Reactive Polymer Blending

Reactive Polymer Blending

by Warren Baker

ISBN-10: 1569903123

ISBN-13: 9781569903124

Pub. Date: 06/01/2001

Publisher: Hanser-Gardner Publications

Product Details

Hanser-Gardner Publications
Publication date:
Progress in Polymer Processing Series
Product dimensions:
6.50(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

1.2Important Blending Principles3
1.3A Historical Perspective on Reactive Blending7
1.4The Evolution of Commercial Practice9
1.4.1Patents and Products9
2Types of Reactive Polymers Used in Blending13
2.2Compatibility in Polymer Blends15
2.2.1Basic Concepts15
2.2.2Strategies for Blend Compatibilization15 of Block and Graft Copolymers15 of Non-Bonding Specific Interactions16 of Low Molecular Weight Coupling Agents16 Compatibilization17
2.3Preparation of Reactive Polymers17
2.4Types of Compatibilizing Reactions19
2.5Types of Reactive Polymers and Their Applications19
2.5.1Reactive Polymers Having MAn Functionality20
2.5.2Reactive Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Functionality22
2.5.3Reactive Polymers Capable of Interchange Reactions24
2.5.4Reactive Polymers Containing Primary and Secondary Amines26
2.5.5Reactive Polymers Containing Hydroxyl Groups26
2.5.6Reactive Polymers Containing Heterocyclic Groups29
2.5.7Reactive Polymers Capable of Ionic Interactions31
2.5.8Miscellaneous Reactive Polymers31
2.6Concluding Remarks32
List of Abbreviations34
3Reactive Blending with Immiscible Functional Polymers: Molecular, Morphological, and Interfacial Aspects43
3.2Reactive Versus Physical Blending with Respect to Compatibilization44
3.2.1Similarities and Differences44
3.2.2Industrial Feasibility and Current Trends46
3.3In Situ Interfacial Chemical Reactions of Functional Polymers47
3.3.1Types of In Situ Chemical Reactions Involved47
3.3.2Kinetics of Interfacial Reactions and Molecular Characterization49
3.4Effects of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology53
3.4.1Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology Generation53 Aspects of Phase Morphology Development53 Morphology Development in Non-Reactive Blending54 Morphology Development in Reactive Blending56
3.4.2Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Stabilisation in the Melt63
3.4.3Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Co-Continuity64
3.4.4Interfacial Stability of the In Situ Formed Copolymer67
3.5Effect of Reactive Blending on Crystallization of Blends Containing Crystallizable Components67
3.6Blend Interface Characterization69
3.6.1General Aspects Concerning Polymer/Polymer Interfaces69
3.6.2Determination of the Interfacial Tension in Reactively Compatibilized Blends72 Rheology Using the Palierne Model72 Breaking Thread Method73
3.6.3Determination of the Interfacial Thickness in Reactive Blends74 Reflectometry75 Electron Microscopy77
3.7General Conclusions78
4Key Role of Structural Features of Compatibilizing Polymer Additives in Reactive Blending82
4.2General Principles85
4.3Molecular Architecture of the Compatibilizer85
4.3.1Alternative 186
4.3.2Alternative 286
4.3.3Alternative 387
4.4Phase Morphology Development87
4.5Effect of the Interfacial Reaction on the Phase Morphology Development89
4.6Effect of the Molecular Characteristic Features of the Reactive Polymers90
4.6.1Kinetics of the Interfacial Reaction90
4.6.2Molecular Weight of the Compatibilizer Precursors95
4.6.3Reactive Group Content of the Reacting Polymers98
4.6.4Distribution of the Reactive Groups Along the Chains104
4.7Effect of Processing Conditions105
4.7.1Melting Order of the Constitutive Components of Reactive Polyblends105
4.7.2Effect of Shearing106
4.7.3Initial State of Dispersion107
4.7.4Mixing Temperature107
5Morphological and Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending113
5.1Morphology Development During Blending of Immiscible Polymers114
5.1.1The Melting Regime116
5.1.2The Melt Flow Regime120
5.1.3Final Morphology of Reactive Blends127
5.1.4Miscible Reactive Polymer Blends132
5.2Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending132
5.2.1Rheological Changes During Blending132
5.2.2Rheology of Reactively Compatibilized Polymer Blends134
5.4Future Challenges139
6Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders142
6.2Reactive Blending in Mixers144
6.2.1Copolymer Formation at Polymer/Polymer Interfaces145 Considerations145 Architecture Considerations145 Considerations145 Assessment of Reaction Kinetics at Polymer-Polymer Interfaces151
6.2.2Batch Mixers for Reactive Blending154 Compatibilization vs. Physical Compatibilization154 Development155
6.2.3Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders158 vs. Reactive PP/PA6 Blends163 of Screw Configuration164 of Feed Rate and Screw Speed165 of the Maleic Anhydride Modified PP Content166 Between Morphology and Mechanical Properties167
6.4One-Step and Two-Step Reactive Blending Processes170
6.4.1PP/PA6 Blends171
6.4.2PP/PBT Blends174
6.5Concluding Remarks177
7Extrusion Equipment for Reactive Blending180
7.1Extruders Used for Reactive Blending181
7.2Mixing Mechanism185
7.2.1Distributive and Dispersive Mixing186 Mixing186 Mixing187 Ratio and Surface Tension187 Flow188
7.2.2Dissipative Melting188
7.3Residence Time and Residence Time Distribution193
7.5Microstructure Development and Monitoring in Reactive Blending197
7.6Hybridized Polymer Processing Systems201
8Rubber Toughening of Polyamides by Reactive Blending207
8.2Evolution of Polyamide Impact Modification Technology211
8.3Comparison of Reactivity vs. Toughening Efficiency of Various Functional Rubbers216
8.4Toughening Efficiency of Maleated EP Rubbers224
8.4.1Effect of Maleic Anhydride Content224
8.4.2Effect of Polyamide End Groups226
8.5Toughening Efficiency of Maleated Styrene-Ethylene/Butylene-Styrene (M-SEBS) Block Copolymer Rubbers231
8.6Effect of Mixtures of Reactive and Non-Reactive (Maleated and Unmaleated) Rubbers236
8.7Reactive Toughening of PA6 with Acyllactam-Grafted EP Rubbers237
8.8Toughening of Polyamides with Maleated LDPE239
8.9High Impact Polyamide/ABS Blend241
8.10Toughening Mechanisms in Rubber Modified Polyamides243
8.10.1Role of Rubber Particle Size on Polyamide Toughness243
8.10.2Role of Rubber Particle Cavitation on the PA Matrix Toughening245
8.11Rubber Toughening of Reinforced Polyamides246
8.12Applications of Rubber Toughened Polyamide247
8.13High Rubber/Polyamide Blends248
8.14Polyamide/Reactive Rubber Blending Process250
8.16Future Directions in Rubber Toughened Polyamides251
9Compatibilization Using Low Molecular Weight Reactive Additives254
9.2Free Radical Reactivity and Compatibilization of Polyolefins256
9.3Polyethylene/Polystyrene Compatibilization259
9.4Compatibilization of Polyolefin/Polyamide Blends263
9.5Development of the Vector Fluid Compatibilization Concept266
9.6Special Peroxide272
9.7Inorganic Catalyst for PE/PS Compatibilization273
9.8A Recent Example277

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