Radiation And Health / Edition 1

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Overview

Radiation and the effects of radioactivity have been known for more than 100 years. International research spanning this period has yielded a great deal of information about radiation and its biological effects and this activity has resulted in the discovery of many applications in medicine and industry including cancer therapy, medical diagnostics, and quality control during manufacturing.

After Chernobyl, there has been a tendency to regard radiation as harmful, even in situations where the doses are equal to or below the natural level. Radiation and Health presents a balanced view of the nature of radiation and its existence in the environment, as well as discussing its effects on plants, animals and humans. It also provides a survey of knowledge to date, from the discovery and basic theory of radiation and radioactivity to more recent developments concerned with the nature of radiation and its effect on biological systems. Numerous examples, exercises, and diagrams are included to make this book accessible to non-specialists.

Radiation and Health provides information about the uses and consequences of ionizing radiation in medicine, research, and industry. It offers a basis for applying some basic calculations and comparing the results, and identifies risk factors to help establish rules and regulations that limit radiation doses, both to the individual and to society.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415271615
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 9/1/2002
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.56 (d)

Table of Contents

RADIATION IS DISCOVERED
Introduction
Radioactivity
X-Rays
Ionizing Radiation
WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY?
Radioactive Elements
The Nature of Radioation
The Radioactive Series
The Energy of the Radiation
Description of a radioactive source
Alpha Radiation
The Penetration of Radiation
RADIOACTIVE DECAY LAWS
Half-life
The Physical Half-life
The Laws of Radioactive Decay
Biological Half-life
Radio-ecological Half-life
ACTIVITY AND DOSE
Activity in Becquerel
Radiation Dose
Equivalent Dose
Effective Equivalent Dose
Other Dose Units
ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES
The Discovery
Fission
Activation analysis
THE MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION
Introduction
Detection Instruments
The Energy of the Radiation
Dose Measurements
Radiation Protection
NATURAL RADIATION
Introduction
Cosmic Radiation
Natural Gamma Radiation
Internal Radioactivity (sources inside the body)
Radon
Summary
RADIATION IN MEDICINE AND RESEARCH
Radiation sources
X-rays in Medicine
Therapy
Other Diagnostic Methods
Radiation Therapy
Research
Isotopes Used in Industry
Sterilizing Medical Equipment
Irradiation of Food Products
Control of Insects
Doses Due to the Medical Used of Radiation
NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND REACTOR ACCIDENTS
Nuclear Bomb Tests
Nuclear Tests on Novaja Zemlja
The Chernobyl Accident
Pollution Around Chernobyl
Chernobyl Conclusions
Other Reactor Accidents
RADIATION AND HEALTH. LARGE DOSES
Dose-Effect Curves
What is a Large Dose?
The Use of Large Doses
LD50 Dose
Acute Radiation Sickness
SMALL DOSES AND RISK ESTIMATES
The Dose-Effect Curve
How Can We Get the Needed Information?
Experimental Information on Radiation and Cancer
Radiation-induced Cancer in Animals
Epidemiological Studies
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Conclusions about the Dose-Effect Curve
Risk Analyses
RADIATION BIOLOGY - MECHANISMS
Radiation Biophysics
Radiation Chemistry
Radiation Damage to Proteins and DNA
DNA
Radiation Damage to Cells
Protection Against Radiation
Oxygen Effect and Sensitizing Compounds
Radiation and Chromosomal Aberrations
Repair Processes
Adaptive Response
Conclusion
Genetic Damage
Radiation During Pregnancy
RADIATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Use of Radiation in Society
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power and Radioactive Releases
Reprocessing
Treatment and Storage
Nuclear Power and Safety
Radioactivity in the Ocean
Radiation Doses to Fish
Plutonium and Chemical Compounds
Remedial Action
Closing Remarks
EXERCISES, EXAMPLES AND SCENARIOS
ADDITIONAL READING, REFERENCES, AND INDEX

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