Reactive Polymer Blending

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Deals with reactive polymer blending in the development of new polymer materials, and examines how morphology changes lead to improvements in properties, especially mechanical properties. Coverage includes types of reactive polymers used in blending, molecular, morphological, and interfacial aspects of reactive blending with immiscible functional polymers, structural features of polymer additives in reactive blending, morphological and rheological aspects of reactive polymer blending, reactive blending in screw extruders, extrusion equipment for reactive blending, rubber toughening of polyamides by reactive blending, and compatibilization using low molecular weight reactive additives. For researchers and graduate students. Baker is emeritus professor of chemistry at Queen's University, Canada. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781569903124
  • Publisher: Hanser-Gardner Publications
  • Publication date: 6/1/2001
  • Series: Progress in Polymer Processing Series
  • Pages: 291
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 2
1.2 Important Blending Principles 3
1.3 A Historical Perspective on Reactive Blending 7
1.4 The Evolution of Commercial Practice 9
1.4.1 Patents and Products 9
1.4.2 Processing 10
1.5 Summary 11
References 11
2 Types of Reactive Polymers Used in Blending 13
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Compatibility in Polymer Blends 15
2.2.1 Basic Concepts 15
2.2.2 Strategies for Blend Compatibilization 15 Addition of Block and Graft Copolymers 15 Utilization of Non-Bonding Specific Interactions 16 Addition of Low Molecular Weight Coupling Agents 16 Reactive Compatibilization 17
2.3 Preparation of Reactive Polymers 17
2.4 Types of Compatibilizing Reactions 19
2.5 Types of Reactive Polymers and Their Applications 19
2.5.1 Reactive Polymers Having MAn Functionality 20
2.5.2 Reactive Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Functionality 22
2.5.3 Reactive Polymers Capable of Interchange Reactions 24
2.5.4 Reactive Polymers Containing Primary and Secondary Amines 26
2.5.5 Reactive Polymers Containing Hydroxyl Groups 26
2.5.6 Reactive Polymers Containing Heterocyclic Groups 29
2.5.7 Reactive Polymers Capable of Ionic Interactions 31
2.5.8 Miscellaneous Reactive Polymers 31
2.6 Concluding Remarks 32
List of Abbreviations 34
References 35
3 Reactive Blending with Immiscible Functional Polymers: Molecular, Morphological, and Interfacial Aspects 43
3.1 Introduction 44
3.2 Reactive Versus Physical Blending with Respect to Compatibilization 44
3.2.1 Similarities and Differences 44
3.2.2 Industrial Feasibility and Current Trends 46
3.3 In Situ Interfacial Chemical Reactions of Functional Polymers 47
3.3.1 Types of In Situ Chemical Reactions Involved 47
3.3.2 Kinetics of Interfacial Reactions and Molecular Characterization 49
3.4 Effects of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology 53
3.4.1 Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology Generation 53 General Aspects of Phase Morphology Development 53 Phase Morphology Development in Non-Reactive Blending 54 Phase Morphology Development in Reactive Blending 56
3.4.2 Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Stabilisation in the Melt 63
3.4.3 Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Co-Continuity 64
3.4.4 Interfacial Stability of the In Situ Formed Copolymer 67
3.5 Effect of Reactive Blending on Crystallization of Blends Containing Crystallizable Components 67
3.6 Blend Interface Characterization 69
3.6.1 General Aspects Concerning Polymer/Polymer Interfaces 69
3.6.2 Determination of the Interfacial Tension in Reactively Compatibilized Blends 72 Blend Rheology Using the Palierne Model 72 The Breaking Thread Method 73
3.6.3 Determination of the Interfacial Thickness in Reactive Blends 74 Ellipsometry 74 Neutron Reflectometry 75 Transmission Electron Microscopy 77
3.7 General Conclusions 78
References 79
4 Key Role of Structural Features of Compatibilizing Polymer Additives in Reactive Blending 82
4.1 Introduction 83
4.2 General Principles 85
4.3 Molecular Architecture of the Compatibilizer 85
4.3.1 Alternative 1 86
4.3.2 Alternative 2 86
4.3.3 Alternative 3 87
4.4 Phase Morphology Development 87
4.5 Effect of the Interfacial Reaction on the Phase Morphology Development 89
4.6 Effect of the Molecular Characteristic Features of the Reactive Polymers 90
4.6.1 Kinetics of the Interfacial Reaction 90
4.6.2 Molecular Weight of the Compatibilizer Precursors 95
4.6.3 Reactive Group Content of the Reacting Polymers 98
4.6.4 Distribution of the Reactive Groups Along the Chains 104
4.7 Effect of Processing Conditions 105
4.7.1 Melting Order of the Constitutive Components of Reactive Polyblends 105
4.7.2 Effect of Shearing 106
4.7.3 Initial State of Dispersion 107
4.7.4 Mixing Temperature 107
4.8 Conclusions 108
References 109
5 Morphological and Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending 113
5.1 Morphology Development During Blending of Immiscible Polymers 114
5.1.1 The Melting Regime 116
5.1.2 The Melt Flow Regime 120
5.1.3 Final Morphology of Reactive Blends 127
5.1.4 Miscible Reactive Polymer Blends 132
5.2 Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending 132
5.2.1 Rheological Changes During Blending 132
5.2.2 Rheology of Reactively Compatibilized Polymer Blends 134
5.3 Conclusions 138
5.4 Future Challenges 139
References 139
6 Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders 142
6.1 Introduction 143
6.2 Reactive Blending in Mixers 144
6.2.1 Copolymer Formation at Polymer/Polymer Interfaces 145 Chemical Considerations 145 Copolymer Architecture Considerations 145 Kinetics Considerations 145 Experimental Assessment of Reaction Kinetics at Polymer-Polymer Interfaces 151
6.2.2 Batch Mixers for Reactive Blending 154 Reactive Compatibilization vs. Physical Compatibilization 154 Morphology Development 155
6.2.3 Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders 158 Non-Reactive vs. Reactive PP/PA6 Blends 163 Influence of Screw Configuration 164 Influences of Feed Rate and Screw Speed 165 Influence of the Maleic Anhydride Modified PP Content 166 Correlation Between Morphology and Mechanical Properties 167
6.4 One-Step and Two-Step Reactive Blending Processes 170
6.4.1 PP/PA6 Blends 171
6.4.2 PP/PBT Blends 174
6.5 Concluding Remarks 177
References 178
7 Extrusion Equipment for Reactive Blending 180
7.1 Extruders Used for Reactive Blending 181
7.2 Mixing Mechanism 185
7.2.1 Distributive and Dispersive Mixing 186 Distributive Mixing 186 Dispersive Mixing 187 Viscosity Ratio and Surface Tension 187 Extensional Flow 188
7.2.2 Dissipative Melting 188
7.3 Residence Time and Residence Time Distribution 193
7.4 Devolatilization 194
7.5 Microstructure Development and Monitoring in Reactive Blending 197
7.6 Hybridized Polymer Processing Systems 201
7.7 Conclusions 204
References 205
8 Rubber Toughening of Polyamides by Reactive Blending 207
8.1 Introduction 208
8.2 Evolution of Polyamide Impact Modification Technology 211
8.3 Comparison of Reactivity vs. Toughening Efficiency of Various Functional Rubbers 216
8.4 Toughening Efficiency of Maleated EP Rubbers 224
8.4.1 Effect of Maleic Anhydride Content 224
8.4.2 Effect of Polyamide End Groups 226
8.5 Toughening Efficiency of Maleated Styrene-Ethylene/Butylene-Styrene (M-SEBS) Block Copolymer Rubbers 231
8.6 Effect of Mixtures of Reactive and Non-Reactive (Maleated and Unmaleated) Rubbers 236
8.7 Reactive Toughening of PA6 with Acyllactam-Grafted EP Rubbers 237
8.8 Toughening of Polyamides with Maleated LDPE 239
8.9 High Impact Polyamide/ABS Blend 241
8.10 Toughening Mechanisms in Rubber Modified Polyamides 243
8.10.1 Role of Rubber Particle Size on Polyamide Toughness 243
8.10.2 Role of Rubber Particle Cavitation on the PA Matrix Toughening 245
8.11 Rubber Toughening of Reinforced Polyamides 246
8.12 Applications of Rubber Toughened Polyamide 247
8.13 High Rubber/Polyamide Blends 248
8.14 Polyamide/Reactive Rubber Blending Process 250
8.16 Future Directions in Rubber Toughened Polyamides 251
References 252
9 Compatibilization Using Low Molecular Weight Reactive Additives 254
9.1 Introduction 255
9.2 Free Radical Reactivity and Compatibilization of Polyolefins 256
9.3 Polyethylene/Polystyrene Compatibilization 259
9.4 Compatibilization of Polyolefin/Polyamide Blends 263
9.5 Development of the Vector Fluid Compatibilization Concept 266
9.6 Special Peroxide 272
9.7 Inorganic Catalyst for PE/PS Compatibilization 273
9.8 A Recent Example 277
9.9 Summary 279
References 279
Index 281
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