Questions that Matter: An Invitation to Philosophy / Edition 6by Ed. Miller, Jon Jensen
Pub. Date: 03/10/2008
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
This classic text-reader introduces readers to the fundamental, timeless, and pressing questions of philosophy. The authors make the issues accessible for students with primary source readings incorporated into clearly written text material and an extensive pedagogical program that includes running summaries, high-interest boxes, biographies, epigrams, a philosophical dictionary. The new edition has been streamlined and revised to include a new chapter on Democracy, which expands the coverage of the ever-evolving realm of social and political philosophy.
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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION - THE NATURE OF PHILOSOPHY
1. What Is Philosophy?
The Word Itself
The Fields of Philosophy
A Rational, Critical Enterprise
A Working Definition
Philosophy, Religion, and Science
A Little Logic
What Is An Argument
Professor Miller’s Four Principles
Of Beards and Bread
Chapter 1 in Review
PART 1: THE QUESTION OF REALITY
2. The First Metaphysicians
The First Theory of Reality
Three Pre-Socratic Traditions
The Discovery of Form
Chapter 2 in ReviewReadings from:Aristotle, MetaphysicsCopleston, A History of PhilosophyGuthrie, A History of Greek PhilosophyHeidegger, An Introduction to Metaphysics
3. The Idea of Form
Plato and Socrates
The Two Worlds: Appearance and Reality
The Theory of Forms
Degrees of Reality and Knowledge
The Good, the Sun, and the Cave
Aristotle’s Criticism of Plato
Aristotle’s View of Form
After Plato and Aristotle
Chapter 3 in ReviewReadings from:Plato, Euthyphro, Timaeus, The Republic, PhaedoAristotle, Metaphysics, PoeticsQuine, "On What There Is"
4. Mind and Matter
Descartes: The Father of Modern Philosophy
“What Can I Know for Certain?”
The Intuition of Mind
The Deduction of God
The Deduction of Matter
The Mind-Body Problem
Mind: A Set of Dispositions or Functions
Chapter 4 in ReviewReadings from:Descartes, Discourse on Method, Meditations on First PhilosophySearle, Minds, Brains and ScienceRyle, The Concept of MindChurchland, Matter and Consciousness
What is Idealism?
Berkeley and Locke
Berkeley’s View: Esse est percipi
Five Proofs for Subjective Idealism
Hylas and Philonous
Solipsism or God?
Chapter 5 in ReviewReadings from:Berkeley, Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous
What is Materialism?
Man a Machine
The New Materialism
Are the Mind and Body Identical?
Beyond Freedom and Dignity: Skinner
Are All Things Dertermined?
Chapter 6 in Review Readings from:Lucretius, The Nature of ThingsHobbes, LeviathanLaplace, A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities La Mettrie, Man a MachineHanson, "The Dematerialization of Matter"Taylor, MetaphysicsChurchland, Matter and ConsciousnessDanto, Connections to the WorldSkinner, Beyond Freedom and Dignity
PART 2: THE QUESTION OF KNOWLEDGE
Varieties of Skepticism
Pyrrho: The Classic Skeptic
Is Absolute Skepticism a Coherent Position?
Rorty and Friends: Historicism and Pluralism
Chapter 7 in ReviewReadings from:Diogenes Laertius (on Pyrrho), Lives of Eminent PhilosophersSt. Augustine, Against the AcademiciansRichard Roty, Philosophy and the Mirror of NatureGrenz, “Star Trek and the Next Generation”Plantinga, "The Twin Pillars of Christian Scholarship"
8. The Way of Reason
Two Main Theories about the Basis of Knowledge
Reason as the Basis of Knowledge
The Rationalism of Plato
The Rationalism of Descartes
A Contemporary Version: Chomsky
Chapter 8 in Review:Readings from:Plato, PhaeodoDescartes, Discourse on Method, Rules for the Direction of the MindChomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, "Language and the Mind"
9. The Way of Experience
What is Empiricism?
Classical Empiricism: Aristotle and St. Thomas
Modern Empiricism: Locke
Radical Empiricism: Hume
Chapter 9 in ReviewReadings from: Aristotle, Posterior AnalyticsSt. Thomas Aquinas, Summa TheologiaLocke, An Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingHume, A Treatsie of Human Nature, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanging
10. The Problem of Certainty
Kant and Hume
Some Important Terminology
Is There Synthetic A Priori Knowledge?
The Limits of Reason
Chapter 10 in ReviewReadings from:Kant, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Critique of Pure Reason
PART 3: THE QUESTION OF GOD
11. God and the World
The Cosmological Argument
The Teleological Argument
The Problem of Causality
Chapter 11 in ReviewReadings from:St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, Summa Contra GentilesJastrow, God and the AstronomersPaley, Natural Theology; Tennant, Philosophical TheologyBlack Elk SpeaksHume, Dialogues Concerning Natural ReligionKant, Critique of Pure Reason
12. God and Reason
The Ontological Argument
Is Existence a Predicate?
The Moral Argument
Is There a Moral Law?
Is Religious Experience Evidence for God?
Chapter 12 in ReviewReadings from:St. Anselm, ProslogiumDescartes, Meditations on First PhilosophyKant, Critique of Pure ReasonMalcolm, Knowledge and CertaintyLewis, Mere ChristianityRashdall, The Theory of Good and EvilRussell and Copleston, "The Existence of God" Weil, Waiting for GodBroad, Religion, Philosophy, and Psychical researchJames, The Varieties of Religious ExperienceFreud, The Future of an Illusion
13. God and Evil
What Is the Problem?
Evil as a Privation of Goodness
The Free-will Defense
Evil as Therapy
Evil Is Irrational
Chapter 13 in ReviewReadings from:Mill, Three Essays on ReligionHume, Dialogues Concerning Natural ReligionSt. Augustine, The Enchiridion on Faith, Hope and Love, On Free Choice of the WillPlantinga, God, Freedom, and EvilMackie, "Evil and Omnipotence"Irenaeus, Against HeresiesHick, Evil and the God of LoveCamus, The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays, The Plague
PART 4: THE QUESTION OF MORALITY
14. Challenges to Morality
The Challenge of Relativism
The Challenge of Determinism
The Challenge of Psychological Egoism
The Challenge of Existentialism
Chapter 14 in ReviewReadings from:Skinner, beyond Freedom and DignityBenedict, "Anthropology and the Abnormal"James, "The Dilemma of Determinism"Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human UnderstandingD'Holbach, The System of NatureStace, Religion and the Modern MindFrankena, EthicsHume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of MoralsHobbes, On Human NatureSartre, "Existentialism"de Beauvoir, The Second SexJaggar, "Feminist Ethics"Marcel, The Philosophy of Existentialism
The Question of Consequences
What Is Utilitarianism?
Bentham’s Version: Quantity over Quality
Mill’s Version: Quality over Quantity
Chaper 15 in ReviewBentham, The Rationale of Reward, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and LegislationMill, UtilitarianismWilliams, A Critique of UtilitarianismMoore, Principia Ethica Regan, "The Radical Egalitarian Case for Animal Rights"
16. The Role of Duty
Morality as Unconditional
The Good Will
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
The Test of Moral Actions
Chapter 16 in ReviewReadings from:Beck, Preface to translation of Kant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of MoralsKant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of MoralsMartin Luther King, Jr., "The Ethical Demands of Integration"Regan, The Case for Animal RightsTaylor, Respect for Nature
Character and Action
Aristotle on Happiness and Virtue
Is There a Natural Law?
Chapter 17 in ReviewReadings from:Aristotle, Nicomachean EthicsHill, Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving the Natural EnvironmentSt. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae
The Liberal Perspective: Locke
Liberalism and Capitalism
A Radical Response: Marx
Chapter 18 in Review
Readings from:The Bill of RightsLocke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Second Treatise of GovernmentThe International Declaration of the Rights of ManDeclaration of IndependenceSmith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of NationsMarx, Early Writings
Government by the People
Rousseau's Social Contract
Plato's Philosopher Kings
Chapter 19 in Review
Readings from:Declaration of IndependenceRousseau, The Social Contract Hobbes, LeviathanHume, Of the Original Contractde TocquevilleDemocracy in AmericaPlato, RepublicAristotle, Politics
Rawls: Justice as Fairness
Nozick: Justice as Entitlement
MacIntyre: Justice as Virtue
Okin: Justice, Gender, and the Family
Chapter 20 in Review
Readings from:MacIntyre, After VirtueRawls, A Theory of JusticeMarty, "Rawls and the Harried Mother"Nozick, Anarchy, State, and UtopiaSheffler, "Natural Rights, Equality, and the Minimal State"Feinberg, Social PhilosophyOkin, Justice, Gender, and the Family
A (Short) Philosophical Dictionary
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