Psychology of Gender / Edition 4

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Overview

For gender-focused courses in Psychology, Sociology, Women’s Studies, and Gender Studies.

Unlike other gender texts, Psychology of Gender focuses equally on both men and women, drawing from empirical research and conceptual discussions.

The book includes research and discussions surrounding gender in the areas of psychology, sociology, anthropology, medicine, and public health. It reviews the research from multiple perspectives, but emphasizes the implications of social roles, status, and gender-related traits, particularly for relationships and health—areas that are central to students' lives and that have a great impact on their day-to-day functioning. The text is designed for upper-level undergraduate/ graduate-level gender-focused courses in a variety of departments.

Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, readers should be able to:

  • Understand the implications of gender for two broad domains of research: relationships and health
  • Distinguish the similarities and differences between men and women and the theories that explain any observed differences

Note: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit: www.mysearchlab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost). VP: 0205195490 / 9780205195497

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205050185
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/26/2011
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 656
  • Sales rank: 228,070
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Vicki S. Helgeson, accomplished scholar and teacher from Carnegie Mellon University, draws from research in the areas of psychology, sociology, anthropology, medicine, and public health to explore the roles that society has assigned to men and women. Other variables, such as sex, status, and gender-related traits, are addressed and contribute to the understanding of the individual in the social context in this exciting new introductory text.

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Table of Contents

IN THIS SECTION:

1.) BRIEF

2.) COMPREHENSIVE


BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Methods and History of Gender Research

Chapter 3: Gender-Role Attitudes

Chapter 4: Sex-Related Comparisons: Observations

Chapter 5: Sex-Related Comparisons: Theory

Chapter 6: Achievement

Chapter 7: Communication

Chapter 8: Friendship

Chapter 9: Romantic Relationships

Chapter 10: Sex Differences in Health: Evidence and Explanations

Chapter 11: Relationships and Health

Chapter 12: Paid Worker Role and Health

Chapter 13: Mental Health


COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Chapter 1: Introduction

Definition of Terms
Cultural Differences in the Construal of Gender
Cultures with Multiple Genders
Morocco
The Agta Negrito
Tahiti
Status and Culture
Philosophical and Political Issues Surrounding Gender
The Sex Difference Debate
Social Construction of Gender
Women’s Movements
Men’s Movements
A Note On Sexist Language
This Book’s Approach to the Study of Gender
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 2: Methods and History of Gender Research
The Scientific Method
Correlational Study
Experimental Study
Field Experiment
Cross-Sectional Versus Longitudinal Designs
Difficulties in Conducting Research on Gender
Experimenter Effects
Participant Effects
The Setting: Laboratory Versus Field
Variables Confounded with Sex
Situational Influences
History of the Psychology of Gender
1894—1936: Sex Differences in Intelligence
1936—1954: M/F as a Global Personality Trait
1954—1982: Sex Typing and Androgyny
1982—Present: Gender as a Social Category
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 3: Gender-Role Attitudes
Attitudes Toward Men’s and Women’s Roles
Affective Component: Sexism
Traditional Versus Modern Sexism
Hostile Versus Benevolent Sexism
Sexism Toward Men
Attitudes toward Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered (LGBT) Persons
Cognitive Component: Gender-Role Stereotyping
What Is a Gender-Role Stereotype?
Components of Gender-Role Stereotypes
Gender-role Stereotypes of Older People
Gender-role Stereotypes of People Who Vary in Ethnicity or Culture
Stereotypes of Homosexuals
Children’s Stereotypes
Subcategories of Gender-Role Stereotypes
Effects of Gender-Role Stereotypes
Altering Gender-Role Stereotypes
Do Stereotypes Reflect Reality?
What Is the Status of Stereotypes Today?
Behavioral Component: Sex Discrimination
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 4: Sex-Related Comparisons: Observations
Maccoby and Jacklin’s Psychology of Sex Differences
Meta-Analysis
Sex Comparisons in Cognitive Abilities
Spatial Ability
Mathematical Ability
Verbal Ability
Comprehensive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities
Sex Comparisons in Social Domains
Empathy
Helping Behavior
Aggression
Sexuality
General Personality Attributes
Sex Comparisons in Moral Development
Sex Comparisons in Social Development
Sex Similarities Hypothesis Revisited
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 5: Sex-Related Comparisons: Theory
Biology
Genes
Hormones
The Brain
Psychobiosocial Models
Evolutionary Theory and Sociobiology
Sexual Behavior
Aggression
The Hunter-Gatherer Society
A Final Note
Psychoanalytic Theory
Social Learning Theory
Observational Learning or Modeling
Reinforcement
Gender-Role Socialization
The Influence of Parents
The Influence of Other People
Other Features of the Environment
Social Role Theory
Cognitive Development Theory
Gender Schema Theory
Considering the Context: Deaux and Major’s Model
Perceiver
Target
Situation
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 6: Achievement
Individual Difference Factors
The Achievement Motive
Fear of Achievement
Self-Confidence
Response to Evaluative Feedback
Self-Esteem
Stereotype Threat
Conceptions of the Self
Attributions for Performance
Social Factors
Expectancy/Value Model of Achievement
The Influence of Parents
The Influence of Teachers
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 7: Communication
Interaction Styles in Childhood
Children’s Styles of Play
Girls’ Difficulty in Influencing Boys
Institutional Support
Interaction Styles in Adulthood
Qualifiers of Sex Differences
Implications of Interaction Styles for Performance
Language
Qualifiers of Sex Differences
Nonverbal Behavior
Smiling
Gazing
Interpersonal Sensitivity
Encoding
Touching
Leadership and Influenceability
Who Is Influenced?
Who Emerges as the Leader?
Leadership Styles
Perception of Female and Male Leaders
Emotion
The Experience of Emotion
The Expression of Emotion
Physiological Measures of Emotion
Attributions for Emotion
Explanations for Sex Differences in Communication
Status Theory
Social Role Theory
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 8: Friendship
Network Size
The Nature of Friendship
Sex Differences
Sex Similarities
Closeness of Friendship
Self-Disclosure
Sex of Discloser
Sex of Recipient
Situational Variables
Barriers to Closeness in Male Friendship
Competition
Homophobia
Emotional Inexpressiveness
Conflict in Friendship
Cross-Sex Friendship
Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendship
Obstacles
Cross-Race Friendship
Friendships of Lesbians and Gay Men
Friendship at Work
Changes Over the Life Span
Early Adulthood: Marriage and Family
Late Adulthood: Retirement and Empty Nest
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 9: Romantic Relationships
Relationship Development
Characteristics Desired in a Mate
Relationship Initiation
The Nature of Romantic Relationships
Intimacy
Love
Sexuality
Maintaining Relationships
Maintenance Strategies
Relationship Satisfaction
Conflict
Conflict Management
Demand/Withdraw Pattern
Jealousy
Cohabiting Relationships
Who Cohabits
Outcomes of Cohabitation
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 10: Sex Differences in Health: Evidence and Explanations
Sex Differences in Mortality
Life Span
Leading Causes of Death
Crime Statistics
Sex Differences in Morbidity
Explanations for Sex Differences in Health
Biology
Genes
Hormones
Immune System
Cardiovascular Reactivity
Artifacts
Socioeconomic Status
Physician Bias
Health Behaviors
Preventive Health Care
Smoking
Alcohol
Drugs
Overweight and Obesity
Exercise
Men’s and Women’s Social Roles
Job Characteristics
Driving
Risky Behavior
Concerns with Health
Nurturant Roles
Gender-Related Traits
Symptom Perception
Evidence
Explanations
Illness Behavior
Implications for Morbidity
Implications for Mortality
Conclusions
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 11: Relationships and Health
Effects of Social Support on Health
Sex Comparisons
Evidence: Relations to Health
Effects of Marriage on Health
Evidence
Explanations
Effect of Bereavement on Health
Evidence
Explanations
Effect of Relationship Dissolution on Health
Relationship Breakup
Explanations
Marital Transitions and Health
Effect of Marital Quality on Health
Evidence
Division of Labor
Who Does What?
What Determines Who Does What?
Satisfaction
Parenting and Health
Effects of the Parent Role on Health
Effect of Parenthood on Marriage
Intimate Partner Violence
Incidence
Characteristics of Perpetrator and Victims
Theories
Rape and Other Forms of Sexual Coercion
Definitions
Incidence
Rape Myths
Characteristics of Perpetrator
Characteristics of Victim
Theories
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 12: Paid Worker Role and Health
Paid Worker Role
Women’s Employment
Effects on the Family
Retirement
Combining Paid Labor With Family Roles
Effects of the Paid Worker Role on Family Roles
Effects of Family Roles on the Paid Worker Role
Difficulties in Combining Roles
Quality of Paid Worker Role
Characteristics of Paid Work
Effects on Health
Discrimination
Pay Disparity
Denial of Discrimination
Sexual Harassment
Definitions
Incidence
Outcomes of Sexual Harassment
Characteristics of Perpetrator
Characteristics of Victim
Theories
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

Chapter 13: Mental Health
Sex Differences in Depression
Methodological Artifacts
Clinician Bias
Response Bias
Different Manifestations of Depression
Theories of Depression
Biology
Learned Helplessness
Coping
Stressful Life Events
The Female Gender Role
Caregiving
Challenges of Adolescence
Gender Intensification
Puberty
Body Image
Adjustment to Chronic Illness
Male Gender Role
Female Gender Role
Eating Disorders
Definitions and Prevalence
Consequences
Etiology
Suicide
Incidence
Attempts
The Gender Paradox
Factors Associated with Suicide Among Adults
Factors Associated with Suicide Among Adolescents
Summary
Discussion Questions
Suggested Reading
Key Terms

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Preface

The purpose of this text is to provide a review of the empirical research and conceptual discussions surrounding gender and to examine the implications of gender for relationships and health. The focus of this book goes beyond sex alone—whether one is biologically male or female-to explore the roles that society has assigned to men and women and the other variables that co-occur with sex, such as status and gender-related traits. The implications of social roles, status, and gender-related traits for relationships and health are examined. This is why the book is titled The Psychology of Gender rather than The Psychology of Sex. Gender is a term that represents the social and cultural forces that influence men and women in our society. The book discusses the "psychology" of gender because the focus is on the individual in the social context. The primary focus is not on biology and anthropology, although their contributions to the study of gender are included.

Rather than review every single topic related to gender, I examine the implications of gender for two broad domains of research: relationships and health. These domains are chosen, first, because they are central to our lives. Friendships, romantic relationships, and relationships at work have a great impact on our day-to-day functioning. Psychological well-being and physical health are important outcomes in their own right. A second reason. for the focus on relationships and health is that these are domains in which clear sex differences have been documented. These sex differences cannot be attributed to biology alone; thus, relationships and health are domains for which gender, the socialcategory, may play a role.

The book is divided into three sections, with each section building on the previous one. First, the nature of gender and the development of gender roles is presented. In the first chapter, I provide a brief overview of the scientific method and discuss the difficulties in conducting research on gender, including the philosophical and political issues that pervade this arena. I then provide a brief history of the psychology of gender, which includes discussions of the various instruments used to study gender (Chapter 2). I also discuss our attitudes toward gender and gender roles, as well as gender-role stereotypes (Chapter 2)., I then turn to the research literature to provide the current data (Chapter 3) and theory (Chapter 4) on sex differences in cognitive, emotional, and social domains. In Chapter 4, I also discuss different theories of gender-role development, such as evolutionary theory, social learning theory, social role theory, and gender schema theory. In Chapter 5, I discuss the implications of gender and gender roles for achievement. Thus, in this, first section of the book, I provide important information on the similarities and differences between men and women anal the theories that explain any observed differences. The data and the theories are important for understanding the subsequent sections of the book that address the implications of gender for relationships and health.

The second section of the book begins with a discussion of men's and women's communication and interaction styles (Chapter 6). These findings have implications for the specific relationships discussed: friendship (Chapter 7) and romantic relationships (Chapter 8). Recent research on cross-sex friendship and gay and lesbian relationships are included in these chapters. The role of gender in relationships is critical to understanding the third section of the book, how gender influences health.

The third section begins with an overview chapter documenting sex differences in mental and physical health and theories as to their origins (Chapter 9). Health is broadly construed in this book to reflect specific physical health problems such as coronary artery disease, but also to encompass mental health problems (e.g., depression, eating disorders) and behavioral problems, such as aggression. In Chapter 10, I investigate the implications of gender as a health resource in relationships, in particular marriage. The effects of marriage and marital quality on health are reviewed in Chapter 10, whereas the effects of work and parenting on health are reviewed in Chapter 11. Subsequent chapters focus on two specific health issues: Chapter 12 focuses on depression and Chapter 13 focuses on aggression (including rape, domestic violence, and sexual harassment).

Multiple perspectives on the development of differences between men and women are offered, but the primary perspective that I emphasize is a social psychological one. I examine gender as an individual difference variable but focus on the influence of the context—the situation, the environment, the culture—on gender. I have drawn from research in the areas of psychology, sociology, anthropology, medicine, and public health.

I do not merely itemize sex differences in this text. In many domains, sex differences are more elusive than people believe. I highlight both similarities and differences and remind the reader about the magnitude of differences throughout the chapters. I also point out methodological flaws or difficulties that may bear on the observance of sex differences. The focus of the book is on the explanations for men's and women's thoughts, feelings, and behavior—not simply a summary statement of the similarities and differences between men and women.

This text can be used for an undergraduate course on the psychology of gender, preferably for more advanced students. This text also could be supplemented with empirical readings for a graduate-level course. The book should have widespread appeal to students in the sciences and humanities. Students certainly do not have to be psychology majors to read this text, but some knowledge of research methods would be helpful. Because social psychological theories are so widely discussed in this text, a student who has taken such a course will find the book especially appealing and be able to grasp many of the concepts quite quickly. However, theories are explained in sufficient detail that students without a background in social psychology or psychology should understand the material.

Gender is a topic with which all of us are familiar, regardless of the scientific literature. Thus, it is sometimes difficult to mesh personal experiences with the research literature. To help students integrate the two, each of the chapters, includes exercises—mini-experiments—for students to conduct to test some of the research ideas presented. The results of these experiments will not always work out as intended, partly because the sample sizes will be small, partly because the samples will not be representative, and partly because the best ideas do not always translate into the best research designs. The purpose of the exercises is to allow students to gain experience with some of the methods used to study gender and to learn firsthand about how people experience gender in their lives. Other aids to learning include key terms in boldface throughout the chapters and a summary of key terms and definitions at the end of the chapter; summaries of the main points at the end of the chapter; a list of thought-provoking discussion questions; and a list of suggested readings accompanying each chapter.

VICKI S. HELGESON

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