Reading in the Classroom: Systems for Observing Teaching and Learning


As illustrated by Reading First and other reading initiatives, policymakers and educators are very interested in raising children's literacy rates and ensuring high classroom standards. Classroom observation is one effective method to monitor progress, explain outcomes, and determine best practices for reading instruction. Reading in the Classroom provides detailed discussions of the most current and representative classroom reading observation systems used throughout the United States. This book will aid ...
See more details below
Paperback (New Edition)
$42.72 price
(Save 4%)$44.95 List Price
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (5) from $2.28   
  • New (1) from $21.07   
  • Used (4) from $2.28   
Sending request ...


As illustrated by Reading First and other reading initiatives, policymakers and educators are very interested in raising children's literacy rates and ensuring high classroom standards. Classroom observation is one effective method to monitor progress, explain outcomes, and determine best practices for reading instruction. Reading in the Classroom provides detailed discussions of the most current and representative classroom reading observation systems used throughout the United States. This book will aid researchers, policy makers, and curriculum developers in evaluating our current educational system with respect to literacy instruction. The chapters cover a broad range of tools, all of which are specific, field-tested, and reliable. These tools were developed to study a variety of research questions, such as the effectiveness of statewide reading initiatives, the increased incidence of culturally diverse students with learning disabilities, effective teaching strategies for English language learners, methods to record the writing performance of at-risk students, ethnographic classroom observations, and ecobehavioral assessment and analysis strategies.
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781557666512
  • Publisher: Brookes Publishing
  • Publication date: 8/1/2003
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Kerri L. Briggs, Ph.D., is Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education at the U.S. Department of Education. In this capacity, Dr. Briggs contributes to the implementation of efforts associated with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110). Prior to that, she was Director of Evaluation at the Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas. She has co-authored several journal articles and book chapters about reading, school-based management, leadership, and charter schools.

Barbara R. Foorman, Ph.D., earned her doctorate at the University of California-Berkeley. She is Professor of Pediatrics and Director of the Center for Academic and Reading Skills at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School and Principal Investigator of the grant funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Early Interventions for Children with Reading Problems. In addition to many chapters and journal articles on topics related to language and reading development, she is the editor of Reading Acquisition: Cultural Constraints and Cognitive Universals (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986). She is on the editorial board of Journal of Learning Disabilities and has guest edited special issues of Scientific Studies of Reading, Linguistics and Education and Journal of Learning Disabilities. Dr. Foorman has been actively involved in outreach to the schools and to the general public, having chaired Houston Independent School District's Committee on a Balanced Approach to Reading and having testified before the California and Texas legislatures and the Texas Board of Education Long-Range Planning Committee. Dr. Foorman is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, the board of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, the Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE), and several local reading efforts.

In addition to his work at the Instructional Research Group, Dr. Gersten is also aprofessor emeritus in the College of Education at the University of Oregon.He is the director of the Math Strand for the Center on Instruction, the directorof research for the Regional Educational Laboratory-South West, and theprincipal investigator for several What Works Clearinghouse projects.As Project Director of the Teacher Quality Distribution and Measurement Study,Dr. Gersten is currently working with a team of researchers from HarvardUniversity to revise a mathematics observation measure that will be used todetermine the effect of professional development on teachers' mathematicsinstruction. He is also a coauthor of a mathematics screening and progress monitoringmeasure for kindergarten and first-grade students that is in press.His main areas of expertise include evaluation methodology and instructionalresearch on students with learning disabilities, mathematics, and readingcomprehension. Dr. Gersten has conducted numerous randomized trials, manyof which have been published in major scientific journals in the field. He haseither directed or codirected 42 applied research grants addressing a wide arrayof issues in education and has been a recipient of many federal and nonfederalgrants (more than $20 million). He has advised on a variety of reading and mathematicsprojects using randomized trials in education settings and has writtenextensively about the importance of randomized trials in special educationresearch.

In 2002, Dr. Gersten received the Distinguished Special EducationResearcher Award from the American Educational Research Association'sSpecial Education Research Division. He served as a member of the NationalMathematics Advisory Panel, a Presidential committee to develop researchbasedpolicy in mathematics for American schools. Dr. Gersten also chaired thePanel that developed A Practice Guide on Response to Intervention inMathema

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Excerpted from chapter 1 Reading in the Classroom: Systems for the Observation of Teaching and Learning, edited by Sharon Vaughn, Ph.D., & Kerri L. Briggs, Ph.D.

Copyright © 2003 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

Measurement of Teaching Practices During Reading/Language Arts Instruction and Its Relationship to Student Achievement

Reading initiatives at local, state, and national levels in the United States call for scientifically based reading instruction. Several consensus documents agree about what the content of this instruction should be — the National Research Council's Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998), the Primary Literacy Standards (New Standards, 1999), and the report of the National Reading Panel (2000). All of these documents agree on the importance of explicit instruction in the alphabet principle, integrated with reading for meaning and opportunities to learn. Specifically, this includes all support instruction that builds phonemic awareness and phonemic decoding skills, fluency in word recognition and text processing, construction of meaning, vocabulary, spelling, and writing skills (Foorman & Torgesen, 2001). But beyond agreement on the content of scientifically based reading instruction, little agreement exists regarding the implementation of this instruction. We cannot answer such basic questions as, "What does good reading instruction look like? How much time should teachers spend in different reading/language arts activities in order to maximize student outcomes? How much of good teaching is a matter of teacher knowledge, classroom management, or student engagement?"

To answer these questions, we reviewed the literature on classroom observation instruments and began to pilot our own instruments in a longitudinal investigation of the conditions under which children learn to read. The investigation followed approximately 1,400 children (98% of whom were African American) in kindergarten through fourth grade; these children were in 112 classrooms in 17 high-poverty schools in Houston and Washington, D.C. The literature review and longitudinal investigation reveal much. In this chapter, we review the literature on existing instruments for observing reading/language arts instruction, describe the classroom observational instruments we developed, and provide preliminary descriptions of how these measures of classroom behaviors relate to student outcomes.


Classroom observational systems range widely from descriptive frameworks and narrative descriptions to coding of teacher–student communication and time-sampling of discrete behaviors. An example of a descriptive framework is the Reading Lesson Observation Framework (RLOF; Henk, Moore, Marinak, & Tomasetti, 2000). The RLOF consists of a set of expectations for teaching behaviors during reading/language arts instruction time. Thus, the RLOF serves as a tool that district supervisors can use to align teaching behaviors with district philosophy. The instrument consists of seven domains with 5–11 indicators in each. The seven domains are classroom climate, prereading phase, guided reading phase, postreading phase, skill and strategy instruction, materials and tasks of the lesson, and teacher practices. Responses are recorded in one of four ways: observed and of satisfactory quality, observed and of very high quality, either not observed or of unsatisfactory quality, and not applicable. No inter-rater reliability for the RLOF was provided by Henk and colleagues (2000).

There are many qualitative approaches to conducting classroom observations (Wolcott, 1988). One method, adopted by Pressley, Wharton-McDonald, Mistre

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

About the Editors
About the Contributors
Louisa Moats
  1. Measurement of Teaching Practices During Reading/Language Arts Instruction and Its Relationship to Student Achievement
    Barbara R. Foorman and Christopher Schatschneider
  2. The Instructional Content Emphasis Instrument: Observations of Reading Instruction
    Meaghan Edmonds and Kerri L. Briggs
  3. Ecobehavioral Strategies: Observing, Measuring and Analyzing Behavior and Reading Interventions
    Charles R. Greenwood, Mary Abbott, and Yolanda Tapia
  4. The Classroom Climate Scale: Observing During Reading Instruction
    Ae-Hwa Kim, Kerri L. Briggs, and Sharon Vaughn
  5. The English-Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument for Beginning Readers
    Diane Haager, Russell Gersten, Scott Baker, and Anne W. Graves
  6. Conducting Ethnographic Observations of Reading in Elementary Schools
    Janette Klingner, Keith M. Sturges, and Beth Harry
  7. "I Can Rite:" Informal Assessment of Written Language
    Nancy Mather and Noel Gregg
  8. Reviewing Outcomes: Using DIBELS to Evaluate Kindergarten Curricula and Interventions
    Roland H. Good III, Ruth A. Kaminski, Sylvia B. Smith, Deborah C. Simmons, Ed Kaméenui, and Joshua Wallin
  9. Similarities and Differences Between Experienced Teachers and Trained Paraprofessionals: An Observational Analysis
    Marcia L. Grek, Patricia G. Mathes, and Joseph K. Torgesen
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star


4 Star


3 Star


2 Star


1 Star


Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation


  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)