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Readers, Teachers, Learners: Expanding Literacy Across the Content Areas / Edition 3
     

Readers, Teachers, Learners: Expanding Literacy Across the Content Areas / Edition 3

by William G. Brozo, Michele L. Simpson
 

ISBN-10: 0136472729

ISBN-13: 9780136472728

Pub. Date: 06/03/1998

Publisher: Pearson Education

Utilizing a balanced approach to holistic learning and strategic learning, this innovative book includes case studies from all content areas to paint an exciting picture of the power of language-based teaching to enhance learners' motivation. A significant strength of this book is the way the authors use actual teachers (real teaching scenarios appear on nearly every

Overview

Utilizing a balanced approach to holistic learning and strategic learning, this innovative book includes case studies from all content areas to paint an exciting picture of the power of language-based teaching to enhance learners' motivation. A significant strength of this book is the way the authors use actual teachers (real teaching scenarios appear on nearly every page) to demonstrate how effective literacy and learning strategies have been implemented in junior and senior high school classrooms. With more emphasis on technology, updated research on students with special needs, and expanded coverage on content area literacy, this refreshing book shows future teachers how to transform uninspired students into active learners. Devotes a new chapter to computer technology and content area learning which provides practical, realistic ideas and strategies for teachers. Increases coverage of student motivation through new sections on self-efficacy and epistemologies related to motivating students to use strategies. Lists current young adult books that can be realistically and easily obtained.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780136472728
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Publication date:
06/03/1998
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
484
Product dimensions:
7.78(w) x 9.57(h) x 1.14(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Readers, Teachers, Learners: An Introduction
2(24)
What Is Literacy and Its Role in the Middle and Secondary School?
4(3)
Definition of Literacy: A Modest Proposal
7(1)
The Literacy Landscape
8(5)
Low Levels of Literacy
8(2)
Aliteracy
10(2)
No Place for Critical Literacy
12(1)
Principles of Language-Based Teaching
13(8)
Principle 1: Language-Based Teachers Understand that Learning is a Social Process
13(2)
Principle 2: Language-Based Teachers Know that the Best Learning Occurs When It Is Whole, Functional, and Meaningful
15(3)
Principle 3: Language-Teachers Know that Students Improve Their Reading and Writing When Given Abundant Opportunities to Use Reading and Writing as Vehicles For Learning
18(1)
Principle 4: Language-Based Teachers Understand the Importance Motivation Plays In Learning
19(2)
Literacy and Content Learning: A Framework for Instruction
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
References
22(4)
Chapter 2 Active Learning in Language-Based Classrooms
26(22)
Five Principles that Promote Active Learning
29(13)
Principle 1: Active Learners Use Their Prior Knowledge in the Meaning-Making Process
29(3)
Principle 2: Active Learners Understand and Use Text Structure to Organize Their Meaning Making
32(3)
Principle 3: Active Learners Think Critically About Text and Create Their Own Elaborations
35(3)
Principle 4: Active Learners Are Metacognitively Aware
38(3)
Principle 5: Active Learners Possess and Employ a Wide Range of Reading and Learning Strategies
41(1)
The Influence of the Classroom Context on Active Learning
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
References
44(4)
Chapter 3 Comprehension Strategies: The Tools of Literacy
48(46)
Case Study
50(1)
Active Learners Use Their Prior Knowledge in the Meaning-Making Process
51(5)
The PReP Procedure
52(1)
Learning Logs
53(2)
Content Area Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)
55(1)
Active Learners Understand and Use Text Structure to Organize Their Meaning Making
56(10)
Creating Local Coherence with Connectives
57(3)
Creating Local Coherence with the Interlocking Exercise
60(1)
Creating Global Coherence with Charting
61(2)
Creating Global Coherence with Expository Passage Organizers
63(1)
Creating Global Coherence by Visualizing Text Organization
64(2)
Active Learners Think Critically About Text and Create Their Own Elaborations
66(17)
Demonstrating Active Reading Processes
66(3)
Identifying Sources of Information in Answering Questions
69(3)
Teaching Question--Answer Relations Using Cooperative Learning
72(3)
Using Study Guides
75(6)
Using Discussion Webs to Encourage Critical and Elaborative Thinking
81(2)
Active Learners Are Metacognitively Aware
83(5)
Reciprocal Teaching and Self-Monitoring
83(3)
Fix-Up Strategies
86(1)
Building Task Awareness
87(1)
Comprehension Instruction Across the Content Area
88(1)
Case Study Revisited
89(1)
Summary
90(1)
References
90(4)
Chapter 4 Classroom Assessment of Literacy Growth and Content Learning
94(48)
Case Study
97(1)
Guidelines for Literacy Assessment
98(6)
Assessment is a Process of Becoming Informed About Authentic Learning
98(1)
Assessment of Literacy and Content Learning Should Use Multiple Data Across Multiple Contexts
98(1)
Assessment is a Continuous Process
99(2)
Assessment Should Include Students' Interests and Belief Systems
101(2)
Effective Assessment Involves Students in Self-Reflection and Self-Evaluation
103(1)
Standardized Reading Achievement Texts: What You Should Know
104(4)
The Uses and Potential Limitations of Standardized Tests
105(1)
Communicating with Parents and Students About Standardized Reading Test Results
106(2)
Teachers' Grades: A Form of Assessment and Evaluation
108(3)
Authentic Assessment of Literacy and Content Learning
111(12)
Assessment by Observation
112(3)
Creating a Portfolio Assessment Culture: Process and Product
115(5)
A Study of Portfolio Assessment: What We Learned
120(3)
Other Informal Assessment Opportunities
123(13)
The Content Area Inventory
123(3)
Assessment Activities Using Students' Writing
126(6)
Self-Report Inventories and Questionnaires
132(4)
Case Study Revisited
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
References
138(4)
Chapter 5 Initiating Students to New Learning
142(36)
Case Study
144(1)
Guidelines for Effective Readiness Instruction
145(5)
Engender Interest and Motivation
145(1)
Activate and Build Relevant Prior Knowledge
146(3)
Help Set Meaningful Purposes for Learning
149(1)
Preteach Critical Concepts and Vocabulary
150(1)
Channeling Knowledge and Interest with Readiness Strategies
150(8)
Direct Experiences
150(1)
Role Playing and Simulations
151(2)
Debates and Discussions
153(4)
Guest Speakers and Performers
157(1)
Reading Young Adult Literature to Build Prior Knowledge and Generate Interest
158(8)
Purpose-Setting Strategies
159(7)
Writing to Prepare Students for Reading and Learning
166(2)
Writing Solutions to Problems Posed Before Reading
168(1)
Learning Logs
169(1)
Preteaching Critical Vocabulary and Concepts
170(1)
Case Study Revisited
170(4)
Summary
174(1)
References
175(3)
Chapter 6 Expanding Vocabulary and Developing Concepts
178(46)
Case Study
181(1)
Definitional Versus Conceptual Understanding of Words
182(2)
Guidelines for Effective Vocabulary Instruction
184(4)
Teach Vocabulary in Context
184(1)
Emphasize Students' Active Role in the Learning Process
185(1)
Give Students Tools to Expand Word Knowledge Independently
185(1)
Reinforce Word Learning and Repeated Exposures Over Time
186(1)
Stimulate Students' Interest in Words
186(1)
Build a Language-Rich Environment to Support Word Learning
187(1)
Encourage Students to Read Widely
188(1)
Selecting Key Terms and Concepts
188(3)
Types of Vocabulary
189(1)
A Process for Selecting Words to Teach
189(2)
Traditional Approaches to Vocabulary Instruction
191(7)
Using Contextual Analysis
191(5)
Using the Dictionary
196(2)
Teacher-Directed Approaches for Building Vocabulary Knowledge
198(7)
Activities Encouraging Firsthand Concept Development
198(4)
Semantic-Feature Analysis
202(3)
Promoting Independent Word Learning
205(8)
Word Maps
206(2)
Concept Cards
208(5)
Activities for Reinforcing and Evaluating Word Knowledge
213(5)
Imagery and Keywords
213(2)
Activities and Test Formats that Reinforce and Evaluate Word Learning
215(3)
Case Study Revisited
218(2)
Summary
220(1)
References
221(3)
Chapter 7 Writing as a Tool for Active Learning
224(44)
Case Study
226(1)
Reading and Writing as Constructive and Parallel Processes
227(2)
How Can the Writing Process Help the Content Area Teacher?
229(2)
Guidelines for the Use of Writing Across the Content Areas
231(3)
Identify Concepts First and Then Determine If Writing Is the Appropriate Strategy for Learning
231(1)
Design Writing Assignments That Encourage Active Learning
232(1)
Provide Sufficient Time for Prewriting Activities
232(1)
Design Writing Assignments That Have a Real and Immediate Audience
233(1)
Vary the Assignments and the Discourse Modes
233(1)
Publish and Celebrate Your Students' Writing
233(1)
Start Right with an Effective Writing Assignment
234(1)
Writing Activities that Prepare Students for Learning
235(3)
The Guided-Writing Activity
236(1)
Academic Journals
237(1)
Writing Activities that Encourage Students to Construct Meaning and to Monitor Their Understanding
238(4)
Microthemes
238(2)
Double-Entry Journals
240(1)
Framed Paragraphs
241(1)
Writing Activities that Encourage Students to Think Critically
242(6)
Reading Response Applied to Expository Text
243(2)
Variations of the Microtheme
245(1)
SPAWN-ing Writing Assignments
246(2)
Critical Issues Concerning the Use of Writing as a Means of Learning
248(14)
Sane Methods for Grading and Responding
248(3)
Effective Activities for Involving Students in Evaluation
251(4)
Using Writing to Test Learning
255(3)
The Research Paper
258(2)
The Role of Computers During the Writing Process
260(2)
Case Study Revisited
262(3)
Summary
265(1)
References
266(2)
Chapter 8 Literature Across the Curriculum and Throughout Life
268(46)
Case Study
271(1)
What is Young Adult Literature?
272(1)
Guidelines for Integrating Literature into Content Classrooms
273(15)
Identify Salient Themes and Concepts
274(3)
Identify Appropriate Literature to Help Teach Concepts
277(4)
Organize the Content and the Classroom for Literature
281(7)
Teaching with Trade Books and Textbooks: Symbiosis
288(10)
Using the Trade Book as a Schema and Interest Builder
288(2)
Use the Trade Book to Extend Textbook Ideas
290(6)
Use Follow-Up Activities that Allow Students to Personalize New Trade/Text Knowledge
296(2)
Promoting Lifelong Reading Habits
298(6)
What Classroom Teachers Can do to Keep Students Reading
299(5)
Case Study Revisited
304(3)
Summary
307(1)
References
308(6)
Chapter 9 Strategic Learning Across the Content Areas
314(44)
Case Study
317(1)
Guidelines for Teaching Study Strategies
318(6)
Emphasize the Importance of Task Knowledge
318(1)
Remember the When, Why, and How of Strategy Use
319(1)
Take the Time to Develop Students' Strategic Expertise
320(1)
Know the Study Strategies You Teach
320(1)
Create Situations in Which Students Can Transfer Strategies to Realistic Content Area Tasks
321(1)
Acknowledge the Importance of Students' Motivation and Belief Systems
321(1)
Encourage Students to Modify Strategies to Meet Personal Needs and Styles
322(1)
Use Homework and Other Assignments to Reinforce Study Strategies
322(2)
Basic Processes Important to Active Learning
324(8)
Knowing the Format and Organization of a Textbook
324(1)
Recording and Interpreting Assignments Correctly and Completely
325(1)
Previewing
326(3)
Summarizing
329(3)
Strategies for Taking Class Notes
332(5)
The Split-Page Note-Taking Format
335(2)
Strategies for Synthesizing Content Area Concepts
337(8)
Mapping
337(4)
Time Lines
341(1)
Synthesis Journals
342(3)
Strategies for Creating Metacognitive Awareness
345(8)
Self-Questioning Strategies for Expository Text
345(2)
Narrative Text and Self-Generated Questions
347(2)
The Talk-Through
349(2)
Encouraging Students to Evaluate
351(2)
Case Study Revisited
353(1)
Summary
354(1)
References
355(3)
Chapter 10 Expanding Literacy and Content Learning Through Computer Technology
358(32)
Case Study
360(1)
Why Use Computer Technology
361(3)
Computer Technology in Schools Today
364(18)
Telecommunications
364(7)
Word Processing for Meaningful Communication
371(4)
Expanding Learning in Content Classrooms with Databases and Spreadsheets
375(5)
Active Learning Through Multimedia and Hypermedia Presentations
380(2)
Accessing Information About Computer Technology
382(1)
Case Study Revisited
382(4)
Summary
386(1)
References
386(4)
Chapter 11 Meeting the Literacy Needs of Special Students
390(45)
Case Study
392(2)
Who Are Students with Special Needs?
394(4)
Culturally Diverse Students
395(1)
Learning-Disabled Students
395(2)
Gifted Students
397(1)
Instructional Guidelines for Teaching Students with Special Needs
398(10)
Reading-Disabled and Gifted Students Should Not Be Permanently Separated from Regular Students or Each Other
398(1)
Instruction Should Emphasize Meaningful Reading and Writing Experiences
399(1)
Each Student's Unique Contribution Should be Valued
400(1)
All Dialects of a Language Should be Valued
401(2)
Engage Students in Literacy Experiences that Reverse Cycles of Passive Failure and Learned Helplessness
403(1)
Promote New, Positive Ways of Communicating About Students' Special Needs
404(2)
Establish Home-School Connections and Use the Community As a Cultural Resource
406(2)
Reading and Writing Strategies for Students with Special Needs
408(18)
Sustained Silent Reading and Writing
408(1)
Message Board: Encourage Purposeful Writing
409(1)
Dialogue Journals
410(1)
Exploring Personal Connections to Text
411(2)
Trade Books
413(1)
Picture Books and Wordless Books
413(4)
Other Books that Promote Cultural Pluralism
417(6)
"Other Englishes"
423(2)
Verbal Reports
425(1)
Case Study Revisited
426(2)
Summary
428(2)
References
430(5)
Chapter 12 Becoming an Effective Literacy Professional
435(31)
Case Study
436(1)
Literacy Innovations in the Content Classroom: Challenges to Change
437(1)
Strategy, Teacher, and Organizational Characteristics Influencing the Knowledge and Use of Reading and Writing Strategies
438(4)
Strategy
439(2)
Teacher
441(1)
Organization
441(1)
Supporting Meaningful Change in Teacher Practice
442(1)
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
443(17)
Effective Teachers Are Reflective Teachers
444(3)
Effective Teachers Use the Research Process as a Learning Process
447(4)
Effective Teachers Employ Innovative Strategies that Link Content and Literacy Learning
451(1)
Effective Teachers Understand Literacy Processes
452(2)
Effective Teachers Establish Personal Reading Programs
454(1)
Effective Teachers Collaborate with Students, Teachers, Parents and Administrators
455(5)
Case Study Revisited
460(2)
Summary
462(1)
References
463(3)
Appendix: Literature in and for Students Who Speak "Other Englishes" 466(5)
Name Index 471(6)
Subject Index 477

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