"Race" Is a Four-Letter Word: The Genesis of the Concept / Edition 1

by C. Loring Brace
     
 

A tour de force work by a leading scholar, "Race" Is a Four-Letter Word explores the history of the concept of race in America, the reasons why the concept has no biological validity, and the ways in which it grew to become accepted as an idea that virtually everyone regards as self-evident. An ardent and eloquent opponent of typology, essentialism, and

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Overview

A tour de force work by a leading scholar, "Race" Is a Four-Letter Word explores the history of the concept of race in America, the reasons why the concept has no biological validity, and the ways in which it grew to become accepted as an idea that virtually everyone regards as self-evident. An ardent and eloquent opponent of typology, essentialism, and stereotyping, C. Loring Brace has based this engaging study on the "Problems of Race" course that he has taught at the University of Michigan for the past thirty-five years.
Opening with an explanation of why the concept of race is biologically indefensible, "Race" Is a Four-Letter Word shows how the major elements of human biological variation have unrelated distributions and cannot be understood if the existence of "races" is assumed as a starting point. The book then examines the course of events that created the concept of race, journeying through time from Herodotus through Marco Polo; to the Renaissance and the role of the New World; on up to the American Civil War, the curious results of the alliance switch in World War I, Arthur Jensen, The Bell Curve, J. Philippe Rushton, and the Pioneer Fund in the twenty-first century.
Ideal as a supplementary text in anthropology courses, "Race" Is a Four-Letter Word can also be used in history of science courses and sociology courses. It is captivating reading for professionals and anyone else who seeks enlightenment on the socially debatable issue of "race."

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195173512
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
02/17/2005
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
336
Product dimensions:
9.10(w) x 6.00(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
1. THE BIOLOGY OF HUMAN VARIATION
Background of a Belief
Adaptive Traits: Clines
2. THE PERCEPTION OF HUMAN DIFFERENCES IN THE PAST
What Shall We Call "Them?"
The Peasant Perspective
Antiquity
Renaissance
Enlightenment: The "Age of Reason"
Science and The Greatness of God
The Limits of Reason
Linnaeus and Classification
Buffon and Continuity
Camper and the Facial Angle
Assessing the Meaning of Human Differences
3. ONE ORIGIN OR MANY?
The Roots of "Polygenism"
Monogenism
4. ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Blumenbach and "Degeneration"
The Scottish Enlightenment Comes to America
Samuel Stanhope Smith: "Race" From the Perspective of the American Enlightenment
5. THE TRIUMPH OF FEELING OVER REASON
Romanticism
6. PHRENOLOGY
7. THE FOUNDING OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF ANTHROPOLOGY
The Postcolonial United States of America
Samuel George Morton and the American Origin of Biological Anthropology
8. PASSING THE TORCH
Louis Agassiz, Archetypical American
9. THE DEMISE OF MONOGENISM AND THE RISE OF POLYGENISM
John Bachman: The Last Monogenist
Josiah Clark Nott: The Voice of American Racialism
Scotland: Dr. Robert Knox
France: Comte de Gobineau
10. TOWARD A WAR OVER SLAVERY AND AFTERWARD
George R. Gliddon
"Race" and Politics
War and Its Aftermath
11. THE FRENCH CONNECTION
Paul Broca and the Professionalization of Biological Anthropology
12. THE LEGACY OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL IN AMERICA
Nathaniel Southgate Shaler (1841-1906)
The First World War
The French Connection and the Concept of "Race"
William Z. Ripley and the Magic Three
Madison Grant
Lothrop Stoddard
13. THE ETHOS OF EUGENICS
Eugenics
Eugenics Exported to America
Germany
"Race" and Eugenics Applied to the Shaping of America
14. HENRY FORD AND THE ETHOS OF THE HOLOCAUST
The Anti-Semitism of Henry Ford
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
15. THE OUTLOOK OF THE "BIGOT BRIGADE"
"Race" and "Intelligence"
Statistical Theology and the Worship of g
Sir Cyril Burt: "Scientific" Fraud
16. THE GALTONIAN LEGACY IN AMERICA
World War I
"Intelligence" and Immigration
Lewis Terman and Genetic Predestination
Walter Lippmann Versus the Termanites
17. "RACE" IN BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Ales Hrdlicka and the Smithsonian: Organizing the Profession
Academia and the Patterns of Thought in Biological Anthropology: Sir Arthur Keith
Keith's Influence on America: Earnest Albert Hooton
Carleton Coon on "Race"
Science and Society on "Race" After World War II
18. THE LEGACY OF THE PIONEER FUND
The Promotion of "Scientific" Racism
Jensenism
The Bell Curve
J. Philippe Rushton: Apostle of Apartheid
Richard Lynn
19. "OTHERISM"
Afterthoughts
Sources Cited
Index

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