Queen's Slave Trader: Jack Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls

Overview

Throughout history, blame for the introduction of slavery to America has been squarely placed upon the male slave traders who ravaged African villages, the merchants who auctioned off humans as if they were cattle, and the male slave owners who ruthlessly beat both the spirits and the bodies of their helpless victims. There is, however, above all these men, another person who has seemingly been able to avoid the blame that is due her.

The origins of the English slave trade — the...

See more details below
Available through our Marketplace sellers.
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (23) from $3.59   
  • New (4) from $8.50   
  • Used (19) from $3.59   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$8.50
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(215)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

New
2004-11-23 Hardcover New Brand New, Gift condition. We Ship Every Day! Free Tracking Number Included! International Buyers Are Welcome! Satisfaction Guaranteed!

Ships from: Skokie, IL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$8.70
Seller since 2015

Feedback rating:

(0)

Condition: New
Brand New, Gift condition. We Ship Every Day! Free Tracking Number Included! International Buyers Are Welcome! Satisfaction Guaranteed!

Ships from: Glenview, IL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$50.00
Seller since 2015

Feedback rating:

(241)

Condition: New
Brand new.

Ships from: acton, MA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
$74.95
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(221)

Condition: New

Ships from: Chicago, IL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 1
Showing All
Close
Sort by
Sending request ...

Overview

Throughout history, blame for the introduction of slavery to America has been squarely placed upon the male slave traders who ravaged African villages, the merchants who auctioned off humans as if they were cattle, and the male slave owners who ruthlessly beat both the spirits and the bodies of their helpless victims. There is, however, above all these men, another person who has seemingly been able to avoid the blame that is due her.

The origins of the English slave trade — the result of which is often described as America's shame — can actually be traced back to a woman, England's Queen Elizabeth I.

In The Queen's Slave Trader, historian Nick Hazlewood examines one of the roots of slavery that until now has been overlooked. It was not just the money-hungry Dutch businessmen who traded lives for gold, forever changing the course of American and world history, but the Virgin Queen, praised for her love of music, art, and literature, who put hundreds of African men, women, and children onto American soil.

During the 1560s, on direct orders from Her Majesty, John Hawkyns set sail from England. His destination: West Africa. His mission: to capture humans. At the time, Elizabeth was encouraging a Renaissance in her kingdom. Yet, being the intelligent monarch that she was, the queen knew her country's economy could not finance the dreams she had for it. An early entrepreneur, she saw an open market before her and sent one of her most trusted naval commanders, Hawkyns, to ensure a steady stream of wealth to sustain all the beauty that was her passion.

Like his fellow Englishmen, Hawkyns believed the African people's dark skin stood for evil, filth, barbarity — the complete opposite of the English notion of beauty, a lily white complexion and a virtuous soul, as exemplified by the queen. To him it was simple. If the white English were civilized and pure, the dark Africans must be savage. It was a moral license for Hawkyns to capture Africans.

After landing on the African coast, he used a series of brutal raids, violent beatings, and sheer terror to load his ships. The reward for those who survived the attacks: seven weeks chained together in a space not meant for human beings, smallpox and measles, dehydration and malnourishment. Hawkyns realized the cruelty inflicted on these people, and he hoped they would survive. After all, a dead African was a dent in his profit margin.

John Hawkyns was the first English slave trader, and his actions and attitudes toward his cargo set the precedent for how those following him, over the next two hundred years, would act. To fully understand the mind-set of the men who made their living trafficking human souls, one needs to look at the man who began it all — and the woman behind him.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
This impressively researched and disturbing biography tells the story of John Hawkyns, an Elizabethan privateer who conducted profitable slave trading expeditions, capturing his victims on the west coast of Africa and selling them illegally in Spanish ports in the Americas. British journalist Hazlewood (Savage: The Life and Times of Jenny Button) traces Hawkyns's move from "roughneck" Plymouth to London, his formation of a trading syndicate and his successful and brutal slave trading voyages of 1562-1563, from which he returned to England with a show of riches. Having won the patronage of Elizabeth I, Hawkyns departed on an another eventful voyage. Here Hazlewood is able to draw on a wide array of archival resources, both Spanish and English, as he recounts Hawkyns's exploits in Sierra Leone and South America. Hazlewood furnishes yet more scintillating detail in his account of Hawkyns's next, fateful 1567 voyage, focusing on various members of the crew, many pressed into service as young boys. After savagely capturing yet more African slaves, Hawkyns suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of a Spanish squadron in Veracruz. Lacking drinking water and supplies for the journey home, he abandoned a number of his men in Mexico; their pathetic fates at the hands of the Spanish enemy are painstakingly traced. Brilliantly evocative of 16th-century Anglo-Spanish rivalry and the brutality of Elizabethan maritime life, Hazlewood's book is a tour de force that condemns rather than romanticizes its thuggish adventurer. 16 pages of b&w photos not seen by PW. Agent, Luigi Bonomi at Sheil Lands Assoc. (On sale Nov. 23) Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Library Journal
Freelance journalist Hazlewood (Savage: The Life and Times of Jemmy Button) provides an impressive, impeccably researched chronicle of Sir John Hawkyns (1532-95). Cousin to Sir Francis Drake, Hawkyns was the first Englishman to benefit from the early New World triangular slave trade, directly responsible for shipping between 1500 and 2000 slaves from Guinea to the Caribbean. In these profitable activities, he was supported by Elizabeth I, Hazlewood reveals. While Hawkyns oversaw three slave voyages, the queen deviously distracted the representatives of Spain, Portugal, and France; this relationship added the moniker of the "queen's personal slave trader" to Hawkyns's legacy. Fittingly, Hazlewood takes off the kid gloves with which history has up to now treated Hawkyns. Drawing on obscure, 450-year-old diaries, government documents, manuscripts, and archives, his scholarly work updates James Alexander Williamson's Hawkins of Plymouth and Harry Kelsey's Sir John Hawkins, which makes it an important addition to early New World history collections.-Dale Farris, Groves, TX Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
The swashbuckling, high-seas adventures of an English mariner who pioneered the enslavement of Africans, along the way enriching himself but earning history's enduring censure. Hazlewood (Savage: The Life and Times of Jemmy Button, 2001) crafts an engrossing, swift, and sanguinary narrative around Hawkyns, born circa 1532 into a wealthy Plymouth merchant family. He became a master sailor and a ferocious negotiator (cannon and sword were among his more persuasive tools), a man who sailed boldly into Spanish ports in the New World and forced the terrified denizens to trade (i.e., buy slaves) or suffer consequences that included burning homes, plundering local wealth, and killing temporizers. At the time Hawkyns's sail first loomed on history's horizon, Portugal and Spain enjoyed primacy in the slave trade between Africa and the Western Hemisphere, based on their arrangements with African leaders. Then the fearless Englishman arrived, using stealth and brutality to carve for his nation a profitable part of this market in humans. As Hazlewood points out, there was little objection anywhere to slavery on moral grounds. Queen Elizabeth, dancing delicately on history's high wire, offered private support (she had other disturbing dishes on her plate: Mary, Queen of Scots; the powerful Spanish), and Hawkyns found willing investors. The author describes in great detail his first two very profitable ventures and the disastrous third one, during which he barely escaped with his life when the Spanish attacked him in Mexico. Hazlewood rightly points out, as well, the religious implications of all of this. Hawkyns's Protestant men destroyed and desecrated Roman Catholic symbols and structures in the NewWorld, and the Inquisitors later dealt harshly with some of the English they captured. The author also makes excellent use of some astonishing details, as when he describes English sailors fishing in a South American river for an alligator-and using one of their dogs as bait. A gripping tale and a sterling analysis of England's first foray into the nastiest of human enterprises. (16 pp. b&w photos, not seen)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780066210896
  • Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
  • Publication date: 11/23/2004
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 6.12 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.21 (d)

Meet the Author

Nick Hazlewood has a degree in history and, in 1994, left his job with the trade union UNISON to travel throughout South and Central America. He is a freelance journalist and writer and lives in Madrid.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments XI
A Note on Language and Geography XIII
Introduction XV
The Burly Grizzled Elder 1
The Pilot Fish 47
Cat and Mouse 141
Disaster 177
Home 255
Epilogue 307
Notes 325
Bibliography and Sources 389
Index 401
Read More Show Less

First Chapter

The Queen's Slave Trader
John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls

Chapter One

John Hawkyns had tasted blood at a very early age. His killing of a barber in his hometown is recorded in the Calendar of Patent Rolls for July 1552:

Because the king learns by the record of Nicholas Slannyng, coroner within the borough of Plymouth, Devon, upon view of the body of John Whyte, late of Plymouth, "barbour," that John Hawkins killed him in self-defence:

Pardon to the
said John Hawkins
for the said death.

At the time of the royal pardon Hawkyns was barely twenty years old. No more is known of the events leading up to the tragedy, and nothing is known of how John Whyte was killed. It certainly involved violence. Whether Hawkyns's innocence is really established by the pardon is neither here nor there -- such pieces of paper could be purchased by rich and powerful families. What it does illustrate, however, is that even as a young man from a wealthy background, John Hawkyns was very much a product of the brutal time, place, and family that he was born into. From what is known of the Hawkyns family, the killing of Whyte could have resulted from the unpremeditated pub brawl of a young man, or from the serious factional fighting in a town that in its political rivalries and patronage, often presaged the boss politics of great modern cities such as Chicago.

John Hawkyns was born into one of the two or three wealthiest merchant families in the important seaport of Plymouth, a family that boasted a rich West Country pedigree and that would imbue him with a craving for luxury and intrigue, and quite possibly the lust for power that was to characterize all aspects of his life. There is uncertainty about his date of birth, but 1532 is the year etched onto a contemporary memorial tablet to him and is the most commonly accepted. His mother, Joan Trelawney, was a daughter ofWilliam Trelawney of Cornwall. His father, William, was the offspring of a powerful Tavistock merchant and the heiress of King Edward IV's sergeant-in-law, William Amadas of Launceston. As one seventeenth-century commentator noted, William Hawkyns was "a gentleman of worshipful extraction by both his parents and several descents."

John had a brother William, thirteen years his senior, who in years to come would be his business partner, and quite probably a sister whose existence is almost completely absent from the records, except for the fact that she had a son called Paul. They lived together in a smart town house in a narrow lane at the end of Kinterbury Street, in the southwest quarter of Plymouth's old town. The house, bought when John was five years old, was clear evidence of the wealth of the Hawkynses: from their small back garden they could look down at the indisputable evidence of their familial power, the wharves and warehouses of Plymouth's inner harbor, Sutton Pool, where they ruled the roost over the bustle and business of the docks.

The patriarch of this family, William Hawkyns, was an immense presence in the affairs of the town, and a profound in- fluence upon both of his sons. The elder Hawkyns moved in powerful circles. Political manipulation, maneuvering, and, no doubt, graft and patronage meant that he collected positions of power and influence. In 1523 he became collector of the subsidy for Devon, and the next year was made treasurer of Plymouth. He was elected mayor on two occasions, in 1532 and 1538, and member of Parliament in 1539 -- when he witnessed the final dissolution of the monasteries by the government of Henry VIII -- as well as in 1547 and 1553. In the year before he became town treasurer, William Hawkyns's personal income was a massive £150 a year. At not much more than thirty years of age, William Hawkyns was one of the five richest men in town.

In order to achieve high office William Hawkyns did not balk at using foul play. In 1527 he was ordered before the court of common pleas in Westminster to answer allegations that, along with Peter Grisling, James Horsewell, John Coram, John Grace, and Lucas Cocke, he did beat and wound one John Jurdon from Plymouth "so as to endanger his life." The charges resulted in little in the way of punishment. Soon after, Hawkyns became entwined in a bitter feud with one of his fellow bullyboys, Peter Grisling. In 1535 the struggle for power resulted in William Hawkyns being hauled to Westminster to appear before the secretary of state, Thomas Cromwell, who imposed on him a temporary ban from membership in the corporation of Plymouth. Nevertheless, the feuding and scheming continued until Grisling conceded defeat and moved off to nearby Saltash, from where as mayor he unsuccessfully attempted to gain control over the harbor dues for the whole of Plymouth Sound.

Shipping and mercantile activities were the cornerstones of William Hawkyns's life. As an energetic and successful businessman, he was a part of a thrusting, ambitious class that was pushing its way to the surface as England finally emerged from the dark ages of the Hundred Years War and the internecine conflict and regicide of the Wars of the Roses. This aspiring new middle class consisted of men who were to benefit from the centralization of government, the broken stranglehold of Roman Catholicism, the spread of Protestantism, and a growing sense of national unity. They were men increasingly able to exploit a sophisticated network of commercial trading routes established by the Hapsburgs, linking southern Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, and England. And William Hawkyns was among them, taking advantage of this lucrative system from a very early age, making a huge pile from exporting tin and cloth to the Continent while importing wine from Spain, Portugal, Bordeaux, and the Canary Islands, pepper and sugar from Portugal, salt from La Rochelle, and fish from Newfoundland ...

The Queen's Slave Trader
John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls
. Copyright © by Nick Hazlewood. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously
Sort by: Showing 1 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted October 13, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

Sort by: Showing 1 Customer Reviews

If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
Why is this product inappropriate?
Comments (optional)