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More than any other psychology textbook, Don and Sandra Hockenbury’s Psychology relates the science of psychology to the lives of the wide range of students taking the introductory course. Now Psychology returns in a remarkable new edition that shows just how well-attuned the Hockenburys are to the needs of today’s students and instructors.
Psychology began with a basic idea: combine scientific authority with a narrative that engages students and relates to their lives. From decades of experience teaching, the Hockenburys created a book filled with cutting-edge science and real-life stories that draw students of all kinds into the course.
Chapter 1 Introduction and Research
Prologue: Miracle Magnets?
Introduction: The Origins of Psychology
Culture and Human Behavior: What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology
The Scientific Method
Critical Thinking: What Is Critical Thinking?
Descriptive Research Methods
Science Versus Pseudoscience: What Is a Pseudoscience?
The Experimental Method
Focus on Neuroscience: Psychological Research Using Brain Imaging
Ethics in Psychological Research
In Focus: Questions About the Use of Animals in Psychological Research
Application: Psychology in the Media: Becoming an
Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior
Prologue: Asha’s Story
Introduction: Neuroscience and Behavior
The Neuron: The Basic Unit of Communication
The Nervous System and the Endocrine System: Communication Throughout the Body
A Guided Tour of the Brain
Focus on Neuroscience: Is Runner’s High an
Science Versus Pseudoscience: Phrenology: The Bumpy Road to Scientific Progress
Focus on Neuroscience: Juggling and Brain Plasticity
In Focus: The Curious Case of Phineas Gage
Specialization in the Cerebral Hemispheres
Critical Thinking: "His" and "Her" Brains Science Versus Pseudoscience: Brain Myths
Application: Pumping Neurons: Maximizing Your Brain’s Potential
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception
Prologue: Learning to See
Introduction: What Are Sensation and Perception?
Science Versus Pseudoscience: Subliminal
Vision: From Light to Sight
Focus on Neuroscience: Vision, Experience, and the Brain
Hearing: From Vibration to Sound
The Chemical and Body Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Position
In Focus: Do Pheromones Influence Human Behavior?
Culture and Human Behavior: Ways of Seeing
Critical Thinking: ESP: Can Perception Occur Without Sensation?
The Effects of Experience on Perceptual Interpretations
Culture and Human Behavior: Culture and the Müller-Lyer Illusion: The Carpentered-World
Application: Strategies to Control Pain
Chapter 4 Consciousness and Its Variations
Prologue: Even in Good Men
Introduction: Consciousness: Experiencing the "Private I"
Biological and Environmental "Clocks" That Regulate Consciousness
In Focus: What You Really Want to Know About Sleep
Dreams and Mental Activity During Sleep
Focus on Neuroscience: The Dreaming Brain:
Turning REM On and Off
In Focus: What You Really Want to Know About Dreams
Sleep Disorders: Troubled Sleep
Critical Thinking: Could a Person Commit Murder While Asleep?
Critical Thinking: Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness?
Focus on Neuroscience: The Addicted Brain:
Focus on Neuroscience: How Methamphetamines Erode the Brain
Application: "Can’t Sleep? Read THIS!"
Chapter 5 Learning
Prologue: The Killer Attic
Introduction: What Is Learning?
Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli
In Focus: Watson, Classical Conditioning, and Advertising
Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning
In Focus: Evolution, Biological Preparedness and Conditioned Fears: What Gives You the Creeps?
Operant Conditioning: Associating Behaviors and Consequences
In Focus: Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternatives to Punishment
Critical Thinking: Is Human Freedom Just an Illusion?
Focus on Neuroscience: Virtual Operant Conditioning: Remote-Controlled "Ratbots"
Contemporary Views of Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning: Imitating the Actions of Others
Focus on Neuroscience: Mirror Neurons: Imitation in the Brain?
Critical Thinking: Does "Reel" Violence Cause Real Aggressive Behavior?
Application: Using Learning Principles to Improve Self-Control
Chapter 6 Memory
Prologue: The Drowning
Introduction: What Is Memory?
Culture and Human Behavior: Culture’s Effect on Earliest Memories
Retrieval: Getting Information from Long-Term Memory
Forgetting: When Retrieval Fails
In Focus: Déjà Vu: An Illusion of Memory
Imperfect Memories: Errors, Distortions, and False Memories
The Search for the Biological Basis of Memory
Critical Thinking: The Memory Wars: Recovered or False Memories?
Focus on Neuroscience: Assembling Memories: Echoes and Reflections of Perception
In Focus: H.M. and Famous People
Focus on Neuroscience: Mapping Brain Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease
Application: Superpower Memory in Minutes per Day!
Chapter 7 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Prologue: The Movie Moment
Introduction: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Focus on Neuroscience: Seeing Faces and Places in the Mind’s Eye
Solving Problems and Making Decisions
Critical Thinking: The Persistence of Unwarranted Beliefs
Language and Thought
Culture and Human Behavior: The Effect of Language on Perception
In Focus: Does a High IQ Score Predict Success in Life?
The Nature of Intelligence
Critical Thinking: Neurodiversity and the Autism
Culture and Human Behavior: Stereotype Threat:
Performing When There’s a "Threat in the Air"
Application: A Workshop on Creativity
Chapter 8 Motivation and Emotion
Prologue: One Step at a Time
Introduction: Motivation and Emotion
Motivational Concepts and Theories
Biological Motivation: Hunger and Eating
Critical Thinking: Has Evolution Programmed Us to Overeat?
Focus on Neuroscience: Dopamine Receptors and Obesity
Psychological Needs as Motivators
In Focus: Detecting Lies
Focus on Neuroscience: Emotions and the Brain
Critical Thinking: Emotion in Nonhuman Animals: Laughing Rats, Silly Elephants, and Smiling Dolphins?
Theories of Emotion: Explaining Emotion
Application: Turning Your Goals into Reality
Chapter 9 Lifespan Development
Prologue: The Cheerleader and the Skydiver
Introduction: Your Life Story
Genetic Contributions to Your Life Story
Development During Infancy and Childhood
Culture and Human Behavior: Where Does the Baby Sleep?
Critical Thinking: The Effects of Child Care on Attachment and Development
Focus on Neuroscience: The Adolescent Brain:
A Work in Progress
Culture and Human Behavior: Conflict Between Adolescents and Their Parents
Late Adulthood and Aging
The Final Chapter: Dying and Death
Application: Raising Psychologically Healthy Children
Chapter 10 Gender and Sexuality
Prologue: Soaring with Angels
Introduction: Gender and Sexuality
Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles
Critical Thinking: Are Women Really More Emotional Than Men?
Gender-Role Development: Blue Bears and Pink Bunnies
In Focus: Beyond Male and Female: Variations in Gender Identity
Culture and Human Behavior: Evolution and Mate Preference
Focus on Neuroscience: Romantic Love and the Brain
In Focus: Everything You Wanted to Know About Sexual Fantasies
Sexual Disorders and Problems
Application: Men, Women, and Conflict: Bridging the Gender Gap
Chapter 11 Personality
Prologue: The Secret Twin
Introduction: What Is Personality?
The Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality
The Humanistic Perspective on Personality
Critical Thinking: Freud Versus Rogers on Human Nature
The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality
Critical Thinking: Freud Versus Bandura on Human Aggression
The Trait Perspective on Personality
Focus on Neuroscience: Personality Traits and Patterns of Brain Activity
In Focus: Explaining Those Amazing Identical-Twin Similarities
Assessing Personality: Psychological Tests
Science Versus Pseudoscience: Graphology:
The "Write" Way to Assess Personality?
Application: Possible Selves: Imagine the Possibilities
Chapter 12 Social Psychology
Prologue: The "Homeless" Man
Introduction: What Is Social Psychology?
Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Other People
Focus on Neuroscience: Brain Reward When Making Eye Contact with Attractive People
Attribution: Explaining Behavior
Culture and Human Behavior: Explaining Failure and Murder: Culture and Attributional Biases
The Social Psychology of Attitudes
Conformity: Following the Crowd
Obedience: Just Following Orders
Critical Thinking: Abuse at Abu Ghraib: Why Do Ordinary People Commit Evil Acts?
Helping Behavior: Coming to the Aid of Strangers The Influence of Groups on Individual Behavior Closing Thoughts
Application: The Persuasion Game
Chapter 13 Stress, Health, and Coping
Prologue: Katie’s Story
Introduction: What Is Stress?
Culture and Human Behavior: The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture
Physical Effects of Stress: The Mind-Body Connection
Focus on Neuroscience: The Mysterious Placebo Effect
Individual Factors That Influence the Response to Stress
Critical Thinking: Do Personality Factors Cause Disease?
In Focus: Providing Effective Social Support
Coping: How People Deal with Stress In Focus: Gender Differences in Responding to Stress: "Tend and Befriend" or "Fight-or-Flight?"
Application: Minimizing the Effects of Stress
Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
Prologue: Behind the Steel Door
Introduction: Understanding Psychological Disorders
Critical Thinking: Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as the Media Portray Them?
Anxiety Disorders: Intense Apprehension and Worry
Mood Disorders: Emotions Gone Awry
Critical Thinking: Does Smoking Cause Depression and Other Psychological Disorders?
Personality Disorders: Maladaptive Traits
The Dissociative Disorders: Fragmentation of the Self
Schizophrenia: A Different Reality
Focus on Neuroscience: The Hallucinating Brain
Culture and Human Behavior: Travel Advisory: The Jerusalem Syndrome
Focus on Neuroscience: Schizophrenia: A Wildfire in the Brain
Application: Understanding and Helping to Prevent Suicide
Chapter 15 Therapies
Prologue: "A Clear Sense of Being Heard…"
Introduction: Psychotherapy and Biomedical Therapy
In Focus: Using Virtual Reality to Conquer Phobias
Group and Family Therapy
In Focus: Self-Help Groups: Helping Yourself by Helping Others
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
Science Versus Pseudoscience: EMDR: Can You Wave Your Fears Away?
Culture and Human Behavior: Cultural Values and Psychotherapy
Focus on Neuroscience: Comparing Psychotherapy and Antidepressant Medication
Application: What to Expect in Psychotherapy
Appendix A: Statistics: Understanding Statistics
Prologue: The Tables Are Turned: A Psychologist
Becomes a Research Subject
Appendix B: Industrial/Organizational Psychology
What Is Industrial/Organization Psychology?
Work Settings, Type of Training, and Employment Outlook
Box B.1: Name, Title, Generation
Box B.2: Servant Leadership: When It’s Not All About You
Workplace Trends and Issues