Public Health Nutrition-04 / Edition 1

Public Health Nutrition-04 / Edition 1

by Michael J. Gibney
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0632056274

ISBN-13: 9780632056279

Pub. Date: 11/28/2004

Publisher: Wiley

As an academic subject, nutrition has grown enormously in recent years and with it the need for specialist textbooks on the subject. In response to this need, a decision was taken by The Nutrition Society to produce a ground-breaking series of four textbooks, of which Public Health Nutrition is the third. The books in the series:

  • Provide

Overview

As an academic subject, nutrition has grown enormously in recent years and with it the need for specialist textbooks on the subject. In response to this need, a decision was taken by The Nutrition Society to produce a ground-breaking series of four textbooks, of which Public Health Nutrition is the third. The books in the series:

  • Provide students with the required scientific basis in nutrition, in the context of a systems and health approach.
  • Enable teachers and students to explore the core principles of nutrition and to apply these throughout their training to foster critical thinking at all times. Each chapter identifies the key areas of knowledge that must be understood and also the key points of critical thought that must accompany the acquisition of this knowledge.
  • Are fully peer reviewed to ensure completeness and clarity of content, as well as to ensure that each book takes a global perspective and is applicable for use by nutritionists and on nutrition courses throughout the world.

Public Health Nutrition is an essential purchase for students majoring in nutrition and dietetics. Public health nutrition as a subject is growing immensely in importance, taking into account the real potential to reduce the burden of non-communicable chronic disease through diet. Professionals in nutrition, dietetics, food science, medicine, community health care and many related health care areas will all find much of great use within the book’s covers. Libraries in all universities, medical schools and establishments teaching and researching in these subject areas should have several copies on their shelves.

OTHER BOOKS IN THE NUTRITION SOCIETY TEXT BOOK SERIES:

Introduction to Human Nutrition: ISBN 0 632 05624 X

Nutrition & Metabolism: ISBN 0 632 05625 8

Clinical Nutrition: ISBN 0 632 05626 6

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780632056279
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
11/28/2004
Series:
Nutrition Society Textbook Series, #3
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
392
Product dimensions:
7.30(w) x 9.50(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Series Foreword xi

Preface xii

Contributors xiii

1. An Overview of Public Health Nutrition 1
Barrie M Margetts

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Organization of the book 3

1.3 Definitions used in public health 4

1.4 What are the key public health problems? 7

1.5 Food and nutrition policy 10

1.6 The public health nutrition cycle 12

1.7 Step 1: Identify key nutrition-related problem 12

1.8 Step 2: Set goals and broad aims 15

1.9 Step 3: Define objectives 16

1.10 Step 4: Create quantitative targets 16

1.11 Step 5: Develop program 18

1.12 Step 6: Implementation 22

1.13 Step 7: Evaluation 23

2. Nutritional Epidemiology 26
Michael Nelson, Shirley AA Beresford and John M Kearney

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Types of study 31

2.3 Study design: sampling, study size and power 34

2.4 Measuring exposure 39

2.5 Measuring outcomes 50

2.6 Measuring diet–disease (exposure–outcome) associations 54

2.7 Interpretation of associations 60

2.8 Expressing results from nutritional epidemiological studies 63

2.9 Perspectives on the future 64

3. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Individuals and Populations 66
Ruth E Patterson and Pirjo Pietinen

3.1 Introduction 66

3.2 Dietary assessment 67

3.3 Biomarkers as measures for the assessment of nutritional status 75

3.4 Anthropometric and other clinical measures 77

3.5 Error in methods of assessment of nutritional status 78

3.6 Perspectives on the future 81

4. Assessment of Physical Activity 83
Michael Sjöström, Ulf Ekelund and Agneta Yngve

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Definition of commonly used terms 84

4.3 Dimensions of physical activity 86

4.4 Reliability and validity of physical activity assessment instruments 90

4.5 Physical activity assessment methods 91

4.6 Perspectives on the future 104

5. Public Health Nutrition Strategies for Intervention at the Ecological Level 106
Kim D Reynolds, Knut-Inge Klepp and Amy L Yaroch

5.1 Introduction 106

5.2 Definition of the ecological approach 106

5.3 Individual versus ecological approaches 107

5.4 Key principles in the ecological approach 108

5.5 Intervention 110

5.6 Advantages and disadvantages of this approach 111

5.7 Guidelines for using the ecological approach to design nutrition interventions 111

5.8 Ethical issues to consider 112

5.9 Ecological interventions to change eating habits 113

5.10 Perspectives on the future 119

6. Public Health Nutrition Strategies for Intervention at the Individual Level 120
Barrie M Margetts

6.1 Introduction 120

6.2 Interventions of supplementary feeding, foods or nutrients 123

6.3 Changing behavior without giving foods 124

6.4 Evaluation of programs and interventions 130

6.5 Perspectives on the future 131

7. Dietary Guidelines 133
Michael J Gibney and Petro Wolmarans

7.1 Introduction 133

7.2 Overview of dietary recommendations 133

7.3 Quantitative dietary guidelines 134

7.4 Qualitative dietary guidelines 137

7.5 Steps involved in devising food-based dietary guidelines 139

7.6 Visual presentations of food guides related to dietary guidelines 143

7.7 Perspectives on the future 143

8. Food Choice 144
David N Cox and Annie S Anderson

8.1 Introduction 144

8.2 The study of food choice 145

8.3 Population issues affecting food choice 147

8.4 Individual issues affecting food choice 152

8.5 Perspectives on the future 163

9. Public Health Aspects of Overnutrition 167
Jacob C Seidell and Tommy LS Visscher

9.1 Introduction 167

9.2 Macronutrients, excess energy intake and overweight 170

9.3 Obesity as a determinant of mortality and morbidity 171

9.4 Perspectives on the future 177

10. Public Health Aspects of Undernutrition 178
Mark J Manary and Noel W Solomons

10.1 Introduction 178

10.2 Definitions of undernutrition 178

10.3 Clinical syndromes of undernutrition 179

10.4 Micronutrient deficiency: "hidden hunger" 180

10.5 Time trends and contemporary prevalences 181

10.6 Etiology: determinants and conditioning factors for undernutrition 181

10.7 Public health consequences of undernutrition 187

10.8 Policy and programmatic issues in preventing undernutrition 188

10.9 Policy and programmatic issues in reversing undernutrition 190

10.10 Perspectives on the future 191

11. Vitamin A Deficiency 192
Faruk Ahmed and Ian Darnton-Hill

11.1 Introduction 192

11.2 Consequences of vitamin A deficiency 194

11.3 Epidemiology 200

11.4 Prevention and control 203

11.5 Assessment of vitamin A status 208

11.6 Monitoring and evaluation 212

11.7 Perspectives on the future 214

12. Iodine and Iodine-deficiency Disorders 216
Clive E West, Pieter L Jooste and Chandrakant S Pandav

12.1 Introduction 216

12.2 Definition of iodine deficiency 216

12.3 Clinical features 219

12.4 Iodine metabolism 219

12.5 Reference intakes for iodine 221

12.6 Public health aspects to iodine deficiency 222

12.7 Management of iodine deficiency 223

12.8 Assessment and elimination of iodine deficiency disorders 225

12.9 Perspectives on the future 226

13. Iron-deficiency Anemias 227
Kamasamudram Vijayaraghavan

13.1 Introduction 227

13.2 Definition and clinical features of iron-deficiency anemia 228

13.3 Iron metabolism 230

13.4 Reference intakes for iron 232

13.5 Public health implications of iron-deficiency anemia 232

13.6 Perspectives on the future 234

14. Fear of Fatness and Fad Slimming Diets 236
Mary AT Flynn

14.1 Introducton 236

14.2 Epidemioogy 237

14.3 Life-cycle fatness trends 237

14.4 Definitions and descriptions 238

14.5 Etiology 241

14.6 Consequences for public health 242

14.7 Prevention strategies 244

14.8 Assessing body image 245

14.9 Perspectives on the future 246

15. Nutrition and Child Development 247
Helen Baker-Henningham and Sally Grantham-McGregor

15.1 Introduction 247

15.2 Child development and the role of the environment 248

15.3 Possible mechanisms linking undernutrition to poor development 248

15.4 Prevalence of nutritional deficiencies 249

15.5 Intrauterine growth retardation 250

15.6 Breast-feeding and its influence on child development 251

15.7 Wasting, stunting and severe clinical malnutrition 253

15.8 Iron-deficiency anemia 256

15.9 Iodine deficiency 259

15.10 Zinc deficiency 260

15.11 Vitamin A deficiency 260

15.12 Studies on the effects of short-term hunger and school feeding 261

15.13 Perspectives on the future 262

16. Infant Feeding 264
Anna Coutsoudis and Jane Bentley

16.1 Introduction 264

16.2 Role and importance of breast-feeding 265

16.3 Barriers to successful breast-feeding 268

16.4 Breast-feeding challenges 271

16.5 Potential feeding difficulties 274

16.6 Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus transmission 275

16.7 Infant feeding after 6 months 277

16.8 Monitoring the child’s growth: the road-to-health chart 280

16.9 Perspectives on the future 281

17. Adverse Outcomes in Pregnancy: The Role of Folate and Related B-Vitamins 283
John Scott and Helene McNulty

17.1 Introduction 283

17.2 Biochemical basis for the role of folate in adverse outcomes of pregnancy 284

17.3 Evidence that folate and other related vitamins play a protective role against adverse outcomes of pregnancy 290

17.4 Prevention of folate-responsive adverse outcomes of pregnancy 295

17.5 Perspectives on the future 300

18. Maternal Nutrition, Fetal Programming and Adult Chronic Disease 302
David JP Barker and Keith M Godfrey

18.1 Introduction 302

18.2 Observations establishing the link between size at birth and later cardiovascular disease 303

18.3 Potential confounding influences 305

18.4 Findings for particular cardiovascular and metabolic disorders 305

18.5 Determinants of fetal growth and programming: the importance of fetal nutrition 311

18.6 Maternal influences on fetal nutrition 312

18.7 Perspectives on the future 316

19. Cardiovascular Disease 317
Jim Mann

19.1 Introduction 317

19.2 Epidemiology 318

19.3 Correlations between coronary heart disease rates and food intake 319

19.4 Prospective observation of subjects for whom diet histories are available 320

19.5 Cardiovascular risk factors and their nutritional determinants 321

19.6 Clinical trials of cardiovascular risk reduction by dietary modification 323

19.7 Nutritional strategies for high-risk populations 326

19.8 Perspectives on the future 328

20. Diabetes Mellitus 330
Ambady Ramachandran and Chamukuttan Snehalatha

20.1 Introduction 330

20.2 Classification of diabetes 330

20.3 Diagnosis of diabetes 331

20.4 Risk factors for the development of diabetes 332

20.5 Diabetes as a public health issue 334

20.6 Prevention and management of diabetes 336

20.7 Scope for primary prevention of diabetes 339

20.8 Perspectives on the future 340

21. Cancer and Diet 341
Lenore Arab and Susan Steck-Scott

21.1 Introduction 341

21.2 Mechanisms of effect of diet 341

21.3 Carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion and progression to metastases 343

21.4 Gene–nutrient interactions in carcinogenesis 344

21.5 Epidemiological studies of diet and cancer 346

21.6 Dietary constituents of interest 350

21.7 Prevention: preventive potential 354

21.8 Prevention guidelines for individuals and populations 355

21.9 Perspectives on the future 355

22. Disease Prevention: Osteoporosis and Hip Fracture 357
Nicholas Harvey and Cyrus Cooper

22.1 Introduction 357

22.2 Definition 357

22.3 Epidemiology: the scale of the problem 358

22.4 The biology of bone health 363

22.5 Perspectives on the future 369

Further reading 369

Appendix 370

Index 373

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