Purgeby Sofi Oksanen, Sian Thomas
Zara is a prostitute and a murderer, on the run from brutal captors, men who know about inflicting punishment. Aliide offers refuge, but not safety: she has her own secrets, traitorous crimes of passion and revenge committed long ago, during the country’s brutal Soviet
Deep in an Estonian forest, two women – one young, one old – are hiding.
Zara is a prostitute and a murderer, on the run from brutal captors, men who know about inflicting punishment. Aliide offers refuge, but not safety: she has her own secrets, traitorous crimes of passion and revenge committed long ago, during the country’s brutal Soviet years.
Both women have suffered lives of abuse. But this time their survival depends on revealing the one thing history has taught them to keep safely hidden: the truth.
A haunting, intimate and gripping story of suspicion, betrayal and retribution against a backdrop of Soviet oppression and European war.
"Finland’s hottest crime writer will soon be as well-known as Stieg Larsson." — Sunday Times
“A bravura work, deeply engaged with [Estonia’s] knotted history, sparing but potent in its use of irony, and containing an empathic treatment of all the miserable choices Estonians faced during their periods of oppression. . . . Oksanen has crafted a stirring and humane work of art.”Jacob Silverman, The New Republic
“A stunner . . . [Purge is] a compelling look at what we do to survive.”Karen R. Long, The Plain Dealer (Cleveland)
"Purge is that very rare thing, a sheer masterpiece . . . A marvel . . . I hope that everyone in the world who knows how to read, reads Purge."--Nancy Huston, author of Fault Lines
“Oksanen’s fluid, unadorned prose gives shape to unspeakable violence and illuminates the process of remembering.”The L Magazine (Top 10 Books of 2010)
“A captivating book about two women with dark secrets and an underlying connection. . . . Oksanen skillfully weaves histories together to form a rich, complex nove.”Shelf Awareness (Top 10 Books of 2010)
“[A] bold combination of history, politics, and suspense.”Sunday Times (UK)
“This is a novel of big issuesthe sex industry, the Soviet annexation of Estonia after World War II, the Chernobyl disaster, the tumultuous years immediately after the breakup of the USSR. It’s a lot to take on, but Oksanen manages to keep her focus tight . . . handling a complicated, tricky story with deftness and skill. Purge is a serious book, but not a dour one. It has a thriller’s air of suspense . . . but there is a tragic core to this story that will reward closer attention.”Bookslut
“[A] taut, well-crafted tale of Europe’s still living post-war pain.”Booklist
“Sofi Oksanen’s disturbing, riveting novel Purge . . . is a jolt. Set in 1992, only three years removed from the joyful optimism undammed by the demolition of the Berlin Wall, Purge burns through the mists to show how decades of debasement have twisted society in the former USSR into one characterized by crime and cruelty. Oksanen couches this larger theme within a tight, unconventional crime novel, one punctuated by dreadful silences, shameful revelations and repellent intimacies. By examining the toll of history on a close, personal level, Oksanen . . . makes the cost of mere survival sickeningly palpable. . . . Evoking both noir and fairy tales . . . Purge is an engrossing read.”NPR.org
“Power and loss are the themes of Sofi Oksanen's gripping novel, Purge. . . . This is not a book to read last thing at night. It reminds us of things that we would rather forget, that happened while the world looked away. It is the story of millions of people forced to make impossible choices, who had their lives and happiness stolen, and then survived only to find new bullies and cheats taking the place of the old ones. . . . Bears comparison with the excellent novels of Marina Lewycka, A Short History of Tractors in Ukrainian and the semi-sequel Two Caravans.”The Economist online (“Essential Reading”)
“A dark, harrowing, and at times difficult read that wrings every ounce of emotion from the reader.”The Bookseller
“This wonderfully subtle thriller . . . captures both the tragic consequences of one of Europe’s biggest conflicts and the universal horrors that war inflicts on women. With a tone somewhere between Ian McEwan’s Atonement and the best of the current crop of European crime novelists, this bitter gem promises great things from the talented Oksanen.”Kirkus Reviews
"Purge is a truly stunning novel, both heartbreaking and optimistic. Through the stories of two women, Sofi Oksanen shows us the history of a country that has been repeatedly violated by the Russians, by the West, by history itself, yet managed to stand strong."Lara Vapnyar, author of There Are Jews in my House
“A riveting tale . . . Oksanen adeptly handles dual story lines and multiple points of view as she keeps us turning pages to reach the dramatic conclusion. Highly recommended for fans of classic Russian writers like Tolstoy and Pasternak, as well as those who enjoy a contemporary tale of lust and betrayal."Library Journal
“Vivid . . . Life in Estonia under Soviet rule is dramatically portrayed in this award-winning Finnish novel. . . . Oksanen paints a vivid picture of the landscape and people of Estonia. She deftly interweaves universal themes of love, isolation, political instability and human trafficking, involving the reader from the beginning to the surprising ending. She does not shrink from depicting rape, torture or murder. But she includes tender moments as well, giving a human face to historical facts. . . . Her frank, short sentences bore to the ‘truth’ in a direct style that her characters are unable to use.”Carol Hussa Harvey, Winnipeg Free Press
“Purge is a breathtaking novel dense with emotion that snares the reader from the very first pages. . . . Moving and horrifying, it leaves you shuddering and gasping for breath.”Ilkka (Finland)
“Cruel, compelling, and nuanced, Purge vibrates with suspense: unspoken secrets and deeply shameful deeds . . . spread like a web over the book, forcing the reader to go on turning the pages. . . . Vivid, precise, and beautiful.”Hufvudstadsbladet (Finland)
“A stinging account of a chapter of Eastern European history that we are on the verge of forgettingor denying . . . Sofi Oksanen is an eminently skilled novelist, intricately unraveling her fascinating story bit by bit. She has a sense for the subtle inner drama of a distorted mind and love’s self-deceptive logic. Finland can be proud of its brilliant new star.”
Jyllands-Posten (6 out of 6 stars) (Denmark)
“The multidimensionality of Purge is startling. . . . [The novel] encompasses the grand themes . . . [of] shame, betrayal, guilt, atonement . . . with the complexity and seriousness worthy of them.”Turun Sanomat (Finland)
“Now and then I read books that are so good that I can’t quite understand how the author does it. . . . Purge is a fantastic novel, as well as a declaration of love to Estonia.”Dagbladet (Norway)
“The first chapter of Purge displays the most condensed, metaphorically effective language I have read in a long time. . . . Oksanen’s beautiful prose breaks the silence of the shame and guilt of oppression, and does so with a determination that provides popular storytelling with a legitimacy and weight that one doesn’t often experience.”Aftonbladet (Sweden)
“Oksanen is a tightrope walker. . . . Piercingly and mercilessly she reveals the human cost of brutal political regimes, and even manages to tie the abuses of the past to the heartbreaking story of young Zara and her destiny. . . . An overwhelming reading experience.”Dagsavisen (Norway)
“Oksanen is unusually skilled when it comes to building suspense, and this is a brutal novelit is brutally physical, it exposes the brutality in the greater and smaller games we play, and it is brutally suspenseful to read. . . . Extraordinary.”NRK (Norway)
“Vibrant . . . Absolutely convincing . . . A compelling document of the eternally humane and the eternally inhumane.”Dag og Tid (Norway)
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By Sofi Oksanen
Grove/Atlantic PressCopyright © 2010 Sofi Oksanen
All right reserved.
Chapter One1992 LÄÄNEMAA, ESTONIA
The Fly Always Wins
Aliide Truu stared at the fly, and the fly stared back. Its eyes bulged and Aliide felt sick to her stomach. A blowfly. Unusually large, loud, and eager to lay its eggs. It was lying in wait to get into the kitchen, rubbing its wings and feet against the curtain as if preparing to feast. It was after meat, nothing else but meat. The jam and all the other canned goods were safe-but that meat. The kitchen door was closed. The fly was waiting. Waiting for Aliide to tire of chasing it around the room, to give up, open the kitchen door. The flyswatter struck the curtain. The curtain fluttered, the lace flowers crumpled, and carnations flashed outside the window, but the fly got away and was strutting on the window frame, safely above Aliide's head. Self-control! That's what Aliide needed now, to keep her hand steady.
The fly had woken her up in the morning by walking across her forehead, as carefree as if she were a highway, contemptuously baiting her. She had pushed aside the covers and hurried to close the door to the kitchen, which the fly hadn't yet thought to slip through. Stupid fly. Stupid and loathsome.
Aliide's hand clenched the worn, smooth handle of the flyswatter, and she swung it again. Its cracked leather hit the glass, the glass shook, the curtain clips jangled, and the wool string that held up the curtains sagged behind the valance, but the fly escaped again, mocking her. In spite of the fact that Aliide had been trying for more than an an hour to do away with it, the fly had beaten her in every attack, and now it was flying next to the ceiling with a greasy buzz. A disgusting blowfly from the sewer drain. She'd get it yet. She would rest a bit, then do away with it and concentrate on listening to the radio and canning. The raspberries were waiting, and the tomatoes-juicy, ripe tomatoes. The harvest had been exceptionally good this year.
Aliide straightened the drapes. The rainy yard was sniveling gray; the limbs of the birch trees trembled wet, leaves flattened by the rain, blades of grass swaying, with drops of water dripping from their tips. And there was something underneath them. A mound of something. Aliide drew away, behind the shelter of the curtain. She peeked out again, pulled the lace curtain in front of her so that she couldn't be seen from the yard, and held her breath. Her gaze bypassed the fly specks on the glass and focused on the lawn in front of the birch tree that had been split by lightning.
The mound wasn't moving and there was nothing familiar about it except its size. Her neighbor Aino had once seen a light above the same birch tree when she was on her way to Aliide's house, and she hadn't dared come all the way there, instead returning home to call Aliide and ask if everything was all right, if there had been a UFO in Aliide's yard. Aliide hadn't noticed anything unusual, but Aino had been sure that the UFOs were in front of Aliide's house, and at Meelis's house, too. Meelis had talked about nothing but UFOs after that. The mound looked like it came from this world, however-it was darkened by rain, it fit into the terrain, it was the size of a person. Maybe some drunk from the village had passed out in her yard. But wouldn't she have heard if someone were making a racket under her window? Aliide's ears were still sharp. And she could smell old liquor fumes even through walls. A while ago a bunch of drunks from the next house over had driven out on a tractor with some stolen gasoline, and you couldn't help but notice the noise. They had driven through her ditch several times and almost taken her fence with them. There was nothing but UFOs, old men, and dim-witted hooligans around here anymore. Her neighbor Aino had come to spend the night at her house numerous times when those boys' goings-on got too crazy. Aino knew that Aliide wasn't afraid of them-she'd stand up to them if she had to.
Aliide put the flyswatter that her father had made on the table and crept to the kitchen door, took hold of the latch, but then remembered the fly. It was quiet now. It was waiting for Aliide to open the kitchen door. She went back to the window. The mound was still in the yard, in the same position as before. It looked like a person-she could make out the light hair against the grass. Was it even alive? Aliide's chest tightened; her heart started to thump in its sack. Should she go out to the yard? Or would that be stupid, rash? Was the mound a thief's trick? No, no, it couldn't be. She hadn't been lured to the window, no one had knocked at the front door. If it weren't for the fly, she wouldn't even have noticed it before it was gone. But still. The fly was quiet. She listened. The loud hum of the refrigerator blotted out the silence of the barn that seeped through from the other side of the food pantry. She couldn't hear the familiar buzz. Maybe the fly had stayed in the other room. Aliide lit the stove, filled the teakettle, and switched on the radio. They were talking about the presidential elections and in a moment would be the more important weather report. Aliide wanted to spend the day inside, but the mound, visible out of the corner of her eye through the kitchen window, disturbed her. It looked the same as it had from the bedroom window, just as much like a person, and it didn't seem to be going anywhere on its own. Aliide turned off the radio and went back to the window. It was quiet, the way it's quiet in late summer in a dying Estonian village-a neighbor's rooster crowed, that was all. The silence had been peculiar that year-expectant, yet at the same time like the aftermath of a storm. There was something similar in the posture of Aliide's grass, overgrown, sticking to the windowpane. It was wet and mute, placid.
She scratched at her gold tooth, poked at the gap between her teeth with her fingernail-there was something stuck there-and listened, but all she heard was the scrape of her nail against bone, and suddenly she felt it, a shiver up her back. She stopped digging between her teeth and focused on the mound. The specks on the window annoyed her. She wiped at them with a gauze rag, threw the rag in the dishpan, took her coat from the rack and put it on, remembered her handbag on the table and snapped it up, looked around for a good place to hide it, and shoved it in the cupboard with the dishes. On top of the cupboard was a bottle of Finnish deodorant. She hid that away, too, and even put the lid on the sugar bowl, out of which peeped Imperial Leather soap. Only then did she turn the key silently in the lock of the inner door and push it open. She stopped in the entryway, picked up the juniper pitchfork handle that served as a walking stick, but exchanged it for a machine-made city stick, put that down, too, and chose a scythe from among the tools in the entryway. She leaned it against the wall for a moment, smoothed her hair, adjusted a hairpin, tucked her hair neatly behind her ears, took hold of the scythe again, moved the curtain away from the front of the door, turned the latch, and stepped outside.
The mound was lying in the same spot under the birch tree. Aliide moved closer, keeping her eye on the mound but also keeping an eye out for any others. It was a girl. Muddy, ragged, and bedraggled, but a girl nevertheless. A completely unknown girl. A flesh-and-blood person, not some omen of the future, sent from heaven. Her red-lacquered fingernails were in shreds. Her eye makeup had run down her cheeks and her curls were half straightened; there were little blobs of hairspray in them, and a few silver willow leaves stuck to them. Her hair was bleached until it was coarse, and had greasy, dark roots. But under the dirt her skin seemed overripe, her cheek white, transparent. Tatters of skin were torn from her dry lower lip, and between them the lip swelled tomato red, unnaturally bright and bloody-looking, making the grime look like a coating, something to be wiped off like the cold, waxy surface of an apple. Purple had collected in the folds of her eyelids, and her black, translucent stockings had runs in them. They didn't bag at the knees-they were tight-knit, good stockings. Definitely Western. The knit shone in spite of the mud. One shoe had fallen off and lay on the ground. It was a bedroom slipper, worn at the heel, with a flannel lining rubbed to gray pills. The binding along the edge was decorated with dog-eared patent-leather rickrack and a pair of nickel rivets. Aliide had once had a pair just like them. The rickrack had been pink when it was new, and it looked sweet; the lining was soft and pink like the side of a new pig. It was a Soviet slipper. The dress? Western. The tricot was too good to come from over on the other side. You couldn't get them anywhere but in the West. The last time her daughter Talvi had come back from Finland she had had one like it, with a broad belt. Talvi had said that it was in style, and she certainly knew about fashion. Aino got a similar one from the church care package, although it was no use to her-but after all, it was free. The Finns had enough clothes that they even threw new ones away into the collection bin. The package had also contained a Windbreaker and some T-shirts. Soon it would be time to pick up another one. But this girl's dress was really too handsome to be from a care package. And she wasn't from around here.
There was a flashlight next to her head. And a muddy map.
Her mouth was open, and as she leaned closer, Aliide could see her teeth. They were too white. The gaps between her white teeth formed a line of gray spots.
Her eyes twitched under their lids.
Aliide poked the girl with the end of the scythe, but there was no movement. Yoo-hoos didn't get any flicker from the girl's eyelids, neither did pinching. Aliide fetched some rainwater from the foot washbasin and sprinkled her with it. The girl curled up in a fetal position and covered her head with her hands. Her mouth opened in a yell, but only a whisper came out:
"No. No water. No more."
Then her eyes blinked open and she sat bolt upright. Aliide moved away, just to be safe. The girl's mouth was still open. She stared in Aliide's direction, but her hysterical gaze didn't seem to register her. It didn't register anything. Aliide kept assuring her that everything was all right, in the soothing voice you use with restless animals. There was no comprehension in the girl's eyes, but there was something familiar about her gaping mouth. The girl herself wasn't familiar, but the way she behaved was, the way her expressions quivered under her waxlike skin, not reaching the surface, and the way her body was wary in spite of her vacant demeanor. She needed a doctor, that was clear. Aliide didn't want to attempt to take care of her herself-a stranger, in such questionable circumstances-so she suggested they call a doctor.
Her voice sounded certain, although her gaze was still unfocused. A pause followed the shriek, and a string of words ran together immediately after, saying that she hadn't done anything, that there was no need to call anyone on her account. The words jostled one another, beginnings of words were tangled up with endings, and the accent was Russian.
The girl was Russian. An Estonian-speaking Russian.
Aliide stepped farther back.
She ought to get a new dog. Or two.
The freshly sharpened blade of the scythe shone, although the rain-dampened light was gray.
Sweat rose on Aliide's upper lip.
The girl's eyes started to focus, first on the ground, on one leaf of plantain weed, then another, slowly moving farther away to the rocks at the edge of the flower bed, to the pump, and the basin under the pump. Then her gaze moved back to her own lap, to her hands, stopped there, then slid up to the butt end of Aliide's scythe, but didn't go any higher, instead returning to her hands, the scratch marks on the backs of her hands, her shredded fingernails. She seemed to be examining her own limbs, perhaps counting them, arm and wrist and hand, all the fingers in place, then going through the same thing with the other hand, then her slipperless toes, her foot, ankle, lower leg, knee, thigh. Her gaze didn't reach to her hips-it shifted suddenly to the other foot and slipper. She reached her hand toward the slipper, slowly picked it up, and put it on her foot. The slipper squooshed. She pulled her foot toward her with the slipper on it and slowly felt her ankle, not like a person who suspects that her ankle is sprained or broken, but like someone who can't remember what shape her ankle normally is, or like a blind person feeling an unknown thing. She finally managed to get up, but still didn't look Aliide in the face. When she got firmly to her feet, she touched her hair and brushed it toward her face, although it was wet and slimy-looking, pulling it in front of her like tattered curtains in an abandoned house where there was no life to be concealed.
Aliide tightened her grip on the scythe. Maybe the girl was crazy. Maybe she had escaped from somewhere. You never know. Maybe she was just confused, maybe something had happened that caused her to be like that. Or maybe it was that she was in fact a decoy for a Russian criminal gang.
The girl sat herself up on the bench under the birch tree. The wind washed the branches against her, but she didn't try to avoid them, even though flapping leaves slapped against her face. "Move away from those branches."
Surprise flickered across the girl's cheeks. Surprise mixed with something else-she looked like she was remembering something. That you can get out of the way of leaves that are lashing at you? Aliide squinted. Crazy.
The girl slumped away from the branches. Her fingers clung to the edge of the bench like she was trying to prevent herself from falling. There was a whetstone lying next to her hand. Hopefully she wasn't someone who would anger easily and start throwing rocks and whetstones. Maybe Aliide shouldn't make her nervous. She should be careful. "Now where exactly did you come from?"
The girl opened her mouth several times before any speech came out-groping sentences about Tallinn and a car. The words ran together like they had before, connecting to one another in the wrong places, linking up prematurely, and they started to tickle strangely in Aliide's ear. It wasn't the girl's speech or her Russian accent; it was something else-there was something strange about her Estonian. Although the girl, with her dirty young skin, belonged to today, her sentences were awkward; they came from a world of brittle paper, moldy old albums emptied of pictures. Aliide removed a hairpin from her head and shoved it into her ear canal, turned it, took it out, and put it back in her hair. The tickle remained. She had a flashing thought: The girl wasn't from anywhere around here-maybe not from Estonia at all. But what foreigner would know this kind of provincial language? The village priest was a Finn who spoke Estonian. He had studied the language when he came here to work, and he knew it well, wrote all his sermons and eulogies in Estonian, and no one even bothered to complain about the shortage of Estonian priests anymore. But this girl's Estonian had a different flavor, something older, yellow and moth-eaten. There was a strange smell of death in it.
From the slow sentences it became clear that the girl was on her way to Tallinn in a car with someone and had got into a fight with this someone, and the someone had hit her, and she had run away.
"Who were you with?" Aliide finally asked.
The girl's lips trembled a moment before she mumbled that she had been traveling with her husband.
Her husband? So she was married? Or was she a decoy for thieves? For a criminal decoy, she was rather incoherent. Or was that the idea, to arouse sympathy? That no one would close their door on a poor girl in the state she was in? Were the thieves after Aliide's belongings or something in the woods? They'd been taking everyone's wood and sending it to the West, and Aliide's land restitution case wasn't even close to completion, although there shouldn't have been any problem with it. Old Mihkel in the village had ended up in court when he shot some men who had come to cut trees on his land. He hadn't gotten in much trouble for it-there had been some surreptitious coughing and the court had taken the hint. Mihkel's process to get his land back had been only half completed when the Finnish logging machinery suddenly appeared and started to cut down his trees. The police hadn't meddled in the matter-after all, how could they protect one man's woods all night, especially if he didn't even officially own them? So the woods just disappeared, and in the end Mihkel shot a couple of the thieves. Anything was possible in this country right now-but nobody was going to cut trees on Mihkel's land without permission anymore.
Excerpted from Purge by Sofi Oksanen Copyright © 2010 by Sofi Oksanen. Excerpted by permission.
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
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Sofi Oksanen's novel is complex, difficult to read, totally absorbing, and beautifully written. It is a complex story about family, betrayal, Finnish/Estonian relations, the horrors of the Soviet occupation during WWII, and the continuing horror of the sex-slave trade. Initially I had difficulty figuring out the characters and plot line until I reread the first few chapters a second time. Then it made sense and I was caught in the power of the story. I look forward to reading more novels my this talented young Finnish/Estonian author.
The author of both Finnish and Estonian descent has given way to a meticulous, neat tale of the psyche alterations of a lady farmer whose family was torn by the Russian Communist occupation of Estonia. Excellent character development, holding hands with a clever plot. Unveils murky details and dark secrets to keep readers gripped. This book has gotten European awards and is very compelling, the story is assembled using different timelines in the lives of the main characters so as to provide a deep understanding of the events that took, take and will take place
This review for Sofi Oksanen's book Purge is probably the most difficult I've ever done. I liked the book very much, but I'm terribly afraid of revealing spoilers, as the novel is so complicated and layered. I can easily describe it as one of my personal favorites, up there with Per Petterson and Tim Winton. To begin, this book has nothing to do with eating disorders, and the only real complaint I have is that the cover art scarcely seems to apply to the complicated work within. After you've read it, you realize that the cover does in fact refer to details encountered, but I'm curious if the cover itself would dissuade readers from picking it up. A pretty measly complaint, to be followed by lavish praise! However, I'm also known to pick out wine based on how artistic the bottle labels look, rather than whether it is any good or not, so maybe that's just me! That said, there are two interlinking threads in this story. One character thinks she's escaping her small Russian village, allured by the glamorous Western world represented to her by elegant silk stockings worn by a visiting friend. Unfortunately, while Zara focuses on the material luxury represented by those stockings, she doesn't see the wave her friend gives her, "it looked more like she was scraping at the air with red fingernails. Her fingers were slightly curled, as if she were ready to scratch." Desirous of that 'better life', frustrated with her silent mother and her fragile grandmother, Zara thinks she can escape. Instead she's kidnapped and chained, set up by that friend, and headed for a brutal world in Germany: a place that makes Vladivostok look much more beautiful. In the meantime, Aliide leads a quiet life in Estonia, her days spent canning and cultivating her small garden and dairy animals, dwelling in the past. Since childhoood, her life was filled with pain, suffering, and loss. Her village had suffered from Fascist and Communist occupation, with many citizens (including her own sister and niece) being sent to Siberia. The village itself was a complex array of loyalties.those that hoped for American intervention to save them, others loyal to Russia, and still others harboring German sympathies. Not even the simplest of farmers could trust one another: too much was at stake. The atrocities from all sides were fresh in everyone's memories. The result was people who carried physical and mental scars, who were eaten up with regret and suspicion. Aliide was one of them, more damaged than most. Eventually Zara makes an escape, and her path crosses with Aliide. Their new relationship is mistrustful and edgy, as neither knows the true identity or agenda of the other. As this developed, I was sure that "this" relationship was the core of the novel. I was wrong, and the way the story proceeds is not only unpredictable but shocking and ugly. No one is as they appear, and trust is unachievable. Because it turns out that Aliide knows far more about Zara than either realized, and the threads that connect them go back further than their chance meeting. Here unfolds the deeper part of the novel, the most disturbing, as we see that Aliide is not the warm-hearted savior we expected her to be, and her damaged psyche is revealed. The underlying theme is that appearances can be deceptive. A person can appear good, or moral, or upstanding. But what they hide can be unimaginable, and they keep the deception up so well that they can convince themselves it doesn't
Powerful, stimulating, challeging
Great book for understanding what was going on in Estonia and other Baltic countries as they were sandwiched in between Germany and Russia during WWII. The back and forth time sequences were a bit tough to follow at first, but became clear as you read along. The few pages the details the sex slave issues made me a bit squeamish, but they were actually just a few pages of an interesting book. I felt sorry that the author did not write an epilogue acknowledging the tremendous accomplishment of uniting the people of Estonia. Latvia and Lithuania in Baltic Wall of 1992 which was a big step in gaining independence without violence. Perhaps Ms. Oksanen will write another book on just this topic.
Great book !!!!!