Pyramid Response to Intervention uses accessible language and compelling stories to show how response to intervention (RTI) is most effective when implemented by a professional learning community (PLC). The authors translate formal legal mandates into a clear picture of how to create three-tiered pyramid response to interventions (PRTI) to close gaps in student learning and resolve behavioral problems. Readers will learn: How RTI blurs the boundaries between regular and special education to create a unified system that serves all students, regardless of labels, The two accepted systems for implementing RTI and models of RTI at work in real schools, How the three big ideas of a PLC-a focus on learning, a collaborative culture, and a focus on results-make PLC and RTI natural partners, The characteristics of effective interventions, The central importance of building a strong core program, How to create effective supplements to the core program, When to apply intensive interventions, How behavioral interventions fit into a PRTI system, The keys to legal compliance and stakeholder support, The role of leadership in creating, monitoring, and sustaining a pyramid response to intervention. Over a dozen reproducible activities will guide teams in evaluating their current system, building strong interventions, and creating a successful and compliant pyramid response to intervention.
About the Authors xiii Foreword Richard DuFour xv Preface xvii Chapter 1 What Is Pyramid Response to Intervention? 1 Response to Intervention (RTI) 2 Pyramid of Interventions (POI) 4 A Vision of the Future 5 Pyramid Response to Intervention (PRTI) 5 The Right Work at the Right Time 9 Learning by Doing 10 Chapter 2 The Facts About RTI 13 What Is RTI? 14 The Early History of RTI 16 IDEA 1997 and IDEIA 2004 17 Why Now? 19 Growing Support for RTI 20 Rejection of the Discrepancy Model 22 A Systematic Response 23 Chapter 3 RTI Models 27 Two Systems of Implementation 28 The Protocol System 28 The Problem-Solving System 29 Implementing and Monitoring an RTI System 30 RTI in Pioneering Schools 33 TLC 34 ExCEL 36 CAST 37 The HAEA Model 38 The Washington Model 40 A New Way of Educating All Children 42 A Unified Approach 43 Chapter 4 Laying the Foundation: A Professional Learning Community 47 Reculturing Your School 48 A Focus on Learning 49 A Collaborative Culture 51 A Focus on Results 52 Assessing Your Current Reality 54 Identify Under-Represented Students 54 Find Resources 55 Next Steps 57 Chapter 5 Learning CPR 59 An Appropriate Response to Learning Emergencies 61 Urgent 61 Directive 62 Timely 63 Targeted 65 Administered by Trained Professionals 66 Systematic 66 Traditional Responses to Learning Emergencies 67 Individual Teacher Response 67 Remedial Classes 68 Summer School 69 Retention 69 Alternative and Special Education 69 Doing Nothing 70 Chapter 6 Tier 1: The Core Program 73 Strengthening the Core Program 74 Differentiate Instruction 74 Determine Power Standards 76 Analyze Assessment Data 77 Ensure Quality Teaching and Focused Staff Development 78 Maximize Instructional Time 79 UsePrograms With Fidelity 79 Tier 1 in Elementary Schools 79 Tier 1 in Middle Schools 81 Tier 1 in High Schools 82 Upgrading the Core Program 83 Set High Expectations 84 Focus on Instructional Priorities 84 Diagnose and Prescribe 85 Chapter 7 Tier 2: The Supplemental Level 87 Creating Effective Supplements to the Core Program 88 Support Intentional Nonlearners 89 Support Failed Learners 91 Targeting Interventions 93 Identify and Place Students 94 Tier 2 in Elementary Schools 96 Tier 2 in Secondary Schools 97 What If Tier 2 Interventions Are Not Working? 98 Chapter 8 Tier 3: The Intensive Level 99 Using the Right Intensive Interventions at the Right Time 100 The FCRR: A Source for Tier 3 Interventions 104 Tier 3 in Elementary Schools 105 Tier 3 in High Schools 106 Chapter 9 The Role of Behavioral Interventions 109 Behavior and Academic Achievement 111 Supporting Positive Student Behavior 115 Identify and Model Positive Behaviors 115 Gather Data on Adherence 116 Tier 1 Interventions 117 Tier 2 Interventions 118 Tier 3 Interventions 120 Behavioral Interventions in Secondary School 121 Tier 1 122 Tier 2 122 Tier 3 123 Chapter 10 Meeting Legal Requirements 125 Keys to Compliance 126 Develop a Systematic Progress-Monitoring Plan 128 Keep Careful Records 129 Utilize Research-Based Programs 130 Change Tiers When Appropriate 132 Refer for Formal Evaluation 133 Meet Periodically With All Stakeholders 134 Making the Commitment to Go From Good to Great 135 Chapter 11 Putting It All Together 139 Avoiding Pitfalls 140 Counterproductive Grading Practices 140 Failure to Communicate Program Goals and Procedures to Students and Parents 142 Lack of Program Evaluation 144 Leadership Matters 145 Success Stories 146 R. H. Dana Elementary School 146 Pioneer Middle School 152 Whittier Union High School District 163 Rising to the Challenge 167 Epilogue: A Moral Responsibility 169 Appendix Reproducibles 171 How Do Our School's Current Practices Align With the Essential Elements of RTI? 172 How Will Our School Respond to Key RTI Questions? 173 What Elements of RTI Are Present in the Pioneering Models? 174 Creating a PLC Foundation 175 Creating a Learning Mission 176 Identifying Essential Standards 177 Sample Essential Standards: Algebra I 178 Sample Essential Standards: U.S. History 179 Unpacking the Standards 180 Common Formative Assessments (CFAs) 181 Common Assessment Desired Outcomes 183 Who Are Our Under-Represented Students? 184 What Are Our Human and Fiscal Resources? 185 Evaluating Our Current Interventions 186 What Is Our Tier 1 Core Program? 188 What Are Our Tier 2 Supplemental Interventions? 189 What Are Our Tier 3 Intensive Interventions? 190 What Are Our Behavioral Interventions? 191 Functional Behavior Analysis Protocol 192 How Will We Coordinate, Document, and Communicate About Our PRTI? 194 PRTI Critical Steps to Success 195 PRTI Essential Standard Plan 197 Essential Standard Plan 199 Creating a PRTI 200 Sample Individualized Learning Plan (ILP) 203 Glossary 205 References and Resources 213