Psychology / Edition 10

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Overview

This text emphasizes the importance of critical thinking and the integration of culture and gender in the science of psychology.

Well-known for its pioneering focus on the development of critical thinking skills crucial to students' success in college and in later life, Psychology by Wade & Tavris is also widely regarded for the liveliness, warmth, and clarity of its writing style. Continuing its tradition of integrating gender, culture, and ethnicity throughout the text, Psychology provides a comprehensive introduction to the field.

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Editorial Reviews

School Library Journal
Gr 9 Up-Titles in this authoritative set include History of Psychology, The Brain and the Mind, Thinking and Knowing, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology, and Abnormal Psychology. The entries vary in accessibility and length; there are 6-page introductory articles as well as 28-page essays on more substantive topics. They offer overviews of theories, terms, experiments, and history in an effective manner. There are no entries on individuals but the work of significant theorists is discussed within the articles. Research methods, cross-cultural information, and the relationship of psychology to other disciplines are clearly delineated. Sidebars present case studies, seminal experiments, and brief biographical profiles. Quotes enhance each entry. Informative, captioned, color and black-and-white photographs, charts, maps, drawings, and reproductions abound. The heavy, glossy paper adds to the quality of the reproductions. A set glossary and bibliography are included in each volume. An attractive, useful acquisition for libraries fielding questions on the history and science of the discipline.-Janice C. Hayes, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205711468
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/19/2010
  • Series: MyPsychLab Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 768
  • Sales rank: 342,338
  • Product dimensions: 9.20 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Carole Wade earned her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Stanford University. She began her academic career at the University of New Mexico, where she taught courses in psycholinguistics and developed the first course at the university on the psychology of gender. She was professor of psychology for ten years at San Diego Mesa College, then taught at College of Marin and Dominican University of California. In addition to this text, she and Carol Tavris have written Invitation to Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. Dr. Wade has a long-standing interest in making psychology accessible to students and the general public. In particular, she has focused her efforts on the teaching and promotion of critical-thinking skills, diversity issues, and the enhancement of undergraduate education in psychology. She chaired the APA Board of Educational Affairs’s Task Force on Diversity Issues at the Precollege and Undergraduate Levels of Education in Psychology, as well as the APA’s Public Information Committee; has been a G. Stanley Hall lecturer at the APA convention; and served on the steering committee for the National Institute on the Teaching of Psychology. Dr. Wade is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter member of the Association for Psychological Science. When she isn’t busy with her professional activities, she can be found riding the trails of northern California on her Morgan horse, McGregor, or one of his Arabian stablemates, Condé or Ricochet.

Carol Tavris earned her Ph.D. in the interdisciplinary program in social psychology at the University of Michigan, and as a writer and lecturer she has sought to educate the public about the importance of critical and scientific thinking in psychology. In addition to this text, she and Carole Wade have written Invitation to Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective. Dr. Tavris is also coauthor, with Elliot Aronson, of Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts; and author of The Mismeasure of Woman and Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion. She has written on psychological topics for a wide variety of magazines, journals, edited books, and newspapers. Many of her book reviews and opinion essays for the Los Angeles Times, The New York Times Book Review, the TLS, Scientific American, and other publications have been collected in Psychobabble and Biobunk: Using Psychology to Think Critically About Issues in the News. Dr. Tavris lectures widely on topics involving science vs. pseudoscience in psychology and psychiatry, on writing about science for the public, and many other subjects of contemporary interest. She has taught in the psychology department at UCLA and at the Human Relations Center of the New School for Social Research in New York. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a charter Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science; and a member of the editorial board of the APS journal Psychological Science in the Public Interest. When she is not writing or lecturing, she can be found walking the trails of the Hollywood Hills with her border collie, Sophie.

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Table of Contents

BRIEF TOC:

1. What is Psychology?

2. How Psychologists Do Research

3. Genes, Evolution, and Environment

4. The Brain: Source of Mind and Self

5. Body Rhythms and Mental States

6. Sensation and Perception

7. Learning and Conditioning

8. Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

9. Thinking and Intelligence

10. Memory

11. Emotion, Stress, and Health

12. Motivation

13. Development Over the Lifespan

14. Theories of Personality

15. Psychological Disorders

16. Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

Appendix: Statistical Methods

DETAILED TOC:

Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychology

Psychology's Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

The Birth of Modern Psychology

Three Early Psychologies

Psychology's Present: Behavior, Body, Mind, and Culture

The Major Psychological Perspectives

Other Influential Movements in Psychology

What Psychologists Do

Psychological Research

Psychological Practice

Psychology in the Community

BIOLOGY, CULTURE AND PSYCHOLOGY: Beyond the Borders

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: What Psychology Can Do for You - and What it Can't

Chapter 2: How Psychologists Do Research

What Makes Psychological Research Scientific?

Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts

Case Studies

Observational Studies

Tests

Surveys

Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships

Measuring Correlations

Cautions About Correlations

Experiments: Hunting for Causes

Experimental Variables

Experimental and Control Conditions

Experimenter Effects

CULTURE AND RESEARCH: Special Challenges

Evaluating the Findings

Descriptive Statistics: Finding Out What's So

Inferential Statistics: Asking "So What?"

Interpreting the Findings

Keeping the Enterprise Ethical

The Ethics of Studying Human Beings

The Ethics of Studying Animals

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Lying with Statistics

Chapter 3: Genes, Evolution, and Environment

Unlocking the Secrets of Genes

The Genetics of Similarity

Evolution and Natural Selection

Innate Human Characteristics

Our Human Heritage: Language

The Nature of Language

The Innate Capacity for Language

Learning and Language

Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating

Evolution and Sexual Strategies

Culture and the "Genetic Leash"

The Genetics of Difference

The Meaning of Heritability

Computing Heritability

Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence

Genes and Individual Differences

BIOLOGY AND INTELLECT: Genes and Brainy Brains

The Question of Group Differences

The Environment and Intelligence

Beyond Nature versus Nurture

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Should You Have Genetic Testing?

Chapter 4: The Brain: Source of Mind and Self

The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint

The Central Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System

Communication in the Nervous System

The Structure of the Neuron

Neurons in the News

How Neurons Communicate

The Plastic Brain

Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System

Mapping the Brain

A Tour through the Brain

The Brain Stem

The Cerebellum

The Thalamus

The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland

The Amygdala

The Hippocampus

The Cerebrum

CULTURE AND THE CORTEX: Can Culture Shape the Brain?

The Two Hemispheres of the Brain

Split Brains: A House Divided

The Two Hemispheres: Allies or Opposites?

Two Stubborn Issues in Brain Research

Where Is the Self?

Are There "His" and "Hers" Brains?

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Cosmetic Neurology: Tinkering with the Brain

Chapter 5: Body Rhythms and Mental States

Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience

Circadian Rhythms

Moods and Long-Term Rhythms

CULTURE AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS: The Case of "PMS"

The Rhythms of Sleep

The Realms of Sleep

Why We Sleep

Exploring the Dream World

Dreams as Unconscious Wishes

Dreams as Efforts to Deal with Problems

Dreams as Thinking

Dreams as Interpreted Brain Activity

Evaluating Dream Theories

The Riddle of Hypnosis

The Nature of Hypnosis

Theories of Hypnosis

BIOLOGY AND HYPNOSIS: Now You See It. . .

Consciousness-Altering Drugs

Classifying Drugs

The Physiology of Drug Effects

The Psychology of Drug Effects

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: The Drug Debate

Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception

Our Sensational Senses:

The Riddle of Seperate Sensations

Measuring the Senses

Sensory Adaptation

Sensing Without Perceiving

Vision

What We See

An Eye on the World

Why the Visual System Is Not a Camera

How We See Colors

Constructing the Visual World

Hearing

What We Hear

An Ear on the World

Constructing the Auditory World

Other Senses

Taste: Savory Sensations

Smell: The Sense of Scents

Senses of the Skin

The Mystery of Pain

BIOLOGY AND EXPECTATIONS OF PAIN: Positive Thinking and the Power of the Placebo

The Environment Within

Perceptual Powers: Origins and Influences

Inborn Abilities

Critical Periods

Psychological and Cultural Influences

CULTURE AND PERCEPTION: Of Carpenters and Context

Perception without Awareness

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Extrasensory Perception: Reality or Illusion?

Chapter 7: Learning and Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

New Reflexes from Old

Principles of Classical Conditioning

What Is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning?

Classical Conditioning in Real Life

Learning to Like

Learning to Fear

Accounting for Taste

Reacting to Medical Treatments

BIOLOGY AND CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: Pavlov and Peanut Butter

Operant Conditioning

The Birth of Radical Behaviorism

The Consequences of Behavior

Principles of Operant Conditioning

Skinner: The Man and the Myth

Operant Conditioning in Real Life

The Pros and Cons of Punishment

The Problems with Reward

Learning and the Mind

Latent Learning

Social-Cognitive Learning Theories

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Does Media Violence Make You Violent?

Chapter 8: Behavior in Social and Cultural Context

Roles and Rules

The Obedience Study

The Prison Study

Why People Obey

Social Influences on Beliefs and Behavior

Attributions

Attitudes

BIOLOGY AND BELIEFS: Do Genes Influence Attitudes?

Persuasion or "Brainwashing"?: The Case of Suicide Bombers

Individuals in Groups

Conformity

Groupthink

The Wisdom and Madness of Crowds

Altruism and Dissent

Us Versus Them: Group Identity

Ethnic Identity

Ethnocentrism

Stereotypes

Group Conflict and Prejudice

The Origins of Prejudice

Defining and Measuring Prejudice

Reducing Conflict and Prejudice

The Question of Human Nature

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Dealing with Cultural Differences

Chapter 9: Thinking and Intelligence

Thought: Using What We Know

The Elements of Cognition

How Conscious is Thought?

Reasoning Rationally

Formal Reasoning: Algorithms and Logic

Informal Reasoning: Heuristics and Dialectical Thinking

Reflective Judgment

Barriers to Reasoning Rationally

Exagerrating the Improbable (and Minimizing the Probable)

Avoiding Loss

The Fairness Bias

BIOLOGY AND ECONOMIC CHOICE: Rejecting Unfair Offers

The Hindsight Bias

The Confirmation Bias

Mental Sets

The Need for Cognitive Consistency

Overcoming Our Cognitive Biases

Measuring Intelligence: The Psychomatic Approach

The Invention of IQ Tests

CULTURE AND INTELLIGENCE TESTING: Can IQ Tests Be Culturally Fair?

Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach

The Triarchic Theory

Domains of Intelligence

Thinking Critically About Intelligence(s)

Motivation, Hard Work, and Intellectual Success

Animal Minds

Animal Intelligence

Animals and Language

Thinking About the Thinking of Animals

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Becoming More Creative

Chapter 10: Memory

Reconstructing the Past

The Manufacture of Memory

The Conditions of Confabulation

Memory and the Power of Suggestion

The Eyewitness on Trial

Children's Testimony

In Pursuit of Memory

Measuring Memory

Models of Memory

The Three-Box Model of Memory

The Sensory Register: Fleeting Impressions

Short-Term Memory: Memory's Scratch Pad

Long-Term Memory: Final Destination

The Biology of Memory

Changes in Neurons and Synapses

Locating Memories

Hormones, Emotion, and Memory

How We Remember

Effective Encoding

Rehearsal

Read, Recite, Review

Retrieval Practice

Mnemonics

Why We Forget

Decay

Replacement

Interference

Cue-Dependent Forgetting

The Repression Controversy

Autobiographical Memories

Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years

Memory and Narrative: The Stories of Our Lives

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Memory and Myth

Chapter 11: Emotion, Stress, and Health

The Nature of Emotion

Emotion and the Body

BIOLOGY AND DECEPTION: Can Lies Be Detected in the Brain and Body?

Emotion and the Mind

Emotion and Culture

How Culture Shapes Emotions

Communicating Emotions

Gender and Emotion

The Nature of Stress

Stress and the Body

Stress and the Mind

CULTURE AND CONTROL: What Can We Change, and What Must We Accept?

Stress and Emotion

Hostility and Depression: Do They Hurt?

Positive Emotions: Do They Help?

Emotional Inhibition and Expression

Coping with Stress

Solving the Problem

Rethinking the Problem

Drawing on Social Support

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: How Much Control Do We Have Over Our Emotions and Our Health?

Chapter 12: Motivation

The Hungry Animal: Motives to Eat

The Biology of Weight

Environmental Influences on Weight

CULTURE AND THE IDEAL BODY: Norms, Gender, and Weight

The Body as Battleground: Eating Disorders

The Social Animal: Motives to Love

The Biology of Love

The Psychology of Love

Gender, Culture, and Love

The Erotic Animal: Motives for Sex

The Biology of Desire

The Psychology of Desire

The Culture of Desire

Gender. Culture, and Sex

BIOLOGY AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION: Elusive Causes, Recent Clues

The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve

The Effects of Motivation on Work

The Effects of Work on Motivation

Motives, Values, and the Pursuit of Happiness

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: How to Attain Your Goals

Chapter 13: Development Over the Life Span

From Conception through the First Year

Prenatal Development

The Infant's World

Attachment

Cognitive Development

Language

Moral Development

Gender Development

Gender Identity

Influences on Gender Development

Adolescence

The Physiology of Adolescence

BIOLOGY AND THE TEEN BRAIN: Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence?

The Psychology of Adolescence

Adulthood

Stages and Ages

The Transitions of Life

Old Age

The Wellsprings of Resilience

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Bringing Up Baby

Chapter 14:Theories of Personality

Psychodynamic Theories of Personality

Freud and Psychoanalysis

Other Psychodynamic Approaches

Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories

The Modern Study of Personality

Popular Personality Tests

Core Personality Tests

Genetic Influences on Personality

BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL TRAITS: Do Puppies Have Personalities?

Heredity and Temperament

Heredity and Traits

Evaluating Genetic Theories

Environmental Influences on Personality

Situations and Social Learning

Parental Influences-and Its Limits

The Power of Peers

Cultural Influences on Personality

Culture, Values, and Traits

CULTURE AND VIOLENCE: The Cultivation of Male Aggression

Evaluating Cultural Approaches

The Inner Experience

Humanist Approaches

Narrative Approaches

Evaluating Humanist and Narrative Approaches

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: How to Avoid the "Barnum Effect"

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders

Diagnosing Mental Disorders

Dilemmas of Diagnosis

CULTURE AND MENTAL ILLNESS: Are Mental Problems the Same Everywhere?

Dilemmas of Measurement

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety and Panic

Fears and Phobias

Obsessions and Compulsions

Mood Disorders

Depression

Bipolar Disorder

Origins of Depression

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Drug Abuse and Addiction

Biology and Addiction

Learning, Culture, and Addiction

Debating the Causes of Addiction

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Schizophrenia

Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Origins of Schizophrenia

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Mental Disorder and Personal Responsibility

Chapter 16: Approaches to Treatment and Therapy

Biological Treatments for Mental Disorders

The Question of Drugs

Direct Brain Intervention

Major Schools of Psychotherapy

Psychodynamic Therapy

Behavior and Cognitive Therapy

Humanist and Cognitive Therapy

Family and Couples Therapy

Evaluating Psychotherapy

CULTURE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: Does a Therapist-Client "Match" Matter?

The Scientist-Practitioner Gap

When Therapy Helps

BIOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: How Treating the Mind Changes the Brain

When Therapy Harms

The Value and Values of Psychotherapy

TAKING PSYCHOLOGY WITH YOU: Becoming a Smart Consumer of Psychological Treatments

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