Psychology: The Science of Behavior

Psychology: The Science of Behavior

by Neil R. Carlson

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ISBN-10: 0205685579

ISBN-13: 9780205685578

Pub. Date: 02/28/2009

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

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Table of Contents

1. The Science of Psychology

What Is Psychology?

Explaining Behavior

The Goals of Psychological Research

Fields of Psychology

The Rise of Psychology as a Science

Philosophical Roots of Psychology

Biological Roots of Psychology

Major Trends in the Development of Psychology



Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory

Psychology in Transition


Humanistic Psychology

Reaction against Behavior: The Cognitive Revolution

The Biological Revolution

2. The Ways and Means of Psychology

The Scientific Method in Psychology

Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research

Designing an Experiment

Performing an Experiment

Performing a Correlational Study

Reporting and Generalizing Studies

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Format for Critical Thinking


Research with Human Participants

Research with Animal Participants

Biology and Culture: Cross-Cultural Research

Understanding Research Results

Descriptive Statistics: What Are the Results?

Inferential Statistics: Distinguishing Chance From Significance

3. Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior

The Development of Evolutionary Theory

The Voyage of the Beagle

The Origin of Species

Natural Selection and Evolution

Natural Selection

Natural Selection in Human Evolution

Heredity and Genetics

Basic Principles of Genetics

The Importance of Genetic Diversity

Influences of Gender on Heredity

Mutations and Chromosomal Aberrations

Genetic Disorders

Heredity and Behavior Genetics

Studying Genetic Influences

Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Genetics of Alcoholism


Reproductive Strategies and the Biological Basis of Parenting

The Biological Basis of Altruism

Evaluation of Sociobiology

Biology and Culture: Thinking Critically about Selection

4. Biology of Behavior

The Brain and Its Components

Structure of the Nervous System

Cells of the Nervous System

The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential

Communication with Other Cells: Synapses

A Simple Neural Circuit

Drugs and Behavior

Effects of Drugs on Synaptic Transmission

Neurotransmitters, their Actions, and Drugs that Affect Them

Evaluating Scientific Issues: “Physiological” versus “Psychological” Drug Addiction

Study of the Brain

Experimental Ablation

Visualizing the Structure of the Brain

Measuring the Brain’s Activity

Stimulating the Brain’s Activity

Altering Genetics

Biology and Culture: Environmental Effects on Brain Development

Control of Behavior and the Body’s Physiological Functions

Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

Lateralization of Function



Somatosensation and Spatial Perception

Planning and Moving

Episodic and Spatial Memory: Role of the Hippocampus

Emotions: Role of the Amygdala

Control of Internal Functions and Automatic Behavior

Control of Internal Functions and Automatic Behavior

The Brain Stem

The Cerebellum

Structures within the Cerebral Hemispheres

5. Learning and Behavior

Procedures for The Study Of Basic Learning Processes

Pavlov’s Procedure

Thorndike’s Procedure

Comparison between Pavlov’s and Thorndike’s Procedures for Studying Learning

Conditions Required For Learning

Temporal Contiguity

Conditioned Reinforcement

Effects of Temporal Contiguity on Human Behavior

Drug Addiction

Behavioral Discrepancy


Biology and Culture: Learning, Superstition, and Ritualistic Behavior

The Outcomes of Learning


Conditioned Reinforcement

Neural Mechanisms of Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcement

Automatic Conditioned Reinforcement


Stimulus Generalization

Stimulus Discrimination


Evaluating Scientific Issues–What Is Insight?

Cellular Mechanisms of Reinforcement

Long-Term Potentiation

Sensory Learning

Behavior in Experienced Learners

Instructional Control

Observational Learning

6. Sensation

Sensory Processing


Sensory Coding


Evaluating Scientific Issues: Subliminal Self-Help



The Eye and Its Functions

Transduction of Light by Photoreceptors

Adaptation to Light and Dark

Eye Movements

Color Vision



The Ear and Its Functions

Detecting and Localizing Sounds in the Environment

Age-Related Losses in Hearing

Biology and Culture: The Deaf Community


Receptors and the Sensory Pathway

The Five Qualities of Taste


Anatomy of the Olfactory System

The Dimensions of Odor

The Somatosenses

The Skin Senses

The Internal Senses

The Vestibular Senses

7. Perception

Brain Mechanisms of Visual Perception

The Primary Visual Cortex

The Visual Association Cortex

Effects of Brain Damage on Visual Perception

Perception of Form

Figure and Ground

Organization of Elements: Gestalt Laws of Grouping

Models of Pattern Perception

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Does the Brain Work Like a Serial Computer?

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing

Perception and Action: A Possible Synthesis

Perception of Space and Motion

Depth Perception

Biology and Culture: Effects of Experience on Visual Perception

Constancies of Visual Perception

Perception of Motion

8. Memory

Overview and Sensory Memory

Iconic Memory

Echoic Memory

Short-Term or Working Memory

Encoding of Information: Interaction with Long-Term Memory

Primacy and Recency Effects

The Limits of Working Memory

Varieties of Working Memory

Loss of Information from Short-Term Memory

Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory

The Consolidation Hypothesis

The Levels of Processing Hypothesis

Improving Long-Term Memory through Mnemonics

The Organization of Long-Term Memory

Episodic and Semantic Memory

Explicit and Implicit Memory

The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory


Remembering and Recollecting How Long Does Memory Last?

Biology and Culture: Cultural Contexts for Remembering

Reconstruction: Remembering as a Creative Process

Remembering and Interference

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Hypnosis, Remembering, and Criminal Investigation

9. Consciousness

Consciousness as a Social Phenomenon

Can We Understand Consciousness?

The Adaptive Significance of Consciousness

Consciousness and the Ability to Communicate

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Does Conscious Thought Control Behavior?

Consciousness and Moral Reasoning

Selective Attention

Auditory Information

Visual Information

Brain Mechanisms of Selective Attention

Biology and Culture: Control of Consciousness

Consciousness and the Brain

Isolation Aphasia: A Case of Global Unawareness

Visual Agnosia: Lack of Awareness of Visual Perceptions

The Split-Brain Syndrome


Characteristics of Hypnosis

Theories of Hypnosis


The Stages of Sleep

Functions of Sleep


Brain Mechanisms of Sleep

10. Language

Speech Comprehension and Production

Speech Recognition

Understanding the Meaning of Speech

Brain Mechanisms of Speech Comprehension and Production


Scanning of Text

Phonetic and Whole-Word Recognition: Evidence from Neuropsychology

Understanding the Meanings of Words and Sentences

Language Acquisition by Children

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is There a Language Acquisition Device?

Perception of Speech Sounds by Infants

The Pre-speech Period and the First Words

The Two-Word Stage

How Adults Talk to Children

Acquisition of Adult Rules of Grammar

Acquisition of Meaning

Biology and Culture: Communication with Other Primate Species

11. Intelligence and Thinking

Intelligence: Global or Componential?

Spearman’s g Theory

Evidence from Factor Analysis

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Biology and Culture: Definitions of Intelligence

Intelligence Testing

From Mandarins to Galton

Intelligence Tests

Reliability and Validity of Intelligence Tests

The Use and Abuse of Intelligence Tests

The Roles of Heredity and Environment

The Meaning of Heritability

Sources of Environmental and Genetic Effects during Development

Results of Heritability Studies

Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Issue of Race and Intelligence

Thinking and Problem Solving

Categorization and Generalization

Formal and Natural Concepts

Deductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning

Problem Solving

12. Lifespan Development

Prenatal Development

Stages of Prenatal Development

Threats to Normal Prenatal Development

Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood

Motor Development

Perceptual Development

Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood

The Importance of a Responsive Environment

The Work of Jean Piaget

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

Developmental Models of Information Processing in Cognitive Development

Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Effects of Television Viewing on Children’s Cognitive Development

Social Development in Infancy and Childhood

Behaviors of the Infant That Foster Attachment

The Nature and Quality of Attachment

Interactions with Peers

Approaches to Child Rearing

Development of Gender Roles

The Nature of Gender Differences

Biology and Culture: The Causes of Gender Role Differences

Moral Development

Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development

Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development

Evaluation of Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development


Physical Development

Social Development

Cognitive Development

Adulthood and Old Age

Physical Development

Cognitive Development

Social Development

13. Motivation and Emotion

What is Motivation?

Reinforcement and Motivation

What Initiates Behavior?

What Determines the Strength of Behavior?

What Determines the Persistence of Behavior?

Aggressive Behavior

Ethological Studies of Aggression

Hormones and Aggression

Environmental Variables that Affect Human Aggression

Sexual Behavior

Effects of Sex Hormones on Behavior

Sexual Orientation


Emotions as Response Patterns

Social Judgments: Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

Measuring Emotional Responses: Lie Detection in Criminal Investigation

Expression and Recognition of Emotions

The Social Nature of Emotional Expressions of Humans

Situations that Produce Emotions: The Role of Cognition

Biology and Culture: Are Emotional Expressions Innate?

Feelings of Emotion

Theories of Emotion

Effects of Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic-System Damage

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is Cognition Essential for Emotion?


What Starts a Meal?

What Stops a Meal?


Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

14. Personality

Trait Theories of Personality

Personality Types and Traits

Identification of Personality Traits

Psychobiological Approaches

Heritability of Personality Traits

Brain Mechanisms in Personality

The Social Cognitive Approach

Expectancies and Observational Learning

Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy

Person Variables

Locus of Control

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Traits versus Situations as Predictors of Behavior

The Psychodynamic Approach

The Development of Freud’s Theory

Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego

Defense Mechanisms

Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development

Further Development of Freud’s Theory: The Neo-Freudians

Some Observations on Psychodynamic Theory and Research

The Humanistic Approach

Maslow and Self-Actualization

Rogers and Conditions of Worth

Some Observations on the Humanistic Approach

Assessment of Personality

Objective Tests of Personality

Projective Tests of Personality

Evaluation of Projective Tests

Biology and Culture: Gender Differences in Personality

15. Social Psychology

Social Cognition

Impression Formation

The Self


Attributional Biases

Attribution, Heuristics, and Social Cognition

Attitudes: Their Formation and Change

Formation of Attitudes

Attitude Change and Persuasion

Cognitive Dissonance


Stereotypes and Prejudice

The Origins of Prejudice

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies

Hope for Change

Social Influences and Group Behavior


Social Facilitation

Social Loafing

Commitment and Compliance

Obedience to Authority

Group Decision Making

Resisting Social Influences

Interpersonal Attraction and Loving

Interpersonal Attraction

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Arousal and Interpersonal Attraction


Biology and Culture: Evolution and the Likelihood of Love

16. Lifestyle, Stress, and Health

Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences

Healthy and Unhealthy Lifestyles


Physical Fitness

Cigarette Smoking

Drinking Alcoholic Beverages

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS

Biology and Culture: Cultural Reactions to Contagious Diseases

Unhealthy Lifestyles Are Preventable: Self-Control

Stress and Health

The Biological Basis of Stress

Cognitive Appraisal and Stress

Stressful Lifestyles and Impaired Health

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is There a Cancer-Prone Personality?

Coping with Everyday Stress

Sources of Stress

Coping Styles and Strategies

Stress Inoculation Training

17. The Nature and Causes of Mental Disorders

Classification and Diagnosis of Mental Disorders

What Is “Abnormal”?

Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders

The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme

Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification

The Need for Classification

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis

Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Somatoform Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Biology and Culture: Culture-Bound Syndromes

Personality Disorders

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Substance-Related Disorders


Possible Causes



Types of Schizophrenia

Early Signs of Schizophrenia

Possible Causes

Mood Disorders


Possible Causes

18. The Treatment of Mental Disorders

Mental Disorders and Therapy

Early Treatment of Mental Disorders

The Development of Psychotherapy

Insight Therapies

Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches

Humanistic Therapy

Evaluation of Insight Therapies

Behavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies, and Cognitive-Behavior Therapies

Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning

Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning

Maintaining Behavioral Change

Cognitive Therapies

Cognitive-Behavior Therapies

Evaluation of Behavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies, and Cognitive-Behavior Therapies

Group Therapies and Community Psychology

Family Therapy and Couples Therapy

Community Psychology

Evaluation of Group Therapies and Community Psychology

Biology and Culture: Cultural Belief Systems and Indigenous Healing Therapies

Biological Therapies

Drug Therapy

Electroconvulsive Therapy


Evaluation of Biological Treatments

Evaluating Scientific Issues: Assessing the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

The Relationship between Client and Therapist

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