Reading and Writing in Elementary Classrooms

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Based on the latest research and the best thinking from literacy and language studies, this renowned author team provides prospective teachers with a thorough collection of the best instructional practices, as well as a unique glimpse at "real life" in today's classrooms.

NEW FEATURES

  • Planning, Assessing, and Organizing (Ch. 8) explores ...
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Overview

Based on the latest research and the best thinking from literacy and language studies, this renowned author team provides prospective teachers with a thorough collection of the best instructional practices, as well as a unique glimpse at "real life" in today's classrooms.

NEW FEATURES

  • Planning, Assessing, and Organizing (Ch. 8) explores ways classroom teachers can collaborate with parents and colleagues to provide effective literacy instruction for all children.
  • Word Identification, Phonics, and Spelling (Ch. 3) reflects the importance of phonemic awareness, the connections between spelling and decoding knowledge, and the need to connect word fluency instruction with real reading and writing throughout the school day.
  • Accommodations and Adaptations sections provide strategies that effectively serve children with special needs and children for whom English is a second language.
  • Technology Tips explore ways to use technology in the classroom and provide additional electronic resources for both students and teachers.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780801302299
  • Publisher: Longman Publishing Group
  • Publication date: 1/1/1989
  • Edition description: 2nd ed
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 496

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

Teaching children to read and write at high levels of literacy is a complex, longterm commitment that our society and our schools must make if we are going to remain competitive in the twenty-first century. In this fourth edition of Reading and Writing in Elementary Classrooms, we have taken into consideration the latest research and best thinking from literacy and language studies, curriculum and instructional practices, and psychology. Culling the best of what we have traditionally done and pulling together the best current practices, we present a balanced long-term view of literacy development and approaches.

SNAKED FEATURES 011 THE THIRD AND FOURTH EDITIONS

The fourth edition of Reading and Writing in Elementary Classrooms retains those features of the third edition that our students and colleagues found especially noteworthy. These include:

Focus on Thinking Processes

Chapter 1 describes eight thinking processes that are critical to reading and writing. These thinking processes— connect, organize, predict, image, monitor, generalize, evaluate, and apply— underlie the activities and strategies presented in later chapters and help to provide a coherent framework for the development of high-level literacy.

Focus on Reading and Writing as Language

One of the key ideas in Chapter 1 is that language is the foundation of reading and writing. Reading and writing build on the oral language foundation the child brings to school, and reading and writing support each other and the overall linguistic ability of the child. Throughout the chapters, activities andstrategies that promote the total development of all the language abilities of children are suggested.

Focus on Motivation and Engagement

Children are both thinking and feeling people. Their likes and dislikes, attitudes and interests must be developed and given attention. Applications for the key idea that feeling is the energizer of reading and writing established in Chapter 1 are found in all the other chapters in the book.

Focus on Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum

Because we believe that reading and writing are best developed across the entire school day and throughout the curriculum, each chapter contains a major section on using reading and writing strategies as you teach in all subject areas.

Focus on Balanced Literacy Instruction

The field of reading appears to be continually under siege by various factions arguing for one approach over another. That children learn in different ways and that acquiring high levels of literacy is a complex long-term process mitigate against any single, narrow approach. This edition, like the earlier editions, promotes a balanced diet of authentic reading and writing activities along with instruction in appropriate strategies as indicated by careful observation of the learners. The best literacy instruction blends features from a variety of approaches to reading and writing.

Narrative Chapters

Teachers often bemoan the fact that children have many more skills and strategies than they actually use. The same can be said of teachers. To use knowledge, one must know not only what to do but when and why, for how long, and with which children and in connection to what! The narrative chapters in Part II were created to give teachers concrete examples of how the various ideas and activities presented in Part I might be implemented in different classrooms at different grade levels with a variety of different children by teachers with a range of different teaching styles.

In Part II, we transport our readers to an imaginary school, Merritt Elementary School, where we follow an imaginary class of children from kindergarten to fifth grade. With help and support from the principal, Mr. Topps, and the central office facilitator, Sue Port, the various teachers use a variety of approaches to make literacy a reality for all their children. The children emerge into literacy under the enthusiastic tutelage of their kindergarten teacher, Helen Launch. Rita Wright provides a balanced approach in her first-grade classroom. She emphasizes shared and guided reading, words, writing, and self-selected reading, and demonstrates how the instruction changes as the children's literacy develops. Norma Nouveau, a first-year teacher, takes the class through second grade. She gets off to a somewhat rocky start, but with help from Mr. Topps, Sue Port, and other teachers, she makes great strides by the end of the year. Vera Wise, the third-grade teacher, has through all her years of teaching acquired huge stores of knowledge and books, and she carries out an integrated language arts program with literature as the centerpiece. The fourth-grade teacher, Yetta Maverick, also integrates, but her focus is on integrating across the curriculum. Ed Dunn, the fifth-grade teacher, carries out a balanced program that emphasizes studying, independence, and technology. The teachers in this edition are familiar to users of the earlier editions, but they, too, have been updated and have some new tricks up their sleeves.

Organizing Features

To increase the comprehensibility of our text, we have included Looking Ahead and Looking Back sections, which preview and then summarize each chapter's major concepts. We have also identified four to six key ideas for each chapter and organized the information under these key ideas.

Theory and Research Behind Strategies

Each instructional chapter ends with a section that succinctly summarizes the major research and theoretical base for the ideas and strategies presented in the chapter.

Additional Readings

Each chapter ends with an expanded and updated annotated bibliography of additional readings.

Application Activities

Believing that we learn best when we evaluate and apply what we are learning, we have included activities in each chapter that promote application. Many of these activities can be incorporated easily into a field experience, which is often part of the reading methods course. Listen, Look, and Learn applications contain suggestions for visiting classrooms, viewing videotapes of classrooms, and interviewing teachers and students to check out the ideas presented and learn more about actual classroom practice. Try It Out applications suggest lessons and activities students might plan and often suggest trying out some of these with a child or small group of children. Do It Together applications suggest cooperative activities in which readers pool their knowledge and experiences with particular concepts and compare their collective experiences with what they are learning in the text. Add to Your Resource File applications suggest books and other resources students might accumulate and add to their bag of tricks. Add to Your Journal applications suggest ways in which the reader might use writing to reflect upon the ideas in the chapter.

NEW FEATURES OF THE FOURTH EDITION

A New Chapter on Planning, Assessing, and Organizing

The earlier editions presented many suggestions for planning, assessing, and organizing, but the recognition that these critical teaching functions needed to be linked and coordinated moved us to combine these ideas into one chapter and show how they are linked through the teaching-learning cycle. This chapter also describes ways in which classroom teachers can coordinate and communicate with parents, volunteers, special teachers, and others to provide effective literacy instruction for all children.

Major Revisions of the Original Chapters

All chapters have been updated to reflect the latest research and best practice. Chapter 3 has been completely rewritten and reflects the current understandings about the importance of phonemic awareness, analogy in decoding, the important connections between spelling and decoding knowledge, the importance of morphemes for decoding and spelling polysyllabic words, and the need to connect word fluency instruction with real reading and writing throughout the school day.

Accommodations and Adaptations for Inclusion and Children Acquiring English

All the practical chapters contain accommodations and adaptations that have been found to be successful for helping all children acquire high levels of literacy.

Technology Tips

Technology plays an increasingly important role in most elementary classrooms. Many teachers are trying to determine the best uses for the technology they have. The Technology Tips sections suggest ways successful teachers utilize technology in their literacy programs and describe some of the newest and most versatile software.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface
1 About Reading and Writing 3
2 Emergent Literacy 23
3 Word Fluency: Decoding and Spelling 55
4 Prior Knowledge and Meaning Vocabulary 92
5 Reading and Responding to Literature for Children 122
6 Comprehension 158
7 Writing 194
8 Classroom Diagnosis and Assessment of Reading and Writing 230
9 Organizing and Planning Successful Instruction 255
10 Miss Launch: Kindergarten 285
11 Mrs. Wright: First Grade 327
12 Miss Nouveau: Second Grade 379
13 Mrs. Wise: Third Grade 411
14 Ms. Maverick: Fourth Grade 443
15 Mr. Dunn: Fifth Grade 482
Index 529
Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

Teaching children to read and write at high levels of literacy is a complex, longterm commitment that our society and our schools must make if we are going to remain competitive in the twenty-first century. In this fourth edition of Reading and Writing in Elementary Classrooms, we have taken into consideration the latest research and best thinking from literacy and language studies, curriculum and instructional practices, and psychology. Culling the best of what we have traditionally done and pulling together the best current practices, we present a balanced long-term view of literacy development and approaches.

SNAKED FEATURES 011 THE THIRD AND FOURTH EDITIONS

The fourth edition of Reading and Writing in Elementary Classrooms retains those features of the third edition that our students and colleagues found especially noteworthy. These include:

Focus on Thinking Processes

Chapter 1 describes eight thinking processes that are critical to reading and writing. These thinking processes— connect, organize, predict, image, monitor, generalize, evaluate, and apply— underlie the activities and strategies presented in later chapters and help to provide a coherent framework for the development of high-level literacy.

Focus on Reading and Writing as Language

One of the key ideas in Chapter 1 is that language is the foundation of reading and writing. Reading and writing build on the oral language foundation the child brings to school, and reading and writing support each other and the overall linguistic ability of the child. Throughout the chapters, activitiesandstrategies that promote the total development of all the language abilities of children are suggested.

Focus on Motivation and Engagement

Children are both thinking and feeling people. Their likes and dislikes, attitudes and interests must be developed and given attention. Applications for the key idea that feeling is the energizer of reading and writing established in Chapter 1 are found in all the other chapters in the book.

Focus on Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum

Because we believe that reading and writing are best developed across the entire school day and throughout the curriculum, each chapter contains a major section on using reading and writing strategies as you teach in all subject areas.

Focus on Balanced Literacy Instruction

The field of reading appears to be continually under siege by various factions arguing for one approach over another. That children learn in different ways and that acquiring high levels of literacy is a complex long-term process mitigate against any single, narrow approach. This edition, like the earlier editions, promotes a balanced diet of authentic reading and writing activities along with instruction in appropriate strategies as indicated by careful observation of the learners. The best literacy instruction blends features from a variety of approaches to reading and writing.

Narrative Chapters

Teachers often bemoan the fact that children have many more skills and strategies than they actually use. The same can be said of teachers. To use knowledge, one must know not only what to do but when and why, for how long, and with which children and in connection to what! The narrative chapters in Part II were created to give teachers concrete examples of how the various ideas and activities presented in Part I might be implemented in different classrooms at different grade levels with a variety of different children by teachers with a range of different teaching styles.

In Part II, we transport our readers to an imaginary school, Merritt Elementary School, where we follow an imaginary class of children from kindergarten to fifth grade. With help and support from the principal, Mr. Topps, and the central office facilitator, Sue Port, the various teachers use a variety of approaches to make literacy a reality for all their children. The children emerge into literacy under the enthusiastic tutelage of their kindergarten teacher, Helen Launch. Rita Wright provides a balanced approach in her first-grade classroom. She emphasizes shared and guided reading, words, writing, and self-selected reading, and demonstrates how the instruction changes as the children's literacy develops. Norma Nouveau, a first-year teacher, takes the class through second grade. She gets off to a somewhat rocky start, but with help from Mr. Topps, Sue Port, and other teachers, she makes great strides by the end of the year. Vera Wise, the third-grade teacher, has through all her years of teaching acquired huge stores of knowledge and books, and she carries out an integrated language arts program with literature as the centerpiece. The fourth-grade teacher, Yetta Maverick, also integrates, but her focus is on integrating across the curriculum. Ed Dunn, the fifth-grade teacher, carries out a balanced program that emphasizes studying, independence, and technology. The teachers in this edition are familiar to users of the earlier editions, but they, too, have been updated and have some new tricks up their sleeves.

Organizing Features

To increase the comprehensibility of our text, we have included Looking Ahead and Looking Back sections, which preview and then summarize each chapter's major concepts. We have also identified four to six key ideas for each chapter and organized the information under these key ideas.

Theory and Research Behind Strategies

Each instructional chapter ends with a section that succinctly summarizes the major research and theoretical base for the ideas and strategies presented in the chapter.

Additional Readings

Each chapter ends with an expanded and updated annotated bibliography of additional readings.

Application Activities

Believing that we learn best when we evaluate and apply what we are learning, we have included activities in each chapter that promote application. Many of these activities can be incorporated easily into a field experience, which is often part of the reading methods course. Listen, Look, and Learn applications contain suggestions for visiting classrooms, viewing videotapes of classrooms, and interviewing teachers and students to check out the ideas presented and learn more about actual classroom practice. Try It Out applications suggest lessons and activities students might plan and often suggest trying out some of these with a child or small group of children. Do It Together applications suggest cooperative activities in which readers pool their knowledge and experiences with particular concepts and compare their collective experiences with what they are learning in the text. Add to Your Resource File applications suggest books and other resources students might accumulate and add to their bag of tricks. Add to Your Journal applications suggest ways in which the reader might use writing to reflect upon the ideas in the chapter.

NEW FEATURES OF THE FOURTH EDITION

A New Chapter on Planning, Assessing, and Organizing

The earlier editions presented many suggestions for planning, assessing, and organizing, but the recognition that these critical teaching functions needed to be linked and coordinated moved us to combine these ideas into one chapter and show how they are linked through the teaching-learning cycle. This chapter also describes ways in which classroom teachers can coordinate and communicate with parents, volunteers, special teachers, and others to provide effective literacy instruction for all children.

Major Revisions of the Original Chapters

All chapters have been updated to reflect the latest research and best practice. Chapter 3 has been completely rewritten and reflects the current understandings about the importance of phonemic awareness, analogy in decoding, the important connections between spelling and decoding knowledge, the importance of morphemes for decoding and spelling polysyllabic words, and the need to connect word fluency instruction with real reading and writing throughout the school day.

Accommodations and Adaptations for Inclusion and Children Acquiring English

All the practical chapters contain accommodations and adaptations that have been found to be successful for helping all children acquire high levels of literacy.

Technology Tips

Technology plays an increasingly important role in most elementary classrooms. Many teachers are trying to determine the best uses for the technology they have. The Technology Tips sections suggest ways successful teachers utilize technology in their literacy programs and describe some of the newest and most versatile software.

Read More Show Less

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