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Rare-Earth Doped III-Nitrides for Optoelectronic and Spintronic Applications / Edition 1

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More About This Textbook

Overview

This book summarises recent progress in the science and technology of rare-earth doped nitrides, providing a snapshot of the field at a critical point in its development.

Improved theoretical understanding of the behaviour of f-electrons in solids, driven by accelerating computational capability, has coincided with an improved ability of crystal growers to incorporate rare earth elements reproducibly in wide bandgap semiconductor hosts that are favoured for optoelectronic and spintronic applications. The device possibilities of these advanced materials are promising but by no means well-developed. Following a review of the theoretical background, this book explores the preparation of materials, either through in-situ growth or ion implantation/annealing, the characterisation of these materials and their incorporation in existing and prospective devices.

Featuring contributions from leading researchers in Europe, the USA and Japan, the book will be a valuable resource for academics, advanced students and industrial scientists.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789048128761
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 9/30/2010
  • Series: Topics in Applied Physics Series , #124
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 355
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Theoretical Modelling of Rare Earth Dopants in GaN R. Jones B. Hourahine 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Theoretical Modelling 2

1.2.1 Quantum Mechanical Methods 3

1.2.2 4f Electrons 5

1.2.3 The RE Pseudopotential 6

1.2.4 Basis Functions 7

.2.5 Semi-Empirical Modelling 7

1.2.6 Semi-Empirical LDA+U 8

1.2.7 Clusters and Supercells 10

1.2.8 Kohn-Sham and Occupancy Levels 11

1.2.9 Formation Energies, Vibrational Modes, Energy Level 11

1.3 Er, Eu and Tm in GaN 13

1.3.1 Treatment of f-Electrons - Substitutional ErGa 15

1.4 Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy 16

1.5 Excitation and Emission m GaN:Eu 17

1.6 RE Defects in A1N 18

1.7 Conclusions 20

References 21

RE Implantation and Annealing of III-Nitrides Katharina Lorenz Eduardo Alves Florence Gloux Pierre Ruterana 25

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Implantation Damage in GaN 27

2.2.1 Implantation Geometry Dependence 27

2.2.2 Fluence Dependence 29

2.2.3 Implanatation Temperature Dependence 35

2.3 Annealing and Optical Activation of RE Ions 37

2.3.1 Optical Activation by High Temperature Annealing 38

2.3.2 Influence of Annealing Atmosphere 39

2.3.3 Annealing of A1N-Capped Samples 42

2.3.4 Annealing at Ultrahigh Pressure 46

2.4 RE Doping of A1N and A1N-Containing Ternary Alloys 48

2.5 Summary 52

References 52

3 Lattice Location of RE Impurities in III-Nitrides André Vantomme Bart De Vries Ulrich Wahl 55

3.1 Introduction 56

3.2 Lattice Sites in Wurtzite Crystals 57

3.3 Experimental Lattice Site Determination 59

3.3.1 Ion Beam Channelling 60

3.3.2 Emission Channelling 61

3.3.3 X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) 65

3.3.4 Hypertinc Interactions 66

3.4 Lattice Site in Wurtzite Crystals 66

3.4.1 Lattice Location of High-Fluence GaN:RE Implants by RBS/C 66

3.4.2 Lattice Location of Low-Fluence GaN:RE by EC 71

3.5 RE Lattice Site Dependence on Experimental Parameters 79

3.5.1 Dependence on the Fluence 79

3.5.2 Dependence on the Implantation Geometry 83

3.5.3 Dependence on the Implantation Temperature 86

3.5.4 Co-Implantation of RE and O or Other Impurity 86

3.6 The Effect of Sample Mosaicity on Determining the Lattice Sites: A1N vs. GaN 90

3.7 Conclusions 94

Acknowledgements 95

References 96

4 Electroluminescent Devices Using RE-Doped III-Nitrides Akihiro Wakahara 99

4.1 Introduction 99

4.2 General Treatment of EL devices 101

4.3 III-N:RE EL Devices 102

4.4 Light Emitting Diode with RE-doped GaN Active Layer 109

4.5 Summary 111

References 112

5 Er-Doped GaN and InxGa1-xN for Optical Communications R. Dahal J. Y. Lin H. X. Jiang J.M. Zavada 115

5.1 Introduction 116

5.2 Er Doping of GaN and InGaN by Ion Implantation 117

5.3 In Situ Er Doping of GaN by MBE and HVPE 129

5.4 MOCVD Growth of Er-Doped III-Nitrides 136

5.4.1 Er-Doped GaN 138

5.4.2 Er-Doped InGaN 142

5.5 Current-Injected 1.54 μm LEDs Based on GaN:Er 150

5.6 Er-Doped Nitride Amplifier (EDNA) Development 152

5.7 Summary 155

Acknowledgements 155

References 156

6 Rare-Earth-Doped GaN Quantum Dots B. Daudin 159

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Growth of GaN QDs 161

6.2.1 Undoped Dots 161

6.2.2 Rare-Earth-Doped Dots 163

6.3 Optical Properties 168

6.3.1 Eu-Doped GaN QDs Embedded in A1N 168

6.3.2 Eu-Doped InGaN QDs Embedded in GaN 171

6.3.3 Tm-Doped Dots 172

6.3.4 Tb-Doped GaN QDs 175

6.3.5 Photoluminescence Dynamics of RE-Doped GaN QDs 177

6.4 Electroluminescence of Rare Earth-Doped GaN QDs 183

6.5 Conclusion 185

Acknowlegements 186

References 186

7 Visible Luminescent RE-doped GaN, AlGaN and AlInN Robert Martin 189

7.1 Introduction to Luminescence of RR-Doped GaN 189

7.2 Preparation of Samples 192

7.3 Cathodoluminescence and X-Ray Microanalysis 192

7.4 Annealing Temperature Dependence of RE Luminescence 197

7.5 Site Multiplicity in GaN:Eu Revealed by Photoluminescence Spectroscopy 200

7.6 Luminescence of Eu Ions in AlGaN across the Entire Alloy Composition Range 205

7.7 Luminescence of RE Ions in AlInN Hosts 213

7.8 Conclusion 216

Acknowledgements 217

References 217

8 Combined Excitation Emission Spectroscopy (CEES) of RE Ions in Gallium Nitride Volkmar Dierolf 221

8.1 Introduction 221

8.1.1 RE Ions in GaN: General Considerations 222

8.1.2 CEES Experimental Setup 223

8.2 Application of CEES to Erbium in GaN 226

8.2.1 Introduction 226

8.2.2 Direct Excitation of 1.5 μm Emission 226

8.2.3 Two-Step Excitation of 980 nm and 820 nm Emission 231

8.2.4 Three-Step Excitation of 670 nm and 550 nm Emission 236

8.2.5 Direct Excitation of 670 nm and 550 nm Emission 237

8.2.6 Comparison of in situ Doped MBE and MOCVD Grown GaN:Er Samples 239

8.2.7 Above Bandgap Excitation of 1.5 μm Emission 241

8.2.8 Summary of CEES Spectroscopy of GaN:Er 242

8.3 Application of CEES to Neodymium in GaN 242

8.3.1 Introduction and Experimental Background 242

8.3.2 Assignment of Excitation and Emission Peaks 243

8.3.3 Electron-Phonon Coupling 246

8.3.4 Inhomogeneous Broadening: Spectral and Spatial Aspects 246

8.3.5 Summary of CEES of GaN:Nd 249

8.4 Application of CEES to Europium in GaN and AlGaN 250

8.4.1 Introduction 250

8.4.2 Energetic Fingerprints of Different Sites 251

8.4.3 Electron Phonon Coupling 255

8.4.4 Effect of Growth Conditions 257

8.4.5 Excitation under Non-Resonant Conditions 260

8.4.6 Summary 265

8.5 Conclusion 266

Acknowledgements 266

References 267

9 Excitation Mechanisms of RE Ions in Semiconductors Alain Braud 269

9.1 Introduction 270

9.2 Excitation Mechanisms 271

9.2.1 Excitation Paths Involving Electron-Hole Pairs 271

9.2.2 Excitation Paths Involving Change of RE Ion Charge 274

9.2.3 Excitation Paths Involving Donor-Acceptor Pairs 278

9.2.4 Energy Transfer Processes 280

9.3 RE Excitation Processes in GaN 282

9.3.1 RE Excitation Schemes 282

9.3.2 Isolated RE Ions Versus RE Ions Coupled to Carrier Traps 283

9.3.3 Effective Excitation Cross-Section 288

9.3.4 RE-Related Carrier Trap 294

9.4 Conclusion 303

Acknowledgements 305

References 305

10 High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in the Super-Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor GaN:Gd O. Brandt S. Dhar L. Pérez V. Sapega 309

10.1 Introduction 310

10.2 Experimental 311

10.2.1 Sample Growth and Structural Characterization 311

10.2.2 Assessment of Electrical and Magnetic Properties 312

10.2.3 Assessment of Optical Properties 313

10.3 Basic Structural and Magnetic Properties 314

10.3.1 Gd Incorporation in GaN 314

10.3.2 Magnetic Characteristics 318

10.4 Phenomenological Model 323

10.5 Optical Properties 326

10.6 Magnetic Phases and Anisotropy 331

10.6.1 Magnetic Phases 332

10.6.2 Magnetic Anisotropy 334

10.6.3 Discussion 336

10.7 Recent Studies in the Literature 338

10.8 Conclusions 339

Acknowledgements 340

References 340

11 Summary and Prospects for Future Work 343

References 345

12 Index 347

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