- I. Preliminaries: Introducing Public Speaking
1. Public Speaking and the Communication Process
Communication Skills in the Twenty-first Century
Public Speaking as Audience-Centered Communication
Ethics and the Speech Preparation Process
Preparing Yourself to Speak
Putting Principles into Practice in a First Speaking Assignment
Sample Speech: "Tribute to Don McLean"
2. Managing Communication Apprehension
What Is Communication Apprehension?
Factors Contributing to Communication Apprehension
Misconceptions about Communication Apprehension
Strategies for Managing Communication Apprehension
3. Listening Effectively
The Importance of Effective Listening
Understanding Barriers to Good Listening
Guidelines for Improving Listening
Helping the Audience Want to Listen
Sample Speech: "The Healthy Choice"
- II. Prepare: Knowing the Audience and Yourself
4. Analyzing Your Audience
Understanding Diverse Audiences
Identifying Universal Listener Needs
5. Adapting to Diverse Audiences
Situational Factors in Audience Adaptation
Identifying Shared Audience Values
Gathering Information for Audience Adaptation
Ongoing Strategies for Audience Adaptation
Speaking Ethically and Effectively
Sample Speech: "The Coalition Against Terrorism and the United Nations' Place in the Fight"
6. Enhancing Your Credibility and Selecting Your Topic
Creating Your Own Ethos
Finding a Suitable Topic
Narrowing the Topic
Ethical Considerations in Selecting a Topic
Sample Speech: "America Is Stronger When All of Us Take Care of All of Us"
7. Speaking with a Purpose
Crafting a Specific Purpose
Testing Specific Purposes
Devising a Thesis Statement
From Topic to Purpose to Thesis: Reviewing the Process
Agreement and Conflict in Speakers' and Listeners' Purposes
- III. Produce: Developing the Speech
8. Discovering Relevant Material Through Research
Searching for Material
The Creative Enterprise of Building a Speech
Investigating in the Library
Investigating on the Computer
Investigating Through Interviews
Quoting and Citing Sources
9. Supporting Your Ideas with Evidence
Making Ideas Believable and Understandable
Supporting Ideas with Evidence
Making Evidence Compelling
Sample Speech: "Smokeless Cigarettes"
10. Organizing and Outlining Your Speech
Determining When an Idea Is a Good One
How Patterns of Organization Connect Ideas
Transitions and Transitional Devices
Outlining Your Speech
Introducing Your Speech
Concluding Your Speech
Sample Speech: "Losing Weight, Looking Great?"
- IV. Present: Presenting the Speech
11. Delivering the Speech Effectively
Principles of Good Delivery
Alternative Styles of Delivery
Responding to Audience Questions
"Sounding Good" Versus "Being Sound"
12. Using Language Effectively
Using Style to Promote Understanding
Using Language Clearly
Making Language Interesting to Listeners
Using Language Appropriate to the Situation
Style and the Audience's Response
Sample Speech: "Corporate Welfare"
13. Using Presentational Aids in Public Speaking
Functions of Presentational Aids
Guidelines for Preparing and Using Presentational Aids
Presentational Aid Options
Presentational Aids in the Computer Age
Practicing with Presentational Aids
- V. Particulars: Types of Public Speaking
14. Speaking to Inform
Functions of Informative Speeches
Types of Informative Speeches
Organizing the Informative Speech
How Audiences Learn from Informative Speeches
Sample Speech: "The Mouse That Heard"
15. The Persuasive Process
What Is Persuasion?
Organizational Strategies in Persuasion
Appealing to Audience Emotions
Ethical Considerations in Emotional Appeals
Sample Speech: "The Case for Olestra"
16. Arguing Persuasively
Constructing an Argument
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Fallacies in Reasoning
Recognizing and Avoiding the Use of Fallacies
Rationalization and Reasoning
Sample Speech: "The Drug War: Violent, Corrupt, and Unsuccessful"
17. Speaking on Special Occasions
The Functions of Ceremonial Speeches
The Speech of Introduction
The Acceptance Speech
The Speech of Inspiration
The After-Dinner Speech
18. Communicating in the Workplace
Communicating in Groups
Sample Speech: "Employee Communication Plan for a Merger Announcement"
- Appendix A. Peer Evaluation and Feedback
- Appendix B. Speeches for Review and Analysis
Milk: Does It Do a Body Good?, Meredith Mira
Enabling the Nondisabled, Holly Carolyn Baxter
Confessions of a Recovering Bigot, Neal Malicky
Science as a Candle of Hope, David D. Ho, M.D.
The Music in Your Soul, Frances J. McClain
Dedication of the Roosevelt Memorial, Bill Clinton
Eulogy in Honor of Mark Bingham, John McCain
Tribute to the Flight Crews Lost on September 11, 2001, Linda Farrow