Reading Literature and Writing Argument / Edition 5

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Overview

Based on the assumption that writing is valued only when it makes readers think, this anthology combines the content of literature and argument texts into one easy to use book. Reading Literature and Writing Argument provides students with multi-genre reading experiences designed to immerse them in critical and creative thinking as they address problems and issues from multiple perspectives. This book also prompts students to see language as a way to create meaning in their lives and to see themselves as writers with a purpose and an audience.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321871862
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 10/15/2012
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 672
  • Sales rank: 82,599
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 3.20 (d)

Table of Contents

RHETORIC
1 The Literature and Argument Connection Practicing Critical Inquiry and Expanding Thinking
Academic Argument and Critical Inquiry
Reading to Expand Thinking
Raymond Carver, from “Cathedral”
Lucille Clifton, “For deLawd”
Marge Piercy, “To Be of Use”
Jane Martin, “Rodeo”

Activities

2 Examining Thinking and Analyzing Argument
Examining Thinking
William Shakespeare, from Romeo and Juliet
Arthur Miller, from The Crucible 16
Logical Fallacies Activities
Analyzing Argument
Claims
Randy Horick, “Truer to the Game”
Kenneth Rexroth, “Cold before Dawn”
Ezra Pound, “In a Station of the Metro”
William Blake, “London”
Evidence Assumptions
Audience Appeal and Tone: Pathos, Logos, Ethos
Pathos
Martín Espada, “Federico’s Ghost”
Logos
William Shakespeare, “Sonnet 18”
Ethos
William Shakespeare, “Sonnet 130”
Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl”
Activities
Robert Hayden, “Those Winter Sundays”
Wilfred Owen, “Dulce Et Decorum Est”
Robert Crumb, “A Short History of America”
Paul Madonna, “All Over Coffee”

3 Talking Voice and Writing Arguments
Voice and Writing in College
Activities
Basic Tasks for Writing Arguments
Personal Perspective Arguments
Shawn Mullin, “Yes, the Future Looks Bright, but the Moment Is Hell”
Daphne Beckham, “Perspective on Men”
Research-Based Arguments
Meredith Newman Blanco, “Who Are the Real Victims of Alcoholism?”
Lisa Colletti, “Super-Size It!”
Activities

4 Strategies for Writing Academic Arguments
Clarifying a Subject, Purpose, and Audience
Basic Tools for Designing Your Argument
The Heart of an Argument Is Its Claim: Claims of Fact, Value, and Policy— Which Type of Claim Is Best for Your Argument?
The Body of an Argument Is Its Evidence
Appeals to Ethos, Logos, Pathos
Rhetorical Context
Counterarguments: Concessions and Refutations
Strategy Questions for Organizing Your Argument Essay
Argument Outline
Annotated Student Essay
Rogerian Argument: Creative Problem Solving
Activity
Rogerian Argument Organizational Plan
Annotated Student Essay
Sample Student Collaboration Writing Project
The Final Product
Working with Sources
Using Electronic Sources
Avoiding Plagiarism when Note-Taking
Documentation Systems
The Preliminary Bibliography
The Annotated Bibliography
Creating a Draft
Writing a Thesis/Claim Statement
Activity
From Claim to Outline to Draft
Incorporating Sources
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
Direct Quotations
In-Text Parenthetical Citations
Print Sources 88 Electronic Sources
The Works Cited Page
Activity: Try It Yourself—Finding Ideas and Planning an Academic Argument

5 Reading Arguments and Practicing Analysis

Steve Novella, M.D., “More Evidence of the Safety and Effectiveness of Vaccines”

Dalton Conley, “When Roommates were Random”
Susanne Lundin, “The Great Organ Bazaar”
Star Lara, “Female Troops Hampered by Combat Policy”
Pauline Jelinek, “Military Commission: Lift Ban, Allow Women in Combat”
Anna Salleh, “Artificial Life Reseearch Triggers Concerns”
Visual Argument
Sherman Alexie, “The Facebook Sonnet”
J. G. Ballard, “The subliminal Man”
Student Essays: Christian Garcia, “A Bull’s Life”
Jeff Smith, “The Power of Inaction”

ANTHOLOGY

6 Individuality and Community

Visual Argument Marat’s Death
Fiction Louise Erdrich, “The Red Convertible”
Edward P. Jones, “The Store”
Randall Kenan, “The Foundations of the Earth”
Maile Meloy, “Ranch Girl”
Ernesto Quinon ~ez, from Bodega Dreams
Poetry
Sherman Alexie, “The Reservation Cab Driver”
Michael Cleary, “Burning Dreams on the Sun”
Countee Cullen, “Incident”
Emily Dickinson, “Much madness is divinest sense”
T. S. Eliot, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”
Jack Gilbert, “Trying to Sleep”
Judy Grahn, “Ella, in a square apron, along Highway 80”
Etheridge Knight, “Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane”
Don Marquis, “the lesson of the moth”
Claude McKay, “Outcast”
Dwight Okita, “In Response to Executive Order 9066”
Mary Oliver, “Wild Geese”
Edwin Arlington Robinson, “Richard Cory”
Muriel Rukeyser, “The Lost Romans”
Cathy Song, “Lost Sister”
Gary Soto, “Mexicans Begin Jogging”
Wallace Stevens, “Disillusionment at Ten O’Clock”
Alma Luz Villanueva, “Crazy Courage”
Walt Whitman, “I Saw in Louisiana a Live-Oak Growing”
Drama
Luis Valdez, Los Vendidos
Nonfiction
Sherman Alexie, “Superman and Me”
John Hope Franklin, “The Train from Hate”
Martin Luther King, Jr., “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
Plato, from Crito
Richard Rodriguez, “The Chinese in All of Us”
Fred Setterberg, “The Usual Story”
Jonathan Swift, “A Modest Proposal”
Henry David Thoreau, “Civil Disobedience”
Chapter Activities and Topics for Writing Arguments
Global Perspectives Research/Writing Topics
Collaboration Activity: Creating a Rogerian Argument
Making Connections

7 Nature and Place

Visual Argument Man’s Place in Nature
Fiction
Rick Bass, “Antlers”
Pam Houston, “A Blizzard under Blue Sky”
Jack London, “To Build a Fire”
Leslie Marmon Silko, “The Man to Send Rain Clouds”
Eudora Welty, “A Worn Path”
Poetry
Lucille Clifton, “For deLawd”
James Dickey, “Deer among Cattle”
Carolyn Forché, “Dulcimer Maker”
Robert Frost, “A Young Birch”
Linda Hogan, “Heartland”
Galway Kinnell, “Saint Francis and the Sow”
Denise Levertov, “The Victors”
Rainer Maria Rilke, “The Panther”
Theodore Roethke, “Meditation at Oyster River”
Pattiann Rogers, “Rolling Naked in the Morning Dew”
Carl Sandburg, “Chicago”
Anne Sexton, “The Fury of Flowers and Worms”
Gary Snyder, “The Call of the Wild”
William Stafford, “Traveling through the Dark”
Walt Whitman, Song of Myself, “ 14”
Walt Whitman, Song of Myself, “ 31”
William Wordsworth, “To My Sister”
James Wright, “A Blessing”
Nonfiction
Edward Abbey, “Eco-Defense”
Rachel Carson, “The Obligation to Endure,” from Silent Spring
Annie Dillard, from “The Present,” in Pilgrim at Tinker Creek

Temple Grandin, from “Wildlife,” in Animals Make Us Human
Aldous Huxley, “Time and the Machine,” from The Olive Tree
Verlyn Klinkenborg, “At the Edge of the Visible”
Aldo Leopold, “Thinking Like a Mountain”
N. Scott Momaday, from The Way to Rainy Mountain
Janisse Ray, “Forest Beloved,” from Ecology of a Cracker Childhood
Henry David Thoreau, “Solitude,” from Walden
Chapter Activities and Topics for Writing Arguments
Global Perspectives Research/Writing Topics
Collaboration Activity: Creating a Rogerian Argument
Making Connections

8 Family and Identity

Visual Argument Family Photo
Fiction
Kate Chopin, “The Storm”
Lydia Davis, “Break It Down”
Ernest Hemingway, “Hills Like White Elephants”
Grace Paley, “A Conversation with My Father”
John Updike, “Separating”
Alice Walker, “Everyday Use”
Poetry
Anne Bradstreet, “To My Dear and Loving Husband”
Gwendolyn Brooks, “The Mother”
Gwendolyn Brooks, “Ulysses”
Michael Cleary, “Boss’s Son”
Gregory Corso, “Marriage”
Nikki Giovanni, “Mothers”
Thomas Hardy, “The Ruined Maid”
Seamus Heaney, “Digging”
Peter Meinke, “Advice to My Son”
Naomi Shihab Nye, “Arabic Coffee”
Sharon Olds, “I Go Back to May, 1937”
Mary Oliver, “The Black Walnut Tree”
Dudley Randall, “Ballad of Birmingham”
Adrienne Rich, “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers”
Adrienne Rich, “Delta”
Anne Sexton, “Cinderella”
Gary Snyder, “Not Leaving the House”
Mark Strand, “The Continuous Life”
Margaret Walker, “Lineage”
Richard Wilbur, “The Writer”
Drama
Harvey Fierstein, On Tidy Endings
Nonfiction
Sullivan Ballou, “Major Sullivan Ballou’s Last Letter to His Wife”
Robin D. G. Kelley, “The People in Me”
Scott Russell Sanders, “The Men We Carry in Our Minds”
Amy Schalet, “The Sleepover Question”

Chapter Activities and Topics for Writing Arguments
Global Perspectives Research/Writing Topics
Collaboration Activity: Creating a Rogerian Argument
Making Connections

9 Power and Responsibility
Visual Argument Spider Man
Fiction

Raymond Carver, “Cathedral”

Nathaniel Hawthorne, “The Birth-Mark”
Tim O’Brien, “The Things They Carried”
Brady Udall, “He Becomes Deeply and Famously Drunk”
Ed Vega, “Spanish Roulette”
Poetry
Gwendolyn Brooks, “The Boy Died in My Alley”
Martín Espada, “Bully”
Carolyn Forché, “The Colonel”
Robert Frost, “Mending Wall”
Langston Hughes, “Democracy”
Langston Hughes, “Theme for English B”
Claude McKay, “America”
James Merrill, “Casual Wear”
Edna St. Vincent Millay, “Apostrophe to Man”
John Milton, “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent”
Naomi Shihab Nye, “Famous”
Sharon Olds, “The Promise”
Linda Pastan, “Ethics”
Public Enemy, “Fight the Power”
Walt Whitman, “Beat! Beat! Drums!”
Nonfiction
Francis Bacon, “Of Revenge”
Cochise, “[I am alone]”
John Crawford, “Lies” from “The Last True Story I’ll Ever Tell”
Alex Epstein and Yaron Brook, “The Evil of Animal ‘Rights’”
Allan Gurganus, “Captive Audience”
John F. Kennedy, “Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961”
Abraham Lincoln,“Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865”
George Orwell, “A Hanging”
Katherine Anne Porter, “To Dr. William Ross”
Frank Schaeffer and John Schaeffer, “My Son the Marine?” from Keeping Faith: A Father-Son Story about Love and the U.S. Marine Corps
Suzanne Winckler, “A Savage Life”
Richard Wright, from Black Boy
Chapter Activities and Topics for Writing Arguments
Global Perspectives Research/Writing Topics
Collaboration Activity: Creating a Rogerian Argument
Making Connections
Glossary
Authors’ Biographical Notes
Text Credits
Author/Title Index
Subject Index

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Preface

Reading Literature and Writing Argument springs directly from our classroom experiences as teachers of two college composition courses: "Writing Argument and Persuasion" and "Writing about Literature." In teaching the argument-based composition course, we delight in witnessing our students' development of the critical processes and rhetorical tools needed for constructing an argument. In the literature-based composition course, we delight in witnessing our students' discovery, or rediscovery, of the magic of imaginative literature and their deepening awareness of their humanity. In both courses, students are enriched, as readers and as writers, through their active engagement with ideas in written language. Also, in both courses, students are challenged to examine their thinking and to contrast their ideas with the ideas of others. We want our students to experience the best of these two worlds. Thus, to merge the distinct values of each course, we have written Reading Literature and Writing Argument.

Reading Literature and Writing Argument is based on the premise that writing is valued when it makes readers think. This premise implies, of course, that a person must have ideas—something to say—in order to put pen to paper or fingers to keyboard. However, the notion that these ideas must have value can be daunting to the individual who is staring at the blank page or screen. This is where literature—stories, poems, plays, essays—can play a vital role, one too often overlooked in students' overly busy, information-laden lives. Literature can unlock the gate to students' imaginations and open the window for creative envisioning.Likewise, the study of argument is vital to compelling students to think clearly and objectively.

Students can practice the skills of analysis and evaluation and, in doing so, develop critical standards and criteria for judging ideas. For example, Henry David Thoreau's essay, "Civil Disobedience," is an argument, and students learn when they examine his assertion that the individual's first responsibility is to maintain his or her own integrity. Similarly, students learn from examining the arguments made in a play by Sophocles, in a poem by Gwendolyn Brooks, or in a story by Ed Vega.

Literature liberates thinking, and argument disciplines it. The combined and complementary forces are inspiring and empowering. With our students' experiences in the two composition courses as our guide, we have attempted to harness the courses' complementary strengths in Reading Literature and Writing Argument.

ORGANIZATION

Chapters 1 and 2 introduce and explain the terms and tools of argument. Chapters 3 through 6 present literature pieces centered on four enduring themes: "Individuality and Community," "Nature and Place," "Family and Identity," and "Power and Responsibility." Following each reading selection are questions that invite students to apply the argument terms and tools from Chapters 1 and 2. In this way, the literature pieces offer a practice field for the tools of critical thinking. Also, a number of writing topics are provided to generate longer written responses and, thus, to prompt students' ideas for writing their own arguments. Following Chapter 6, the appendices, "Notes on the Writing Process" and "Notes on Using Sources and Creating a Draft," address specific challenges of writing an argument and include references to student sample papers in Chapter 2. Also, a student sample Rogerian argument paper is presented at the end of Appendix A.

Chapter 1, "Reading to Explore and Examine," opens with a brief discussion of academic argument and presents a core concept: Reading literature is a prompt for rooting out and exploring the underlying values that inform our responses to the world around us. We then introduce basic argument structure and several rhetorical concepts that relate argument to audience appeal and tone. In selecting terms and concepts to feature in Reading Literature and Writing Argument, we chose the tools our classroom teaching experiences have identified as particularly useful to students, both as readers and as writers. Chapter activities reinforce the argument terms and concepts and give students a chance to practice applying them to their reading of some literature pieces.

Chapter 2, "Writing to Evaluate and Articulate," features the reasoning process—how we form opinions and arrive at conclusions. To begin, we challenge students to develop a habit of questioning the foundation of their opinions by evaluating their thinking process. Again, taking a lead from our experiences in the first-year college composition classroom, we decided to highlight the common fallacy of hasty generalization. Also, a brief overview of deduction and induction helps students see how the reasoning process works in argumentation and gives them an additional tool for evaluating their own thinking, ideas, and opinions, as well as those of others—from a speaker in a poem to a character in a play.

From thinking about how we think, we move in Chapter 2 to the process of writing argument, which we present as five basic tasks. We offer illustrations of writers, both professional and student, applying these tasks. The last section of the chapter presents a four-part written exploration and articulation activity, a process that draws on the concepts from Chapters 1 and 2 and culminates in the students' writing their own arguments. The four-part activity directs students to explore their own thinking about a designated subject; to explore the subject in the context of several literature pieces; to explore the subject by doing some research; and, finally, to articulate an issue and claim, gather support, and compose their own arguments. We present four sample student essays, including two longer research projects: one illustrates the process of the four-part exploration and articulation activity and one features the final product, the research-based argument paper. Lastly, chapter activities are provided to give students some hands-on engagement with the core concepts introduced in the chapter.

For the anthology chapters (Chapters 3-6), we chose theme headings that are broad and that directly affect students' individual lives. We believe that students appreciate the opportunity to explore their own thinking processes within these contexts. Also, the themes invite students to draw connections, not only among the readings within a single chapter, but also among readings in any of the four chapters. For example, some family issues that students may identify in Chapter 5 readings can be related to responsibility issues in Chapter 6 readings. Students may draw on their reading experiences from several chapters as they explore an issue and move toward the writing of their own arguments. Again, we include chapter activities to stimulate students' thinking about their reading experiences and about potential issues for writing an argument.

To borrow from Robert Frost's statement on poetry, Reading Literature and Writing Argument is designed to bring both "delight" and "wisdom" to first-year college students' composition experiences. We believe that students will enjoy reading the literature pieces, practicing critical thinking skills, and exploring different perspectives on issues close to their own lives. And finally, students will discover they have a wealth of ideas as well as the critical acumen to compose a written argument that will compel their readers to think. The blank page or computer screen will present a welcome invitation to students to speak out and to be heard, to make choices, and to make a difference in their own lives and in the lives of others.

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