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Overview
Foreword by Dr. Asad Madni, C. Eng., Fellow IEEE, Fellow IEE
Learn the fundamentals of RF and microwave electronics visually, using many thoroughly tested, practical examples
RF and microwave technology are essential throughout industry and to a world of new applicationsin wireless communications, in Direct Broadcast TV, in Global Positioning System (GPS), in healthcare, medical and many other sciences. Whether you're seeking to strengthen your skills or enter the field for the first time, Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics Illustrated is the fastest way to master every key measurement, electronic, and design principle you need to be effective. Dr. Matthew Radmanesh uses easy mathematics and a highly graphical approach with scores of examples to bring about a total comprehension of the subject. Along the way, he clearly introduces everything from wave propagation to impedance matching in transmission line circuits, microwave linear amplifiers to hardcore nonlinear active circuit design in Microwave Integrated Circuits (MICs). Coverage includes:
Dr. Radmanesh has drawn upon his many years of practical experience in the microwave industry and educational arena to introduce an exceptionally wide range of practical concepts and design methodology and techniques in the most comprehensible fashion. Applications include smallsignal, narrowband, low noise, broadband and multistage transistor amplifiers; large signal/high power amplifiers; microwave transistor oscillators, negativeresistance circuits, microwave mixers, rectifiers and detectors, switches, phase shifters and attenuators. The book is intended to provide a workable knowledge and intuitive understanding of RF and microwave electronic circuit design.
Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics Illustrated includes a comprehensive glossary, plus appendices covering key symbols, physical constants, mathematical identities/formulas, classical laws of electricity and magnetism, ComputerAidedDesign (CAD) examples and more.
About the Web Site
The accompanying web site has an "EBook" containing actual design examples and methodology from the text, in Microsoft Excel environment, where files can easily be manipulated with fresh data for a new design.
A textbook in radio frequency and microwave electronics, providing examples and a highly graphical approach that facilitate easy understanding of the subject. The CDROM contains an ebook with actual design examples and methodology from the text, where files can be manipulated. System requirements: Microsoft Excel, CDROM drive.
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Meet the Author
MATTHEW M. RADMANESH received his MSEE and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan. He has worked in RF and Microwave industry for Maury Microwave Corp., Boeing Aircraft Co., and Hughes Aircraft Co. He is currently a faculty member at the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at California State University, Northridge, CA.
Read an Excerpt
Education in the science of RF and microwave engineering consists of guiding the reader along a gradient of known data, with the highest attention to the basic concepts that form the foundation of this field of study. The basic concepts presented in this book are far more fundamental than the mother sciences of engineering (i.e., physics and mathematics) and cover the essential truth about our physical universe in which we live. These basic truths convey a much deeper understanding about the nature of the physical universe than has ever been discussed in any RF and microwave, or for that matter any scientific textbook.
These basic truths set up a background of discovered knowledge by mankind, against which a smaller sphere of information (i.e., RF and microwave engineering) can be examined. Many of the principles that appear in microwave books are easily describable and thus understood much better once the basic underlying concepts are grasped.
While studying sciences and engineering at the university, the author always looked for simplicity, a higher truth, and a deeper level of understanding in all of the rigorous mathematics and many of the physical laws that were presented. Upon further investigation, the underlying principles that form the backbone of all extant physical sciences have finally emerged and are presented as the fundamentals of physical sciences in Chapter 1 of this work.
A summary of philosophical formation of this work is presented in the form of a pyramid in Chapter 1. From this pyramid, we can see that workable knowledge is like a pyramid, where from a handful of common denominators efficiently expressed by a series of basic postulates, axioms, and natural laws, which form the foundation of a science, an almost innumerable number of devices, circuits, and systems can be thought up and developed. The plethora of the mass of devices, circuits, and systems generated is known as the application mass, which practically approaches infinity in sheer number. This is an important point to grasp, because the foundation portion never changes (a static) while the base area of the pyramid is an everchanging and evolving arena (a kinetic) where this evolution is in terms of new implementation techniques and technologies.
Following this brief introduction, the fundamental laws and basic principles of electrical engineering, which most advanced textbooks take for granted, are discussed. The reason for their presentation at this early stage, is that in dealing with the subject of RF and microwave engineering, it has been found that a lack of deeper understanding of these fundamentals leads to a shallow perspective and a lack of appreciation of electrical engineering basics, which will eventually lead to serious miscomprehension and misapplication of the subject.
This book is written with emphasis on fundamentals and for this reason all new technical terms are thoroughly defined in the body of the text as they are introduced. This novel approach is based upon the results obtained in recent investigations and research in the field of education, which has shown that the lack of (or the slightest uncertainty on) the definition of terms poses as one of the most formidable obstacles in the reader's mind in achieving full comprehension of the material. A series of uncomprehended or misunderstood technical terms will block one's road to total comprehension and mastery of the subject. This undesirable condition will eventually lead to a dislike and total abandonment of the subject.
The initial motivation was to bring the basics to the forefront and orient the reader in such a way that he or she can think with these fundamentals correctly. This eventually led to writing the first manuscript several years ago and then the final preparation of this book at present.
In preparing this book, the emphasis was shifted from rigorous and sophisticated mathematical solutions of Maxwell's equations and instead has been aptly placed on RF and microwave circuit analysis and design principles using simple concepts while emphasizing the basics all the way.
This book is intended to be used in a 2semester course in microwave electronics engineering for seniorlevel or graduate students and should serve as an excellent reference guide for the practicing RF and microwave engineer in the field as well.
The current work starts from very general postulates, considerations and laws and, chapter by chapter, narrows the focus to very specific concepts and applications, culminating in the design of various RF and microwave circuits. The book, divided into five parts and 21 chapters, develops and presents these chapters with the progressive development of concepts following the same pattern as presented in the pyramid of knowledge in Chapter 1, which is:
A list of symbols used in each chapter and a series of problems are included at the end of each chapter to help the reader gain a fuller understanding of the presented materials. The book ends with a glossary of technical terms and several important appendixes. These appendixes cover physical constants and other important data needed in the analysis or design process, with one appendix fully devoted to several design examples of practical active circuits using computeraided design techniques based on the "Libra/touchstone" ? software Ver. 6.1 from HPEEsof.
Table of Contents
I. THE HIGHEST FUNDAMENTALS.
1. Fundamental Concepts of Science and Engineering.
Knowledge and Science: Definitions. Structure of a Science. Considerations Built into a Science. Commonality and Interrelatedness of Considerations. The Role of Mathematics. Physical Sciences: Clarification and Definition. Summary and Conclusions.
2. Fundamental Concepts in Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
Energy. Matter. Additional Considerations Implicit in Physics. The Field of Electronics. Basic Electrical Quantities, definitions of. Principle of Conservation of Energy. Maxwell's Equations. System of Units.
3. Mathematical Foundation for Understanding Circuits.
Phasor Transform. Inverse Phasor Transform. Reasons for Using Phasors. LowFrequency Electrical Energy Concepts. Basic Circuit Elements. Series and Parallel Configurations. Concept of Impedance Revisited. LowFrequency Electrical Laws. Fundamental Circuit Theorems. Miller's Theorem. Power Calculations in Sinusoidal Steady State. The Decibel Unit (dB).
4. DC and LowFrequency Circuits Concepts.
Diodes. Transistors. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs). Field Effect Transistors (FETs). How to Do AC SmallSignal Analysis. Summary and Conclusions.
II. WAVE PROPAGATION IN NETWORKS.
5. Introduction to Radio Frequency and Microwave Concepts and Applications.
Reasons for Using RF/Microwaves. RF/Microwave Applications. Radio Frequency (RF) Waves. RF and Microwave (MW) Circuit Design. The Unchanging Fundamental versus the EverEvolving Structure. General ActiveCircuit Block Diagrams. Summary.
6. RF Electronics Concepts.
RF/Microwaves versus DC or Low AC Signals. EM Spectrum. Wavelength and Frequency. Introduction to Component Basics. Resonant Circuits. Analysis of a Simple Circuit in Phasor Domain. Impedance Transformers. RF Impedance Matching. ThreeElement Matching.
7. Fundamental Concepts in Wave Propagation.
Qualities of Energy. Definition of a Wave. Mathematical Form of Propagating Waves. Properties of Waves. Transmission Media. Microstrip Line.
8. Circuit Representations of TwoPort RF/Microwave Networks.
LowFrequency Parameters. HighFrequency Parameters. Formulation of the SParameters. Properties of SParameters. Shifting Reference Planes. Transmission Matrix. Generalized Scattering Parameters. Signal Flow Graphs. Summary.
III. PASSIVE CIRCUIT DESIGN.
9. The Smith Chart.
A Valuable Graphical Aid: The Smith Chart. Derivation of Smith Chart. Description of Two Types of Smith Charts. Smith Chart's Circular Scales. Smith Chart's Radial Scales. The Normalized ImpedanceAdmittance (ZY) Smith Chart.
10. Applications Of The Smith Chart.
Distributed Circuit Applications. Lumped Element Circuit Applications. Foster's Reactance Theorem.
11. Design of Matching Networks.
Definition of Impedance Matching. Selection of a Matching Network. The Goal of Impedance Matching. Design of Matching Circuits Using Lumped Elements. Matching Network Design Using Distributed Elements.
IV. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN ACTIVE NETWORKS.
12. Stability Considerations in Active Networks.
Stability Circles. Graphical Solution of Stability Criteria. Analytical Solution of Stability Criteria. Potentially Unstable Case.
13. Gain Considerations in Amplifiers.
Power Gain Concepts. A Special Case: Unilateral Transistor. The Mismatch Factor. Input and Output VSWR. Maximum Gain Design. Unilateral Case (Maximum Gain). Constant Gain Circles (Unilateral Case). Unilateral Figure of Merit. Bilateral Case. Summary.
14. Noise Considerations in Active Networks.
Importance of Noise. Noise Definition. Sources of Noise. Thermal Noise Analysis. Noise Model of a Noisy Resistor. Equivalent Noise Temperature. Definitions of Noise Figure. Noise Figure of Cascaded Networks. Constant Noise Figure Circles.
V. ACTIVE NETWORKS: LINEAR AND NONLINEAR DESIGN.
15. RF/Microwave Amplifiers I: SmallSignal Design.
Types of Amplifiers. SmallSignal Amplifiers. Design of Different Types of Amplifiers. Multistage SmallSignal Amplifier Design.
16. RF/Microwave Amplifiers II: LargeSignal Design.
HighPower Amplifiers. LargeSignal Amplifier Design. Microwave Power Combining/Dividing Techniques. Signal Distortion Due to Intermodulation Products. Multistage Amplifiers: LargeSignal Design.
17. RF/Microwave Oscillator Design.
Oscillator versus Amplifier Design. Oscillation Conditions. Design of Transistor Oscillators. GeneratorTuning Networks.
18. RF/Microwave Frequency Conversion I: Rectifier and Detector Design.
SmallSignal Analysis of a Diode. Diode Applications in Detector Circuits. Detector Losses. Effect of Matching Network on the Voltage Sensitivity. Detector Design.
19. RF/Microwave Frequency Conversion II: Mixer Design.
Mixer Types. Conversion Loss for SSB Mixers. SSB versus DSB Mixers: Conversion Loss and Noise Figure. OneDiode (or SingleEnded) Mixers. TwoDiode Mixers. Four Diode Mixers. EightDiode Mixers. Mixer Summary.
20. RF/Microwave Control Circuit Design.
PN Junction Devices. Switch Configurations. Phase Shifters. Digital Phase Shifters. Semiconductor Phase Shifters. PIN Diode Attenuators.
21. RF/Microwave Integrated Circuit Design.
Microwave Integrated Circuits. MIC Materials. Types of MICs. Hybrid versus Monolithic MICs. Chip Mathematics.
VI. APPENDICES.
Appendix A: List of Symbols & Abbreviations.
Appendix B: Physical Constants.
Appendix C: International System of Unite (SI).
Appendix D: Unit Prefixes.
Appendix E: Greek Alphabet.
Appendix F: Classical Laws of Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetics.
Appendix G: Materials Constants & Frequency Bands.
Appendix H: Conversion Among TwoPort Network Parameters.
Appendix I: Conversion Among the YParameters of a Transistor (Three Configurations: Ce, Cb, and Cc).
Appendix J: Useful Mathematical Formulas.
Appendix K: DC Bias Networks for an FET.
Appendix L: Computer Aided Design (CAD) Examples.
Appendix M: Derivation of the Constant Gain and Noise Figure Circles.
Appendix N: About the Software.
Glossary of Technical Terms.
Index.
About the Author.
About the Web Site.
Preface
Preface
Education in the science of RF and microwave engineering consists of guiding the reader along a gradient of known data, with the highest attention to the basic concepts that form the foundation of this field of study. The basic concepts presented in this book are far more fundamental than the mother sciences of engineering (i.e., physics and mathematics) and cover the essential truth about our physical universe in which we live. These basic truths convey a much deeper understanding about the nature of the physical universe than has ever been discussed in any RF and microwave, or for that matter any scientific textbook.
These basic truths set up a background of discovered knowledge by mankind, against which a smaller sphere of information (i.e., RF and microwave engineering) can be examined. Many of the principles that appear in microwave books are easily describable and thus understood much better once the basic underlying concepts are grasped.
While studying sciences and engineering at the university, the author always looked for simplicity, a higher truth, and a deeper level of understanding in all of the rigorous mathematics and many of the physical laws that were presented. Upon further investigation, the underlying principles that form the backbone of all extant physical sciences have finally emerged and are presented as the fundamentals of physical sciences in Chapter 1 of this work.
A summary of philosophical formation of this work is presented in the form of a pyramid in Chapter 1. From this pyramid, we can see that workable knowledge is like a pyramid, where from a handful of common denominators efficiently expressed by a series of basic postulates, axioms, and natural laws, which form the foundation of a science, an almost innumerable number of devices, circuits, and systems can be thought up and developed. The plethora of the mass of devices, circuits, and systems generated is known as the application mass, which practically approaches infinity in sheer number. This is an important point to grasp, because the foundation portion never changes (a static) while the base area of the pyramid is an everchanging and evolving arena (a kinetic) where this evolution is in terms of new implementation techniques and technologies.
Following this brief introduction, the fundamental laws and basic principles of electrical engineering, which most advanced textbooks take for granted, are discussed. The reason for their presentation at this early stage, is that in dealing with the subject of RF and microwave engineering, it has been found that a lack of deeper understanding of these fundamentals leads to a shallow perspective and a lack of appreciation of electrical engineering basics, which will eventually lead to serious miscomprehension and misapplication of the subject.
This book is written with emphasis on fundamentals and for this reason all new technical terms are thoroughly defined in the body of the text as they are introduced. This novel approach is based upon the results obtained in recent investigations and research in the field of education, which has shown that the lack of (or the slightest uncertainty on) the definition of terms poses as one of the most formidable obstacles in the reader's mind in achieving full comprehension of the material. A series of uncomprehended or misunderstood technical terms will block one's road to total comprehension and mastery of the subject. This undesirable condition will eventually lead to a dislike and total abandonment of the subject.
The initial motivation was to bring the basics to the forefront and orient the reader in such a way that he or she can think with these fundamentals correctly. This eventually led to writing the first manuscript several years ago and then the final preparation of this book at present.
In preparing this book, the emphasis was shifted from rigorous and sophisticated mathematical solutions of Maxwell's equations and instead has been aptly placed on RF and microwave circuit analysis and design principles using simple concepts while emphasizing the basics all the way.
This book is intended to be used in a 2semester course in microwave electronics engineering for seniorlevel or graduate students and should serve as an excellent reference guide for the practicing RF and microwave engineer in the field as well.
The current work starts from very general postulates, considerations and laws and, chapter by chapter, narrows the focus to very specific concepts and applications, culminating in the design of various RF and microwave circuits. The book, divided into five parts and 21 chapters, develops and presents these chapters with the progressive development of concepts following the same pattern as presented in the pyramid of knowledge in Chapter 1, which is:
A list of symbols used in each chapter and a series of problems are included at the end of each chapter to help the reader gain a fuller understanding of the presented materials. The book ends with a glossary of technical terms and several important appendixes. These appendixes cover physical constants and other important data needed in the analysis or design process, with one appendix fully devoted to several design examples of practical active circuits using computeraided design techniques based on the "Libra/touchstone" ? software Ver. 6.1 from HPEEsof.
Introduction
Preface
Education in the science of RF and microwave engineering consists of guiding the reader along a gradient of known data, with the highest attention to the basic concepts that form the foundation of this field of study. The basic concepts presented in this book are far more fundamental than the mother sciences of engineering (i.e., physics and mathematics) and cover the essential truth about our physical universe in which we live. These basic truths convey a much deeper understanding about the nature of the physical universe than has ever been discussed in any RF and microwave, or for that matter any scientific textbook.
These basic truths set up a background of discovered knowledge by mankind, against which a smaller sphere of information (i.e., RF and microwave engineering) can be examined. Many of the principles that appear in microwave books are easily describable and thus understood much better once the basic underlying concepts are grasped.
While studying sciences and engineering at the university, the author always looked for simplicity, a higher truth, and a deeper level of understanding in all of the rigorous mathematics and many of the physical laws that were presented. Upon further investigation, the underlying principles that form the backbone of all extant physical sciences have finally emerged and are presented as the fundamentals of physical sciences in Chapter 1 of this work.
A summary of philosophical formation of this work is presented in the form of a pyramid in Chapter 1. From this pyramid, we can see that workable knowledge is like a pyramid, where from a handful of common denominators efficiently expressed by a seriesof basic postulates, axioms, and natural laws, which form the foundation of a science, an almost innumerable number of devices, circuits, and systems can be thought up and developed. The plethora of the mass of devices, circuits, and systems generated is known as the application mass, which practically approaches infinity in sheer number. This is an important point to grasp, because the foundation portion never changes (a static) while the base area of the pyramid is an everchanging and evolving arena (a kinetic) where this evolution is in terms of new implementation techniques and technologies.
Following this brief introduction, the fundamental laws and basic principles of electrical engineering, which most advanced textbooks take for granted, are discussed. The reason for their presentation at this early stage, is that in dealing with the subject of RF and microwave engineering, it has been found that a lack of deeper understanding of these fundamentals leads to a shallow perspective and a lack of appreciation of electrical engineering basics, which will eventually lead to serious miscomprehension and misapplication of the subject.
This book is written with emphasis on fundamentals and for this reason all new technical terms are thoroughly defined in the body of the text as they are introduced. This novel approach is based upon the results obtained in recent investigations and research in the field of education, which has shown that the lack of (or the slightest uncertainty on) the definition of terms poses as one of the most formidable obstacles in the reader's mind in achieving full comprehension of the material. A series of uncomprehended or misunderstood technical terms will block one's road to total comprehension and mastery of the subject. This undesirable condition will eventually lead to a dislike and total abandonment of the subject.
The initial motivation was to bring the basics to the forefront and orient the reader in such a way that he or she can think with these fundamentals correctly. This eventually led to writing the first manuscript several years ago and then the final preparation of this book at present.
In preparing this book, the emphasis was shifted from rigorous and sophisticated mathematical solutions of Maxwell's equations and instead has been aptly placed on RF and microwave circuit analysis and design principles using simple concepts while emphasizing the basics all the way.
This book is intended to be used in a 2semester course in microwave electronics engineering for seniorlevel or graduate students and should serve as an excellent reference guide for the practicing RF and microwave engineer in the field as well.
The current work starts from very general postulates, considerations and laws and, chapter by chapter, narrows the focus to very specific concepts and applications, culminating in the design of various RF and microwave circuits. The book, divided into five parts and 21 chapters, develops and presents these chapters with the progressive development of concepts following the same pattern as presented in the pyramid of knowledge in Chapter 1, which is:
A list of symbols used in each chapter and a series of problems are included at the end of each chapter to help the reader gain a fuller understanding of the presented materials. The book ends with a glossary of technical terms and several important appendixes. These appendixes cover physical constants and other important data needed in the analysis or design process, with one appendix fully devoted to several design examples of practical active circuits using computeraided design techniques based on the "Libra/touchstone" ? software Ver. 6.1 from HPEEsof.