Public Policy / Edition 1

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Overview

This book weds the “normative” and the “empirical” in its examination of public policy. The first part of the text offers a philosophical context, enabling students to see how different conceptions of “the public good” inform and shape public policy. The second part draws on the realm of science and employs the policy process model as a basis for understanding how public policies actually come to fruition. The first two parts act as a “compass” for the third, which presents substantive policy areas, such as defense, education, health, and criminal justice.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321117984
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 3/1/2006
  • Edition description: 1ST
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.37 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 0.75 (d)

Table of Contents

Alternate Contents ix
Models and Process Approach ix
Models and Policy Substance Approach x
Discussion-Driven Non-Economic Approach xi
Preface xii
Part I Introduction to Public Policy
Chapter 1 Policy and Visions of Governance 1
Chapter Overview 1
A Working Definition of Public Policy 1
Classical Liberalism 3
The Philosophical Softening of Some Assumptions of Classical Liberalism 7
Modern Liberalism and Public Policy 8
The Nature of Liberalism in the United States 14
Communitarianism: Another Way of Viewing Society and Policy 15
Public Policy: Political Liberalism and Communitarianism, A Balancing Act? 19
Lessons Learned 21
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 2 Theories of Public Policy: How Choices Are Made 25
Chapter Overview 25
The Importance of Science in Studying Public Policy 25
The Rational-Comprehensive Model 26
Incrementalism 28
Public Choice 30
Group Theory 32
Systems Theory 35
Institutionalism 36
Elite Theory 39
Game Theory 41
Neo-Institutionalism 43
Lessons Learned 45
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 3 Values and Public Policy 48
Chapter Overview 48
Regime Values and Personal Values 48
Civic Engagement, Social Capital, and Values 49
Bases of Individual Values 52
Economics and Societal Value Changes 53
How Values Have and Continue to Change 57
Lessons Learned 68
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 4 Policy Analysis 71
Chapter Overview 71
Economics 72
Rise of Policy Sciences 76
Growth of Public Policy 77
Central Questions for Public Policy Analysis 78
Tools for Policy Analysis 80
Outcomes of Public Policy Analysis 90
Ethics and Policy Analysis 91
Lessons Learned 92
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Part II Policy Process
Chapter 5 Agenda Setting 95
Chapter Overview 95
How Does Agenda Setting Work? 96
The President as Agenda Setter 98
Congress and the Policy Agenda 100
Congressional-Executive Relations and Agenda Setting 101
The Courts and the Policy Agenda 102
Pressure Groups and Agenda Setting 104
Bureaucracy and Agenda Setting 105
Media and Agenda Setting 106
Elections and the Policy Agenda 107
Cultural Change and Agenda Setting 107
Biases in Political Participation and Agenda Setting 108
Explaining Agenda Setting 109
Lessons Learned 115
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 6 Policy Formulation 118
Chapter Overview 118
How Is Policy Formulated? 118
Major Actors in Policy Formulation 121
Demographic Changes and Policy Formulation 131
Explaining Policy Formulation 133
Group Theory and Policy Formulation 134
Lessons Learned 137
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 7 Policy Implementation 140
Chapter Overview 140
A Theoretical Model of Policy Implementation 141
Issues Surrounding Implementation 148
Major Participants in Policy Implementation 155
Explaining Policy Implementation 158
Lessons Learned 161
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 8 Policy Evaluation 164
Chapter Overview 164
Skills of a Good Policy Evaluator 165
General Purposes of Evaluation 166
Internal Versus External Evaluation 170
Steps in Policy Evaluation 172
Types of Data and Evaluation 173
Types of Evaluations 174
Lessons Learned 179
Questions for Study
Endnote
Bibliography
Chapter 9 Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations (IGR) 182
Chapter Overview 182
Arguments in Favor of Federalism 183
Thinking About Federalism 186
Dual Federalism Model 186
Cooperative Federalism 187
Nation-Centered Federalism 188
Clintonian Federalism and Beyond 190
Intergovernmental Relations 192
Intergovernmental Collaborative Policy-Making 198
Fiscal Federalism 200
Lessons Learned 203
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Part III Major Public Policies
Chapter 10 Defense Policy 207
Chapter Overview 207
The Defense Policy Structure 208
Major Participants in Defense Policy 209
Defense Policy During the Cold War 211
Nuclear Arms Race 214
Nuclear Weapons Treaties 216
Policy Dissatisfaction Produces a Policy Shift 218
Post-Cold War Era 220
Post-Post Cold War Era and the War on Terrorism 221
Changing Target Populations in the Post-Post Cold War World 222
Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) 223
Ballistic Missile Defense 225
Homeland Security 226
Explaining Defense Policy 227
Lessons Learned 230
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 11 Public Health Policy 234
Chapter Overview 234
Major Actors in Public Health Policy 235
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 248
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) 249
Indian Health Service (IHS) 250
National Institutes of Health (NIH) 252
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) 252
Explaining Public Health Policy 253
Lessons Learned 254
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 12 General Social Policy 258
Chapter Overview 258
Scope of Social Policy 259
Major Policy Actors 259
Major Social Policy Agencies and Their Functions 260
Explaining General Social Policy 270
Lessons Learned 274
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 13 Education Policy 277
Chapter Overview 277
Major Participants in Education Policy 278
The Common School Movement: The Foundation of Modern Public Schools 283
Post-World War II Education Policy 284
Education Policy Reform Proposals 287
Moving Toward the Twenty-First Century 294
Explaining Education Policy 296
Lessons Learned 299
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 14 Criminal Justice Policy 303
Chapter Overview 303
Major Participants 304
Types of Crime 308
Causes of Crime 313
Crimes and Criminal Procedure 316
Perspectives on Punishment 317
Incarceration Policy and Management 320
Hot Topic Crimes in the Twenty-First Century 323
Contemporary Policing Techniques and Issues 331
Explaining Criminal Justice Policy 334
Lessons Learned 336
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 15 Environmental and Natural Resource Policy 339
Chapter Overview 339
The Commons 340
Key Actors in Environmental Policy 342
Ecoterrorism 345
Federal Environmental Regulations 347
Natural Resources in the United States 352
Resources We Take from Our Public Lands 352
Water Politics and Policy 360
Alternative Energy: Protecting the Environment and Reducing Harmful Extractions 360
Explaining Environmental Policy 362
Lessons Learned 366
Questions for Study
Endnotes
Bibliography
Chapter 16 Cost of Policy 368
Chapter Overview 368
A Definition of Budgeting 369
Explaining the Size of the National Budget 370
Budget Cycle 373
Major Participants and Influences 376
Budget Theory 380
Politics of Entitlement 384
The Budget and Implications for Policy 384
Explaining Public Budgeting 385
Lessons Learned 388
Questions for Study
Endnote
Bibliography
Conclusion: Future of Public Policy 390
Chapter Overview 390
Commodification/Decommodification 392
Technology and the Future of Policy 394
Values and the Future of Policy 394
Conclusion 395
Bibliography 395
Photo Credits 396
Index 397
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