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Quick Access, Reference for Writers / Edition 5

Quick Access, Reference for Writers / Edition 5

by Lynn Q. Troyka, Doug Hesse

See All Formats & Editions

ISBN-10: 0131952269

ISBN-13: 9780131952263

Pub. Date: 02/08/2006

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Quick Find Road Map

If you sometimes feel a bit unsure as you write, try using the QUICK FIND ROADMAP to get you back on track to effective writing. The roadmap reflects some of the most common writing errors that frustrate writers. To find the information you need, choose the item that best describes the issue you are facing and then turn to the pages


Quick Find Road Map

If you sometimes feel a bit unsure as you write, try using the QUICK FIND ROADMAP to get you back on track to effective writing. The roadmap reflects some of the most common writing errors that frustrate writers. To find the information you need, choose the item that best describes the issue you are facing and then turn to the pages referenced.


Write complete sentences instead of fragments.

Join independent clauses correctly by avoiding comma splices and run-ons.

Match grammatical forms within sentences to avoid shifts and keep sentences clear.

Make sentences with introductory phrases and with modifiers clear.

Know when to use its or it's.


Match subjects and verbs in number and person.

Match pronouns to the word or words they refer to.

Use correct verb endings.

Choose verbs that correctly express time in tense and form.

Describe relationships with the correct prepositions for time and place.


Use commas after introductory elements.

Use commas in compound sentences.

Use commas to set off nonrestrictive elements.

Do not use commas to set off restrictive elements.

Use commas with a series of three or more elements that share the same grammatical form.

Use apostrophes correctly.


Choose the best words for your meaning.

Make your writing to the point and concise.

Product Details

Prentice Hall
Publication date:
MyCompLab Series
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
6.60(w) x 7.94(h) x 1.04(d)

Table of Contents


1 Thinking Like a Writer

1a Why writing is important

1b Thinking like a writer

1c Situation, purpose, and audience

1d Critical thinking

1e Steps in critical thinking

2 Reading Critically

2a Critical reading

2b Steps in critical reading

Determining literal meaning

Making inferences

Making evaluations

2c Close and active reading

2d Systematic reading




2e Connecting critical reading to writing

3 Distinguishing Between Summary and Synthesis

3a Summarizing

3b Synthesizing

Synthesizing multiple sources

Synthesizing one source

4 Viewing Images Critically

4a Viewing images with a critical eye

5 Writing and Technology
5a Computers and writers

Creating documents

Finding sources

Managing your work

Communicating with others

5b Computers and forms of writing


6 Getting Started

6a The writing process

6b The purposes for writing

Informing a reader

Persuading a reader

6c The writer’s "audience"

Writing for a peer-response group

Writing for an instructor

Writing for a supervisor

6d The writer’s tone

6e The writing topic

Selecting your own topic

Narrowing or broadening an assigned topic

6f The "writing situation"

6g Finding ideas

Keeping a journal

Free writing



Asking and answering questions


6h Thesis statements

6i Outlining

7 Drafting

7a Writing a first draft

7b Overcoming writer’s block

8 Revising, Editing, and Proofreading

8a Revising strategies

8b Using my thesis statement and essay title to revise

8c Editing strategies

8d Proofreading strategies

9 Composing Paragraphs

9a Understanding paragraphs

9b Introductory paragraphs

9c Topic sentences

Starting with a topic sentence

Ending with a topic sentence

Implying a topic sentence

9d Supporting details

9e Coherent paragraphs

Using transitional expressions

Using deliberate repetition and parallelism

9f Body paragraphs

Composing a narration

Composing a description

Describing a process

Composing an example or illustration

Composing a definition

Composing a comparison and contrast

Composing an analysis

Composing a classification

Composing an analogy

Explaining cause and effect

9g Concluding paragraphs

10 Writing to Inform

10a Informative essays

10b Student’s informative essay

11 Writing To Argue

11a Understanding argument

11b Choosing a topic and developing a claim

11c Supporting an argument

11d Types of appeals

11e Considering my audience

11f Structuring an argument

11g Logical fallacies

11h Revising argument essays

11i Student’s argument essay


12 An Overview of Writing Across the Curriculum

12a Writing across the curriculum

13 Writing About The Humanities

13a What the humanities are

13b Types of sources

13c Types of papers








13d Documentation styles

14 Writing about Literature

14a What literature is

14b Writing about literature

14c Writing strategies

14d Types of papers

Writing a personal response

Writing an interpretation

Writing a formal analysis

Writing a cultural analysis

14e Rules for writing about literature

Using correct verb tenses

Using your own ideas and using secondary sources

14f Documentation styles

14g Student’s literature essay

Working on the assignment

Learning about the poet, Yusef Komunyakaa

Student’s essay about literature

15 Writing in the Social Sciences

15a What the social sciences are

15b Types of sources

Surveys and questionnaires




15c Purposes and practices

15d Types of papers

Case studies

Research reports

Research papers (or reviews of the literature)

15e Documentation styles

16 Writing for the Natural Sciences

16a What the natural sciences are

16b Purposes and practices

16c Types of papers

Science reports

Science reviews

16d Documentation style

17 Writing Under Pressure

17a Practicing under strict time limits

17b Preparing for essay exams

18 Making Oral Presentations and Using Multimedia

18a What oral presentations are

18b Focusing on purpose

18c Adapting for my listening audience

18d Organizing a presentation

Introducing yourself and your topic

Following your road map

Wrapping up your presentation

18e Appropriate language and tone

18f Incorporating multimedia

Using traditional visual aids

Using electronic media

Planning for multimedia in your presentation

18g Presentation styles

Memorizing your presentation

Reading your presentation

Mapping your presentation

18h Effective voice

18i Nonverbal communication

18j Overcoming stage fright

18k Collaborative presentations


19 Writing for Work

19a Workplace writing purposes

19b Features of work-related correspondence

19c Work-related e-mail

19d Netiquette

19e Memos

19f Business letters

19g Other business documents

Formatting and writing a proposal

19h Resumes

19i Job application letters

20 Public Writing

20a What public writing is

20b Public reports

20c Public letters

20d Other public writing

20e Blogs

21 Designing Documents

21a About document design

21b Basic design principles

21c Designing with text

Highlighting text



21d Headings

21e Visuals

Charts, graphs, and tables


21f Page layout

Using white space

22 Writing for the Web

22a Web sites and Web pages

22b The Web writing process

22c Web site content

22d Web site structure

22e Web page design

22f Web writing software

22g Images in Web pages

22h Editing and testing usability

22i Displaying Web pages

Finding space on the Web

Uploading image or sound files

22j Maintaining Web sites


23 Starting a Research Project

23a What research writing is

23b Choosing a research topic

23c What a research question is

23d Planning a research project

23e What a research log is

24 Developing a Search Strategy

24a Search strategies

24b Sources

24c Field research

Observing and surveying

Interviewing an expert

24d Documentation styles

24e Working bibliographies

24f Annotated bibliographies

24g Content notes

25 Finding and Evaluating Library-Based Sources

25a Finding library-based resources

25b Using databases

Using keywords

Using guided searches

Using Boolean expressions

25c Finding books

25d Finding periodicals

Locating the articles themselves
25e Using reference works

General reference works

Specialized reference works

25f Finding sources outside the library

25g Finding government documents

25h Evaluating sources

26 Researching the Web Wisely

26a Reasons to use the Web “wisely”

26b Searching the Web

26c Using keywords

26d Using subject directories

26e Evaluating Web sources

26f Information from Web sources

27 Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

27a What plagiarism is

27b Avoiding plagiarism

27c Avoid plagiarism with Internet sources

27d What not to document

27e Integrating sources

27f Using quotations effectively

Making quotations fit smoothly with your sentences

Using brackets to add words

Using ellipsis to delete words

Integrating author names, source titles, and other information

27g Good paraphrases

27h Good summaries

27i Verbs for weaving source material

28 Drafting and Revising a Research Paper

28a Writing process and research papers

28b Drafting a research paper

28c Revising a research paper


29 MLA In-Text Citations

29a What MLA documentation style is

29b What MLA parenthetical documentation is

29c MLA guidelines for in-text citations

29d MLA guidelines for commentary or bibliographic notes

30 MLA Works Cited List

30a MLA guidelines for a Works Cited list

30b MLA guidelines for sources in a Works Cited list

31 A Student’s MLA-STYLE Research Paper

31a MLA format guidelines for research papers

General instructions–MLA

Order of parts–MLA

Name-and-page number lines for all pages–MLA

First page–MLA

Set-off quotations–MLA


Works Cited list–MLA

31b A student's MLA-style research paper




32 APA In-Text Citations

32a What APA documentation style is

32b What APA parenthetical in-text citations are

Formatting long quotations

Multiple citations in one paragraph

32c APA guidelines for in-text citations

32d APA guidelines for writing an abstract

32e APA guidelines for content notes

33 APA References List

33a APA guidelines for a References list

33b APA guidelines for sources in a References list

34 A Student’s APA-Style Paper

34a APA format guidelines for research papers

General instructions—APA

Order of parts—APA

Title-and-page number line for all pages—APA

Title page—APA


Set-off quotations—APA

References list—APA


34b A student’s APA-style research paper

35 CM-Style Documentation
35a What CM style documentation is

The full bibliographic note system in CM style

The abbreviated bibliographic note system, plus bibliography, in CM style

35b CM guidelines for bibliographic notes

CM-Style Directory

36 CSE-Style Documentation

36a What CSE style documentation is

36b CSE guidelines for sources in a list of references

CSE-Style Directory



37 Parts of Speech and Parts of Sentences

Parts of Speech

37a Nouns

37b Pronouns

37c Verbs

37d Verbals

37e Adjectives

37f Adverbs

37g Prepositions

37h Conjunctions

37i Interjections

Parts of Sentences

37j Subjects and predicates

37k Direct and indirect objects

37l Complements, modifiers, and appositives

Recognizing complements

Recognizing modifiers

Recognizing appositives

37m Phrases

37n Clauses

Recognizing independent clauses

Recognizing dependent clauses

37o Sentence types

38 Verbs

38a How verbs function

38b Forms of main verbs

Regular verbs

Irregular verbs

-s form of verbs

38c Auxiliary verbs

38d Using lie or lay

38e Verb tenses

Simple present tense

Tense sequence

38f Indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods

if, as if, as though, and unless clauses

that clauses

38g “Voice” in verbs

39 Subject—Verb Agreement

39a What subject—verb agreement is

39b Ignoring words between a subject and its verb

one of the

36c Verbs when and connect subjects

each and every

36d Verbs when or connects subjects

36e Verbs with indefinite pronouns

36f Verbs with who, which, and that

36g Verbs with one of the . . . who

36h Other complicated cases

Inverted word order

Expletive constructions

Subject complements

Collective nouns

“Amount” subjects

Singular subjects in plural form

Titles, terms, and plurals representing a single unit

40 Pronouns: Agreement, Reference, and Case

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

40a What pronoun-antecedent agreement is

40b Pronouns when and connects antecedents

40c Pronouns when or connects antecedents

40d Pronouns when antecedents are indefinite pronouns

40e Pronouns when antecedents are collective pronouns

Pronoun Reference

40f Avoiding unclear pronoun reference

40g Pronouns with it, that, this, and which

40h Using you for direct address

40i Using who, which, and that

Pronoun Case

40j Pronoun case

40k Personal pronouns

40l Selecting the correct case

40m Case when and connects pronouns

40n Matching case in appositives

40o Subjective case after linking verbs

40p Using who, whoever, whom, and whomever

40q Case after than and as

40r Case with infinitives and -ing words

40s Case for -self pronouns

41 Adjectives and Adverbs

41a Differences between adjectives and adverbs

41b Using adverbs and not adjectives as modifiers

41c Double negatives

41d Adjectives or adverbs after linking verbs

bad and badly

good and well

41e Comparative and superlative forms

Regular forms

Irregular forms

41f Nouns as modifiers


Message from Lynn Troyka and Doug Hesse to Multilingual Writers

42 Singulars and Plurals

42a Count and noncount nouns

42b Determiners with singular and plural nouns

42c Nouns used as adjectives

43 Articles

43a Singular count nouns

43b Count and noncount nouns

Plural count nouns

Noncount nouns

Plural and noncount nouns

43c Using the with proper nouns

44 Word Order

44a Standard and inverted word orders

44b Placing adjectives

44c Placing adverbs

45 Prepositions

45a Using In, at, and on with time and place

45b Phrasal verbs

45c Passive voice

45d Expressions

46 Gerunds and Infinitives

46a Gerund objects

After go

After be + complement + preposition

46b Infinitive objects

After be + some complements

Unmarked infinitive objects

46c Using stop, remember, or forget

46d Sense verbs

46e Choosing between -ing and -ed adjectives

47 Modal Auxiliary Verbs

47a How modals differ from be, do, and have

47b Expressing ability, necessity, advisability, or probability





46c Expressing preference, plan, or past habit


Plan or obligation

Past habit


48 Sentence Fragments

48a What a sentence fragment is

48b Recognizing fragments

48c Correcting fragments that start with a subordinating word

48d Correcting phrase fragments

48e Correcting fragments in a compound predicate

48f Intentional fragments

49 Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences

49a What comma splices and run-ons are

49b Correcting comma splices and run-ons

Using punctuation

Using a coordinating conjunction

Revising an independent clause into a dependent clause

50 Problems with Sentence Shifts

50a Consistent person and number

50b Consistent subject, voice, and mood

50c Consistent verb tense

50d Consistent direct and indirect discourse

50e Sentences with mixed parts

Avoiding mixed clauses

Avoiding mixed constructions

Avoiding faulty predication

50f Ellipticals and comparisons

51 Misplaced Modifiers

51a Misplaced modifiers

51b Squinting modifiers

51c Split infinitives

51d Modifiers that disrupt a sentence

51e Dangling modifiers

52 Conciseness

52a Writing concisely

52b Avoiding redundancies

52c Avoiding wordy sentence structures

Avoiding expletive constructions

Using the passive voice

52d Combining sentence elements

52e Verbs and conciseness

53 Coordination and Subordination

53a Coordination: Expressing equivalent ideas

53b Coordination: Avoiding problems

53c Subordination: Expressing nonequivalent ideas

53d Subordination: Avoiding problems

54 Sentence Style

54a Understanding parallelism

54b Avoiding faulty parallelism

54c Parallelism with conjunctions

54d Strengthening a message with parallelism

54e Understanding sentence variety

Revising strings of short sentences

Revising for a mix of sentence lengths

54f Emphatic sentence subjects

54g Adding modifiers

54h Inverting standard word order

55 Usage Glossary

56 Word Meanings and Word Impact

56a Words and meanings

56b Exact words

Denotation and connotation

Specific and concrete language

56c Increasing vocabulary

56d Suitable language

Appropriate language

Levels of formality

Edited American English

Slang, colloquialisms, and regionalisms

56e Figurative language

56f Clichés

56g The effect of tone in writing

Slanted language

Pretentious language



57 Using Inclusive Language

57a Gender in English

57b Gender-neutral language

58 Spelling

58a Plurals

58b Suffixes

58c The ie, ei rule

58d Homonyms and other frequently confused words

58e Other spelling errors


59 Commas

59a When to use commas

59b With introductory words

59c Before coordinating conjunctions

59d With a series

59e Between adjectives

59f With nonrestrictive and restrictive elements

Nonrestrictive and restrictive clauses

Nonrestrictive and restrictive phrases

Nonrestrictive and restrictive appositives

59g With quoted words

59h Other word groups to set off

59i In dates, names, addresses, letter format, and numbers

59j Preventing misreadings

59k Avoiding comma errors

60 Semicolons

60a Instead of periods

60b Instead of commas

61 Colons

61a Lists, appositives, or quotations

61b Between sentences

61c Conventional formats

62 Apostrophes

62a Possessive nouns

62b Possessive indefinite pronouns

62c Possessive pronouns: hers, his, its, ours, yours, and theirs

62d Verbs that end in -s

62e Contractions

62f Letters, numerals, symbols, and terms

63 Quotation Marks

63a Short direct quotations

Double quotation marks (“ ”)

Single quotation marks (‘ ’)

63b Long direct quotations

63c Spoken words

63d Titles

63e Terms, translations, and irony

63f When quotation marks are wrong

63g With other punctuation

64 Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points

64a Periods

64b Question marks

64c Exclamation points

65 Other Punctuation Marks

65a Dashes

65b Parentheses

To add information

With numbers or letters

With other punctuation

65c Brackets

65d Ellipsis points

In prose quotations

In quotations from poetry

65e Slashes

66 Hyphens

66a End of a line

66b Prefixes and suffixes

66c Compound words

66d Spelled-out numbers

67 Capitals

67a “First” words

67b Quotations

67c Nouns and adjectives

68 Italics (Underlining)

68a Italics versus quotation marks

68b For emphasis

69 Abbreviations

69a Times and amounts

69b People’s names

69c Jr., Sr., II, III, 2nd, and 3rd

69d Names of countries, organizations, and government agencies

69e Addresses

69f Using etc. and other Latin abbreviations

70 Numbers

70a Spelled-out numbers

70b Dates, addresses, times, and other numbers





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