the importance of generating alternative explanations of events, asking questions, and using one's imagination:
In a textbook, true critical thinking cannot be reduced to a set of rhetorical questionsor to a formula for analyzing studies; it is a process that must be woven seamlessly into the narrative. The primary way we "do" critical and creative thinking, therefore, is by modeling it in our evaluations of research and popular ideas. In this book, we encourage critical thinking about concepts that many students approach uncritically, such as astrology, "premenstrual syndrome," and the "instinctive" nature of sexuality. And we also apply it to some ideas that many psychologists have accepted unquestioningly, such as the decisive importance of childhood to later life, Maslow's motivational hierarchy, and the disease model of addiction. By probing beneath assumptions and presenting the most recent evidence, we hope to convey the excitement and open-ended nature of psychological research and inquiry.
The first chapter starts with an extended discussion of what critical thinking is and what it isn't, and why critical thought is particularly relevant to the study of psychology. Here we introduce eight guidelines to critical thinking, which we draw on throughout the text as we evaluate research and popular ideas. (These guidelines are also listed and described briefly on the inside front cover of the book.)
Many, though by no means all, of our critical-thinking discussions are signaled by the lightbulb symbol shown in the margin, along with "signposts" containing provocative questions. We have explicitly identified the relevant guidelines in each signpost so that students can see more easily how the guidelines are actually applied. The questions in the signposts are not, in themselves, illustrations o f critical thinking; rather, they serve as pointers to critical analyses in the text and invite the reader into the discussion.
Mainstreaming Culture, Gender, and Biology
Of course, all introductory textbooks are divided into chapters that cover particular topics or subfields, such as the brain, emotion, developmental psychology, and social psychology. Increasingly, however, some areas of investigation can no longer be squeezed into a single chapter, because they are relevant to topics throughout the course. This is especially true of findings from the "bookends" of human behavior—culture and biology—as well as research on gender.
At the time of our first edition, some considered our goal of incorporating research on gender and culture into introductory psychology to be quite radical—either a sop to political correctness or a fluffy and superficial fad. Today, the issue is no longer whether to include these topics, but how best to do it. From the beginning, our own answer has been to include studies of gender and culture in the main body of the text, wherever they are relevant to the larger discussion, rather than relegating these studies to an intellectual ghetto of separate chapters or boxed features.
Gender. We cover many kinds of gender differences in this book—differences in pain perception, sexual attitudes and motives, body satisfaction, depression, antisocial personality disorder, children's play preferences, and ways of expressing love, intimacy, and emotion, to mention just a few. (You will find many other gender-related topics in the index.) We do not equate "gender" with "women," either! We have been particularly attentive to research on the psychology of men, for example in discussing the underdiagnosis of male depression and the rise of eating disorders and distorted body images in young men. In many cases, we have tried to go beyond mere description of differences, by examining competing explanations for them: biological influences, evolutionary influences, social roles, gender socialization, gender schemas, and the power of current situations and experiences to shape people's choices and lives.
Nor do we focus exclusively on gender differences. Many differences, though reliable, are trivial in terms of real-life importance. And gender similarities, though they are often overlooked, are every bit as important and interesting as the eternal search for differences. We therefore include findings on similarities, too—for example, that men and women do not, overall, differ in moral reasoning (Chapter 14), obedience to authority (Chapter 8), or mood swings in the course of an average month (Chapter 5).
Culture. In recent years—and certainly in the aftermath of 9/11—most psychologists have come to appreciate the profound influence of culture on all aspects of life, from nonverbal behavior to the deepest attitudes towards how the world should be. Thus we report empirical findings about culture and ethnicity throughout the book—for example, in our discussions of addiction, anxiety symptoms, differing cultural norms (e.g., for cleanliness, risk, and conversational distance), emotional expression, group differences in IQ scores and academic achievement, motivational conflicts, personality, psychotherapy, rules about time, attitudes toward weight and the ideal body, and the effectiveness of medication. (Again, we refer you to the index for a complete listing of topics.) In addition, Chapter 8 highlights the sociocultural perspective in psychology and includes extended discussions of ethnocentrism, prejudice, and cross-cultural relations. However, the scientific study of cultural diversity is not synonymous with the popular movement called multiculturalism. The study of culture, in our view, should increase students' understanding of what culture means, how and why ethnic and national groups differ, and why no group is inherently better than another. Thus we try to apply critical thinking to our own coverage of culture, avoiding the twin temptations of ethnocentrism and stereotyping.
Biology. Anyone who is awake and conscious knows that we are in the midst of a biomedical revolution that is transforming science and psychology. Findings from the Human Genome Project, studies of behavioral genetics, astonishing discoveries about the brain, the development of technologies such as PET scans and fMRIs, the proliferation of medications for psychological disorders—all have had a profound influence on our understanding of human behavior and on interventions to help people with chronic problems. This work, too, can no longer be confined to a single chapter; accordingly, we report new findings from the biological front wherever they are relevant: for example, in our discussions of neurogenesis in the brain, memory, emotion, stress, child development, aging, mental illness, personality, and many other topics (again, we refer you to the index for a full list). But just as we do with culture and gender, we apply principles of critical thinking to this domain of research, too. Thus we caution students about the dangers of reducing complex behaviors solely to biology, overgeneralizing from limited data, failing to consider other explanations, and oversimplifying solutions (e.g., as promises of "miracle" drugs often do).
Facing the Controversies
Psychology has always been full of lively, sometimes angry, debates, and we feel that students should not be sheltered from them. They are what make psychology so interesting! Sociobiologists and feminist psychologists often differ strongly in their analyses of gender relations (Chapters 3 and 12). Psychodynamic clinicians and experimental psychologists differ strongly in their assumptions about memory, child development, and trauma; these differences have heated repercussions for, among other things, "recovered memory" therapy and the questioning of children as eyewitnesses (Chapter 10). The "scientist-practitioner gap" between researchers and psychodynamic psychotherapists is continuing to widen (Chapter 17). Developmental psychologists are hotly debating the extent and limits of parental influence on children (Chapters 13 and 14). And psychologists continue to argue among themselves about the genetic and cultural origins of addiction, in a debate that has profound importance for the treatment of drag abuse (Chapters S and 16). In this book we candidly address these and other controversies, try to show why they are occurring, and suggest the kinds of questions that might lead to useful resolutions.
Applications and Active Learning: Getting Involved
Throughout this book, we have kept in mind one of the soundest findings about learning: that it requires the active encoding of material. You can't just sit there and expect it to happen. Several pedagogical features in particular encourage students to become actively involved in what they are reading.
What's Ahead consists of a brief set of questions introducing each major section within a chapter. These questions are not merely rhetorical; they are intended to be provocative and intriguing enough to arouse students' curiosity about the material to follow: Why are people all over the world getting fatter? What part of the anatomy do psychologists think is the "sexiest sex organ"? How are your beliefs about love affected by your income? What is the difference between ordinary techniques of persuasion and the coercive techniques used by cults? What is the "Big Lie"?
Looking Back, at the end of each chapter, lists all of the What's Ahead questions along with page numbers to show where the material for each question was covered. Students can check their retention and can easily review if they have trouble answering a question. This feature has another purpose as well: It gives students a sense of how much they are learning about matters of personal and social importance, and helps them appreciate that psychology offers more than "common sense." Some instructors may want to turn some of the Looking Back questions into essay or short-answer test items or written assignments.
Get Involved exercises in each chapter make active learning entertaining. Some consist of quick demonstrations (e.g., clasping your hands together to find out if you are genetically a "right thumb over left" person or the reverse). Some are simple mini-studies (e.g., observing seating patterns in the school cafeteria). Some help students relate course material to their own lives (e.g., if they drink, listing their own motives for doing so). Instructors may want to assign some of these exercises to the entire class and then discuss the results and what they might mean.
Conceptual graphics help students visualize material in order to understand and retain it better. Students can see at a glance, for example, the various types of attachment, distinctions between different types of memories, the difference between positive and negative reinforcement, the elements of successful therapy, and how a self-fulfilling prophecy is created. We have tried to keep these visual summaries simple, straightforward, and appealing.
Review tables summarize and contrast theories and approaches discussed in the text—for example, methods used in brain research, theories of dreaming, theories of personality, and the factors that lead to health or illness. The Reviews help students extract main points, organize what they have learned, and study for exams.
Quick Quizzes are periodic self-tests that encourage students to check their progress, and to go back and review if necessary. These quizzes do more than just test for memorization of definitions; they tell students whether they comprehend the issues. Mindful of the common tendency to skip quizzes or to peek at the answers, we have used various formats and have included engaging examples in order to motivate students to test themselves.
Many of the quizzes also include critical-thinking items, identified by the critical-thinking symbol. These items invite the student to reflect on the implications of findings and to consider how psychological principles might illuminate real-life issues. For example: What kinds of questions should a critical thinker ask about a new drug for depression? How might a hypothetical study of testosterone and hostility be improved? How should a critical consumer evaluate someone's claim that health is entirely a matter of "mind over matter"? Although we offer some answers to these questions, students may have valid, well-reasoned answers that differ from our own.
Other pedagogical features designed to help students study and learn better include a running glossary that defines boldfaced technical terms on the pages where they occur; a cumulative glossary at the back of the book; a list of key terms at the end of each chapter that includes page numbers so students can find the sections where the terms are first mentioned; chapter outlines; and chapter summaries in paragraph form to help students review.
Taking Psychology with You, a feature that concludes each chapter, illustrates the practical implications of psychological research for individuals, groups, institutions, and society. This feature tackles topics of personal interest and relevance to many students, such as managing pain (Chapter 6), getting along with people from other cultures (Chapter 8), managing anger (Chapter 11), rearing children (Chapter 14), and assessing self-help books (Chapter 17).
The final "Taking Psychology with You" feature in the book is an Epilogue, a unique effort to show students that the vast number of seemingly disparate studies and points of view they have just read about are related. The Epilogue deals with a typical problem that everyone can be expected to encounter: conflicts in a close relationship. We show how topics discussed in previous chapters can be applied to understanding and coping with such conflicts. The Epilogue can be a useful tool for helping students integrate the diverse approaches of contemporary psychology. Asking students to come up with research findings that might apply to other problems also makes for a good term paper assignment.
A Note to Users of Previous Editions
We have added up-to-date research in every chapter, from the latest findings on neuronal growth throughout life to new theories of schizophrenia. We have also made a few organizational changes, such as moving the discussion of weight and obesity from the genetics chapter (Chapter 3) to the motivation chapter (Chapter 12). As for content updates, a detailed explanation of all deletions, additions, and modifications in the Seventh Edition is available to adopters of the Sixth Edition, so that no one will have to guess why we made particular changes. We hope this support will make the transition from one edition to the next as painless for instructors as possible. You can obtain this description from your Prentice Hall representative or by writing to: Marketing Manager, Psychology, Prentice Hall Publishers, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River; New Jersey 07458.
Instructor and Student Supplements
Psychology, Seventh Edition's supplements package has gone through extensive revision and refinement to provide you and your students with the best teaching and learning materials, both in print and media formats.
Print and Media Supplements for the Instructor
NEW Instructor's Resource Binder. Created by Barbara Brown of Georgia Perimeter College, Kerri Goodwin of Loyola College, and Alan Swinkles of St. Edwards University, this exhaustive collection of resources will appeal to new and experienced instructors alike. Each chapter in the IRB includes the following resources, organized in an easy-to-reference Keyed Chapter Outline: Introducing the Chapter; Learning Objectives; Lecture Suggestions and Discussion Topics; Classroom Activities, Demonstrations, and Exercises; Out-of-Class Assignments and Projects; Multimedia Resources; Video Resources; Transparencies; and Handouts. Designed to make your lectures more effective and to save you preparation time, this comprehensive set of materials gathers together the most effective activities and strategies for teaching your introductory psychology course.
NEW Media Portfolio CD-ROM. Included with the Instructor's Resource Binder, this valuable, time-saving supplement provides you with a wealth of teaching resources in one place so that you may customize your lecture notes and media presentations. It includes PowerPoint slides customized for the Seventh Edition, electronic versions of the artwork in the text chapters, electronic versions of the overhead transparencies, and electronic files for the material in the Instructor's Resource Binder and the Test Item File. It also contains clips from Prentice Hall's Video Classics in Psychology CD-ROM, formatted for in-class presentation.
Test Item File. Created by Kathleen McGreal of Michigan State University, this test bank contains over 4,500 multiple-choice, true/false, and short-answer essay questions. For each question, there is a reference to the relevant section and page number in the text; a key designating each item as easy, moderate, or difficult; and a descriptor of the question as factual, conceptual, or applied.
Prentice Hall's Custom Test for Windows and Macintosh. Now available on one dual-platform CD-ROM, this best-selling test-generating software program includes a gradebook, online network testing capability, and many tools to help you edit and create tests. The program comes with full technical support and telephone "Request a Test" service.
PowerPoint Slides for Psychology, Seventh Edition. Created by Krista Forrest of the University of Nebraska at Kearny, these slides highlight the key points covered in the text. They are provided in two versions, one with the chapter graphics and one without, to give you flexibility in preparing your lectures. Available on the Media Portfolio CD-ROM or on Prentice Hall's PsychologyCentral Web site described below.
NEW Prentice Hall's Introductory Psychology Transparencies, 2002. Designed to be used in large lecture settings, this set of over 130 full-color transparencies includes illustrations from the text as .well as images from a variety of other sources. Available in acetate form, online at PsychologyCentral, or on the Media Portfolio CD-ROM.
NEW PsychologyCentral Web Site. Password protected for instructors' use only, this site allows you online access to all of Prentice Hall's psychology supplements. You'll find a multitude of resources for teaching introductory psychology. From this site you can download any of the key supplements available for Psychology, Seventh Edition, including the following: Instructor's Resource Binder, Test Item File, PowerPoint slides, chapter graphics, and electronic versions of the Introductory Psychology Transparencies, 2002. Contact your Prentice Hall representative for the user ID and password to access this site.
Online Course Management with WebCT, BlackBoard or CourseCompass. This feature is free upon adoption of the text. Instructors interested in using online course management have their choice of options. Each version comes preloaded with text-specific quizzes and tests and can be fully customized for your course. Contact your Prentice Hall representative.
Video Resources for Instructors
NEW Prentice Hall Custom Video for Introductory Psychology. Adopters can receive this new videotape, which includes five- to eight-minute clips covering all major topics in introductory psychology. The videos have been carefully selected from the Films for Humanities and Sciences library, and then edited to provide brief and compelling video content for enhancing your lectures. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for a full list of video clips on this tape.
The BrainVideo Series. Qualified adopters can select videos from this series of eight, 1-hour programs that blend interviews with world-famous brain scientists and dramatic reenactments of landmark cases in medical history. Programs include The Enlightened Machine; The Two Brains; Vision and Movement; Madness; Rhythms and Drives; States of Mind; Stress and Emotion; and Learning and Memory. Contact your local representative for more details.
TheDiscovering PsychologyVideo Series. Qualified adopters can select videos from this series produced in association with the American Psychological Association. The series includes thirteen tapes, each containing two half-hour segments. Contact your local sales representative for a list of videos.
ABC News Videos for Introductory Psychology, Series III. Qualified adopters can obtain this selection of segments from ABC's World News Tonight with Peter Jennings, Nightline, 20/20, Prime Time Live, and The Health Show.
Films for the Humanities and SciencesVideo Library. Qualified adopters can select videos on various topics in psychology from the extensive library of Films for the Humanities and Sciences. Contact your local sales representative for a list of videos.
Print and Media Supplements for the Student
Companion Web Site. Designed to reinforce student learning, this online study guide allows students to review each chapter's material, take practice tests, research topics for course projects, and more. The Psychology, Seventh Edition companion Web site includes the following resources for each chapter: Chapter Objectives; Interactive Lectures; five different types of quizzes that provide immediate, text-specific feedback and coaching comments; WebEssays; WebDestinations; NetSearch; NEW F1ashCards; and NEW Live!Psych Media Labs (described below). Access to the Psychology, Seventh Edition Web site is free and available to all students.
New Live!PsyCh Media Labs. This series of 33 interactive media simulations, animations, and assessments was developed to teach key concepts-often the concepts students find most challenging. Designed to get students to interact with the material and to appeal to different learning styles, these Live!Psych Media Labs were created in consultation with psychology instructors and carefully reviewed by a board of experts to ensure accuracy and pedagogical effectiveness. Each Live!Psych Media Lab is integrated into the presentation of the text material through the use of the Live!Psych icon. Chapter-specific Live!Psych Media Labs can be found on the Companion Website. A special thank you goes to Lynne Blesz-Vestal, the content author, and to the members of our Live!Psych review board: Kim Ainsworth-Darnell (Georgia State University); Eric J. Chudler (University of Washington); Margaret Gatz (University of Southern California); Karen Hoblit (Victoria Community College); Gail Knapp (Mott Community College); John Krantz (Hanover College); Nancy Simpson (Trident Technical College); and Chuck Slem (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo).
NEW Video Classics in Psychology CD-ROM: Using the power of video to clarify key concepts presented in the text, this CD-ROM offers original footage of some of the best-known classic experiments in psychology. It shows, among other things, Milgram's obedience study, Watson's Little Albert, Bandura's Bobo doll experiment, Pavlov's dog, and Harlow's monkeys. In addition, students can see interviews with renowned contributors to the field, such as B.E Skinner, Carl Rogers, and Erik Erikson. Each video is preceded by background information on the importance of the experiment or researcher, and is followed by questions that connect the video to concepts presented in the text. The Video Classics in Psychology CD-ROM can be packaged free with Psychology, Seventh Edition. Contact your local sales representative for the value pack ISBN.
NEW Prentice Hall Guide to Evaluating Online Resources: Psychology, 2003. This guide provides students with a hands-on introduction to the Internet, features numerous Web sites related to psychology, and gives students guidelines on how to evaluate online resources. It now comes with free access to ContentSelect, a customized research database for students of psychology. Created by Prentice Hall and EBSCO, the world leader in online journal subscription management, this site provides students access to many peer-reviewed publications and popular periodicals in psychology.
Study Guide. Written by Jody Davis of California State University, Fullerton and Jeffrey Green of Soka University, this student study guide helps students master the core concepts presented in each chapter. Each chapter of the guide includes learning objectives, a brief chapter summary, a preview outline of the text chapter, and three different practice tests.
Mind MattersCD-ROM: Free when packaged with a new text, Mind Matters features interactive learning modules on history, methods, biological psychology, learning, memory, sensation and perception. Each module combines text, video, graphics, simulations, games and assessment to reinforce key psychological concepts.
Contact your Prentice Hall representative to package any of these supplementary texts with Psychology, Seventh Edition at a reduced price:
Psychobabble and Biobunk, Second Edition by Carol Tavris. This expanded and updated collection of opinion essays written for The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, Scientific American, and other publications encourages debate in the classroom by applying psychological research and the principles of scientific and critical thinking to issues in the news.
Forty Studies that Changed Psychology, Fourth Edition by Roger Hock (Mendocino College). Presenting the seminal research studies that have shaped modern psychological study, this brief supplement provides an overview of the environment that gave rise to each study, its experimental design, its findings, and its impact on current thinking in the discipline.
The Psychology Major: Careers and Strategies for Success by Eric Landrum (Idaho State University), Stephen Davis (Emporia State University), and Terri Landrum (Idaho State University). This 160-page paperback provides valuable information on career options available to psychology majors, tips for improving academic performance, and a guide to the APA style of research reporting.
Experiencing Psychology by Gary Brannigan (State University of New York at Plattsburgh). This hands-on activity book contains 39 active learning experiences corresponding to major topics in psychology to provide students with hands-on experience in "doing" psychology.
How to Think Like a Psychologist: Critical Thinking in Psychology, Second Edition by Donald McBurney (University of Pittsburgh). This unique supplementary text uses a question-answer format to explore some of the most common questions students ask about psychology.
To the Student
If you are reading this introduction, you are starting your introductory psychology course on the right foot. It is always a good idea to get a general picture of what you are about to read before charging forward.
Our goal in writing this book is to guide you to think critically and imaginatively about psychological issues, and to help you apply what you learn to your own life and the world around you. We ourselves have never gotten over our initial excitement about psychology, and we have done everything we can think of to make the field as absorbing for you as it is for us. However, what you bring to this book is as important as what we have written—we can pitch ideas to you, but you have to step up to the plate to connect with them. This text will remain only a collection of pages with ink on them unless you choose to read actively.
To encourage you to read and study actively, we have included some special features.
In the first chapter, we will introduce you to the basic guidelines of critical and creative thinking—the principles we hope will help you learn the difference between unsupported claims or "psychobabble" and good, scientific reasoning. The identifying symbol for critical thinking is a lightbulb, like the one in the margin. Throughout the book, some (but not all) of our critical-thinking discussions are signaled by a "signpost" in the margin that includes this lightbulb and one of the critical-thinking guidelines. We will be telling you about many lively and passionate debates in psychology—over gender differences, psychotherapy, memory, multiple personality disorder, and many other topics—and we hope our coverage of these debates will increase your involvement with the ongoing discoveries of psychology.
Before each major section in a chapter, a feature called What's Ahead lists some preview questions designed to stir your curiosity and give you an overview of what the section will cover. For example: Why does paying children for good grades sometimes backfire? Do people remember better when they're hypnotized? Do men and women differ in the ability to love? When you finish the chapter, you will encounter these questions again, under the heading Looking Back. Use this list as a self-test; if you can't answer a question, you can go to the page indicated after the question and review the material.
Each chapter also contains several Get Involved exercises, entertaining little experiments or explorations you can do that relate to what you are reading about. In Chapter 3, for instance, you can find out immediately whether you are genetically disposed to cross your right thumb over your left or vice versa when you clasp your hands together; and in Chapter 11 you can find out how your own thoughts affect your emotions. Some of these exercises take only a minute; others are "mini-studies" that you can do by observing or interviewing others.
Every chapter contains several Quick Quizzes that permit you to test your understanding and retention of what you have just read and give you practice in applying the material to examples. Do not let the word "quiz" give you a sinking feeling. These quizzes are for your practical use and, we hope, for your enjoyment. When you have trouble with a question, do not go on; pause right then and there, review what you have read, and then try again.
Some of the Quick Quizzes contain a critical-thinking item, denoted by the lightbulb symbol. The answers we give for these items are only suggestions; feel free to come up with different ones. Quick Quizzes containing critical-thinking questions are not really so quick, because they ask you to reflect on what you have read and to apply the guidelines to critical thinking that are introduced in Chapter 1. But if you take the time to respond thoughtfully to them, we think you will learn more and become a more sophisticated user of psychology. At the end of each chapter, a feature called Taking Psychology with You draws on research to suggest ways you can apply what you have learned to everyday problems and concerns, such as how to improve your memory or get a better night's sleep, as well as more urgent ones, such as how to live with chronic pain or help a friend who seems suicidal. The very last "Taking Psychology with You," at the end of the book, is an Epilogue that shows how you might integrate and use the findings and theories you have read about to solve problems in your own relationships.
How to Study
In our years of teaching, we have found that certain study strategies can vastly improve learning, and so we offer the following suggestions. (Reading Chapter 7, on learning, and Chapter 10, on memory, will also be helpful.)
Before you even start the book, we suggest you read the Table of Contents to get an overall view of the book's organization and coverage. Likewise, before starting a chapter, read the chapter title and outline to get an idea of what is in store. Browse through the chapter, looking at the pictures and reading the headings.
Do not try to read the text the same way you might read a novel, taking in large chunks at a sitting. To get the most from your studying, we recommend that you read only a part of each chapter at a time.
Instead of simply reading silently, nodding along saying "hmmmmm" to yourself, try to restate what you have read in your own words at the end of each major section. Some people find it helpful to write down main points. Others prefer to recite them aloud to someone else, or even to a patient pet. Do not count on getting by with just one reading of a chapter. Most people need to go through the material at least twice, and then revisit the main points several times before an exam. Special tables called Reviews will help you summarize, integrate, and compare psychological theories and approaches discussed in the chapter.
When you have finished a chapter, read the Summary. Use the list of Key Terms at the end of each chapter as a checklist. Try to define and discuss each term to see how well you understand and remember it. If you need to check your recall, the page number that follows each term refers you to the term's first mention in the chapter. Finally, go over the Looking Back questions to be sure you can answer them.
Important new terms in this textbook are printed in boldface and are defined in the margin of the page on which they appear, or on the facing page. The marginal glossary permits you to find all key terms and concepts easily, and will help you when you study for exams. A complete glossary appears at the end of the book.
The Study Guide for this book, available at your bookstore, is an excellent resource. It contains review material, exercises, and practice tests to help you understand and apply the concepts in the book.
If you are assigned a term project or a report, you may need to track down some references we provide or do further reading. Throughout the book, all studies and theories include citations in parentheses, like this: (Aardvark and Zebra, 2002). A citation tells you who the authors of a book, article, or paper are and when the work was published. The full reference can then be looked up in the alphabetical bibliography at the end of the book. At the back of the book you will also find a name index and a subject index. The name index lists the name of every author cited and the pages where the person's work is discussed. If you remember the name of a psychologist but not where he or she was mentioned, look for the person in the name index. The subject index lists all the major topics mentioned in the book. If you want to review material on, say, depression, you can look up "depression" in the subject index and find each place it is mentioned.
We have done our utmost to convey our own enthusiasm about psychology, but in the end, it is your efforts as much as ours that will determine whether you find psychology to be exciting or boring, and whether the field will matter in your own life. We welcome your ideas and reactions so that we will know what works for you and what doesn't. In the meantime, welcome to psychology!