Radiowave Propagation: Physics and Applications / Edition 1

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Overview

Propagation-the process whereby a signal is conveyed between transmitter and receiver-has a profound influence on communication systems design. Radiowave Propagation provides an overview of the physical mechanisms that govern electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth's troposphere and ionosphere. Developed in conjunction with a graduate-level wave propagation course at The Ohio Stare University, this text offers a balance of physical and empirical models to provide basic physical insight as well as practical methods for system design.

Beginning with discussions of propagation media properties, plane waves, and antenna and system concepts, successive chapters consider the most important wave propagation mechanisms for frequencies ranging from LF up to the millimeter wave range, including:

Direct line-of-sight propagation through the atmosphere

Rain attenuation

The basic theory of reflection and reflection at material interfaces and in the Earth's atmosphere

Reflection, refraction, and diffraction analysis in microwave link design for a specified terrain profile

Empirical path loss models for point-to-point ground links

Statistical fading models

Standard techniques for prediction of ground wave propagation

Ionospheric propagation, with emphasis on the skywave mechanism at MF and HF and on ionospheric perturbations for Earth-space links at VHF and higher frequencies

A survey of other propagation mechanisms, including tropospheric scatter, meteor scatter, and propagation effects on GPS systems

Radiowave Propagation incorporates fundamental materials to help senior undergraduate and graduate engineering students review and strengthen electromagnetic physics skills as well as the most current empirical methods recommended by the International Telecommunication Union. This book can also serve as a valuable teaching and reference text for engineers working with wireless communication, radar, or remote sensing systems.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“It is highly recommended for any RF engineer who is concerned with the effects of the propagation channel on his or her system’s performance.” (International Union of Radio Science, 1 March 2012)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470542958
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/28/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 320
  • Sales rank: 773,031
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Curt A. Levis was director of The Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory from 1961 to 1969. He received the Eta Kappa Nu Distinguished Teaching Award in 1978, 1979, and 1980; he also received a Distinguished Teaching Award from The Ohio State University Alumni Association in 1980. Professor Levis is an IEEE Fellow.

Joel T. Johnson is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ElectroScience Laboratory at The Ohio State University. His research interests are in the areas of electromagnetics, propagation, and microwave remote sensing. He is an IEEE Fellow and a recipient of the ONR Young Investigator, PECASE, and NSF CAREER awards.

Fernando L. Teixeira is an associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ElectroScience Laboratory at The Ohio State University, as well as Associate Editor for IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. He is a recipient of the NSF CAREER Award and the triennial USNC-URSI Booker Fellowship.

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Table of Contents

Preface

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definition of Propagation 1

1.2 Propagation and Systems Design 2

1.3 Historical Perspective 3

1.4 The Influence of Signal Frequency and Environment 4

1.5 Propagation Mechanisms 6

1.6 Summary 12

1.7 Sources of Further Information 14

1.8 Overview of Text 15

2 Characterization of Propagation Media 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Maxwell's Equations, Boundary Conditions, and Continuity 17

2.3 Constitutive Relations 19

2.4 Dielectric Behavior of Materials: Material Polarization 20

2.5 Material Properties 21

2.5.1 Simple Media 22

2.6 Magnetic and Conductive Behavior of Materials 30

2.6.1 Equivalence of Ohmic and Polarization Losses 30

References 34

3 Plane Waves 36

3.1 Introduction 36

3.2 D'Alembert's Solution 37

3.3 Pure Traveling Waves 39

3.4 Information Transmission 41

3.5 Sinusoidal Time Dependence in an Ideal Medium 42

3.6 Plane Waves in Lossy and Dispersive Media 46

3.7 Phase and Group Velocity 49

3.8 Wave Polarization 52

References 55

4 Antenna and Noise Concepts 56

4.1 Introduction 56

4.2 Antenna Concepts 56

4.3 Basic Parameters of Antennas 57

4.3.1 Receiving Antennas 62

4.4 Noise Considerations 66

4.4.1 Internal Noise 66

4.4.2 External Noise 68

References 75

5 Direct Transmission 76

5.1 Introduction 76

5.2 Friis Transmission Formula 77

5.2.1 Including Losses in the Friis Formula 78

5.3 Atmospheric Gas Attenuation Effects 80

5.3.1 Total Attenuation on Horizontal or Vertical Atmospheric Paths 82

5.3.2 Total Attenuation on Slant Atmospheric Paths 83

5.3.3 Attenuation at Higher Frequencies and Further Information Sources 84

5.4 Rain Attenuation 85

5.4.1 Describing Rain 87

5.4.2 Computing Rain Specific Attenuation 89

5.4.3 A Simplified Form for Rain Specific Attenuation 90

5.4.4 Computing the Total Path Attenuation Through Rain 92

5.4.5 Attenuation Statistics 96

5.4.6 Frequency Scaling 97

5.4.7 Rain Margin Calculations: An Example 98

5.4.8 Site Diversity Improvements 99

5.5 Scintillations 102

Appendix 5.A Look Angles to Geostationary Satellites 103

References 105

6 Reflection and Refraction 106

6.1 Introduction 106

6.2 Reflection from a Planar Interface: Normal Incidence 106

6.3 Reflection from a Planar Interface: Oblique Incidence 108

6.3.1 Plane of Incidence 109

6.3.2 Perpendicular Polarized Fields in Regions 1 and 2 110

6.3.3 Phase Matching and Snell's Law 111

6.3.4 Perpendicular Reflection Coefficient 113

6.3.5 Parallel Polarized Fields in Regions 1 and 2 113

6.3.6 Parallel Reflection Coefficient 115

6.3.7 Summary of Reflection Problem 115

6.4 Total Reflection and Critical Angle 118

6.5 Refraction in a Stratified Medium 120

6.6 Refraction Over a Spherical Earth 121

6.7 Refraction in the Earth's Atmosphere 127

6.8 Ducting 129

6.9 Ray-Tracing Methods 132

References 134

7 Terrain Reflection and Diffraction 135

7.1 Introduction 135

7.2 Propagation Over a Plane Earth 136

7.2.1 Field Received Along Path R1: The Direct Ray 137

7.2.2 Field Received Along Path R2: The Reflected Ray 138

7.2.3 Total Field 138

7.2.4 Height-Gain Curves 140

7.3 Fresnel Zones 141

7.3.1 Propagation Over a Plane Earth Revisited in Terms of Fresnel Zones 144

7.4 Earth Curvature and Path Profile Construction 145

7.5 Microwave Link Design 147

7.5.1 Distance to the Radio Horizon 149

7.5.2 Height-Gain Curves in the Obstructed Region 151

7.5.3 Height-Gain Curves in the Reflection Region 154

7.6 Path Loss Analysis Examples 154

7.7 Numerical Methods for Path Loss Analysis 158

7.8 Conclusion 160

References 160

8 Empirical Path Loss and Fading Models 161

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Empirical Path Loss Models 162

8.2.1 Review of the Flat Earth Direct plus Reflected Model 163

8.2.2 Empirical Model Forms 164

8.2.3 Okumura-Hata Model 164

8.2.4 Cost-231/Hata Model 166

8.2.5 Lee Model 167

8.2.6 Site-General ITU Indoor Model 168

8.2.7 Other Models for Complex Terrain 168

8.2.8 An Example of Empirical Path Loss Model Usage 168

8.3 Signal Fading 170

8.3.1 A Brief Review of Probability Theory 172

8.3.2 Statistical Characterization of Slow Fading 174

8.3.3 Statistical Characterization of Narrowband Fast Fading 176

8.3.4 Example Fading Analyses 183

8.4 Narrowband Fading Mitigation Using Diversity Schemes 184

8.5 Wideband Channels 185

8.5.1 Coherence Bandwidth and Delay Spread 185

8.5.2 Coherence Time and Doppler Spread 186

8.6 Conclusion 187

References 187

9 Groundwave Propagation 189

9.1 Introduction 189

9.2 Planar Earth Groundwave Prediction 190

9.2.1 Elevated Antennas: Planar Earth Theory 194

9.3 Spherical Earth Groundwave Prediction 196

9.4 Methods for Approximate Calculations 199

9.5 A 1 MHz Sample Calculation 200

9.6 A 10 MHz Sample Calculation 203

9.7 ITU Information and Other Resources 204

9.8 Summary 205

Appendix 9.A Spherical Earth Groundwave Computations 211

References 213

10 Characteristics of the Ionosphere 214

10.1 Introduction 214

10.2 The Barometric Law 215

10.3 Chapman's Theory 218

10.3.1 Introduction 218

10.3.2 Mathematical Derivation 219

10.4 Structure of the Ionosphere 226

10.5 Variability of the Ionosphere 229

References 233

11 Ionospheric Propagation 235

11.1 Introduction 235

11.2 Dielectric Properties of an Ionized Medium 237

11.3 Propagation in a Magnetoionic Medium 240

11.3.1 Mathematical Derivation of the Appleton-Hartree Equation 241

11.3.2 Physical Interpretation 247

11.3.3 Ordinary and Extraordinary Waves 247

11.3.4 The QL and QT Approximations 248

11.4 Ionospheric Propagation Characteristics 249

11.5 Ionospheric Sounding 250

11.5.1 Ionograms 251

11.5.2 Examples of Actual Ionograms 254

11.6 The Secant Law 257

11.7 Transmission Curves 258

11.8 Breit and Tave's Theorem 260

11.9 Martyn's Theorem on Equivalent Virtual Heights 261

11.10 MUF. "Skip" Distance and Ionospheric Signal Dispersion 262

11.11 Earth Curvature Effects and Ray-Tracing Techniques 266

11.12 Ionospheric Propagation Prediction Tools 267

11.13 Ionospheric Absorption 268

11.14 Ionospheric Effects on Earth-Space Links 270

11.14.1 Faraday Rotation 271

11.14.2 Group Delay and Dispersion 273

11.14.3 Ionospheric Scintillations 275

11.14.4 Attenuation 277

11.14.5 Ionospheric Refraction 278

11.14.6 Monitoring TEC Distribution 278

References 280

12 Other Propagation Mechanisms and Applications 282

12.1 Introduction 282

12.2 Tropospheric Scatter 282

12.2.1 Introduction 282

12.2.2 Empirical Model for the Median Path Loss 285

12.2.3 Fading in Troposcatter Links 285

12.3 Meteor Scatter 286

12.4 Tropospheric Delay in Global Satellite Navigation Systems 288

12.5 Propagation Effects on Radar Systems 291

References 293

Index 295

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