The Quantum Challenge: Modern Research On The Foundations Of Quantum Mechanics / Edition 2

The Quantum Challenge: Modern Research On The Foundations Of Quantum Mechanics / Edition 2

by George Greenstein, Arthur G. Zajonc
     
 

ISBN-10: 076372470X

ISBN-13: 9780763724702

Pub. Date: 07/28/2005

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

The Quantum Challenge, Second Edition, is an engaging and thorough treatment of the extraordinary phenomena of quantum mechanics and of the enormous challenge they present to our conception of the physical world. Traditionally, the thrill of grappling with such issues is reserved for practicing scientists, while physical science, mathematics, and engineering students

Overview

The Quantum Challenge, Second Edition, is an engaging and thorough treatment of the extraordinary phenomena of quantum mechanics and of the enormous challenge they present to our conception of the physical world. Traditionally, the thrill of grappling with such issues is reserved for practicing scientists, while physical science, mathematics, and engineering students are often isolated from these inspiring questions. This book was written to remove this isolation.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780763724702
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date:
07/28/2005
Edition description:
2E
Pages:
296
Product dimensions:
0.67(w) x 7.50(h) x 9.25(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexi
Prologuexiii
1Matter Waves1
1.1An Experiment1
1.2A Second Experiment5
1.3Locality7
1.4Beyond the Electron8
Neutrons8
Atoms9
Bose-Einstein Condensates9
The Experiment12
1.5Quantum Theory of Two-Slit Interference13
1.6Critique of the Quantum-Mechanical Account18
2Photons23
2.1Do Photons Exist?24
Detection and the Quantum of Light24
Photoelectric Effect24
Anticoincidences28
The Hanbury-Brown and Twiss Experiment30
Photons at Last34
Remarks36
2.2Wave-Particle Duality for Single Photons37
The Mystery of Wave-Particle Duality38
Delayed Choice39
Comments43
3The Uncertainty Principle45
3.1The Pfleegor-Mandel Experiment45
Two Lasers, One Photon45
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle47
Uncertainty in the Pfleegor-Mandel Experiment50
3.2Reflections on the Uncertainty Principle52
Quantum Uncertainty versus Classical Ignorance52
Interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle53
The Uncertainty Principle and Causality53
The Uncertainty Principle and Descriptions of Natural Phenomena55
3.3Some Consequences of the Uncertainty Principle56
Atoms57
Nuclei58
Trajectories58
3.4The Energy-Time Uncertainty Relation59
Average Properties of Systems59
Lifetimes and Line Widths61
Time and Frequency Standards62
More on Causality: The Uncertainty Principle and an Ambiguity in Time63
Origin of the Energy-Time Uncertainty Relation67
Comment71
3.5Squeezed Light and the Detection of Gravitational Radiation72
Gravitational Radiation72
Squeezed States of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator73
Squeezed States of Light79
3.6Quantum Non-Demolition Measurements83
Back Action and the Detection of Gravitational Radiation83
Seeing a Single Photon Without Destroying It86
4Complementarity91
4.1Bohr's Discovery of Complementarity92
Como, 192794
4.2Einstein's Attack on Complementarity95
The Solvay Meetings: Complementarity between Which-Path Information and Interference96
Complementarity in the Energy-Time Uncertainty Relation99
4.3The New Paradigm: Information102
Quantum Beats102
Theory of Quantum Beats: Complementarity105
Orthogonality and the Role of Information in Quantum Beats108
Partial Information110
4.4Is Complementarity Enforced by the Uncertainty Principle?113
An Experiment113
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect117
Momentum Kicks in Interference Experiments120
Quantum Momentum Transfer120
4.5Concluding Remarks121
5The EPR Paradox and Bell's Theorem123
5.1The EPR Argument125
The Argument127
Locality130
Reality and Hidden Variables130
5.2The BKS Theorem and Contextuality133
Sketch of the BKS Proof133
5.3Hidden-Variable Theories135
Elementary Example of a Hidden-Variable Theory137
5.4Bell's Theorem139
Proof of Bell's Theorem140
Mermin's "Local Reality Machine"142
Discussion146
6Testing Bell's Inequalities: Entangled States149
6.1Tests of Bell's Inequalities150
Early Work150
Two-Photon Entangled States151
Linear Polarization153
The Aspect Experiments157
Comments161
6.2Bohm's Nonlocal Hidden-Variable Theory162
6.3The Mystery of the EPR Correlations166
6.4Does Quantum Nonlocality Violate the Principle of Relativity?167
6.5Quantum Nonlocality: A New Source and a New Experiment169
6.6The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Theorem173
Quantum-Mechanical Analysis174
Local Realism Analysis176
Experimental Test177
Comments180
6.7Comments on Quantum Nonlocality183
7Schrodinger's Cat185
7.1What Is the Cat Paradox?186
7.2Superpositions and Mixtures: A More Technical Statement of the Cat Paradox187
7.3Further Discussion of the Difference Between Superpositions and Mixtures: Spin188
7.4Why Is Quantum Behavior Not Observed in the Large-Scale World?189
Interference190
Uncertainty Principle190
Quantum Tunneling190
7.5Decoherence193
7.6Watching Decoherence199
7.7Laboratory Realizations of Macroscopic Quantum Behavior202
Conditions for the Existence of Macroscopic Quantum Behavior203
Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling: SQUIDS205
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence207
A Microscopic Analog209
8Measurement215
8.1The Measurement Problem215
The Collapse of the Wave Function215
Is the Collapse of the Wave Function Described by the Schrodinger Equation?219
Quantum Theory of Measurement: The Infinite Regress222
Termination of the Infinite Regress: The Projection Postulate224
8.2The Active Nature of Measurement in Quantum Mechanics227
Mixtures and Superpositions227
What Is the State of the Photon a Decaying Atom Emits?229
The Quantum Zeno Effect231
8.3Attempts to Solve the Measurement Problem237
Small Detectors and Big Detectors: Decoherence237
Does Decoherence Solve the Measurement Problem?239
Decoherence Can Be Undone239
Coherence Can Be Moved Around: The Quantum Eraser240
Comments243
9Quantum Information and Computation245
9.1Bits and Qubits246
9.2Quantum Cryptography247
Quantum Key Distribution Via Single-Particle Superposition248
Quantum Key Distribution Via Entanglement251
9.3Quantum Teleportation252
Quantum Information Cannot Be Read253
Quantum Teleportation254
Experimental Realization of Quantum Teleportation257
Comments258
9.4Quantum Computation: The Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm259
An Analogy260
The Deutsch-Jozsa Problem262
Logical Operations on Quantum Registers262
The Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm264
Logical Operations and U[subscript f]267
A Toy Quantum Computer268
A Real Quantum Computer271
9.5Comments on Quantum Machines277
Epilogue279
AppendixA Bibliography of Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory281
Chapter 1: Matter Waves281
Chapter 2: Photons282
Chapter 3: The Uncertainty Principle282
Chapter 4: Complementarity283
Chapter 6: Testing Bell's Inequalities: Entangled States283
Chapter 8: Measurement284
References285
Index293

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