Reading Problems: Assessment and Teaching Strategies / Edition 6

Reading Problems: Assessment and Teaching Strategies / Edition 6

by Joyce Holt Jennings, JoAnne Schudt Caldwell, Janet W. Lerner

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ISBN-10: 0137008570

ISBN-13: 9780137008575

Pub. Date: 05/07/2009

Publisher: Pearson

Combines new and time-tested approaches for helping struggling readers of all ages.

The sixth edition of this well-respected text introduces multiple approaches to teaching students with reading problems and presents them in an accessible, balanced, and readable format. Reading Problems:Assessment and Teaching


Combines new and time-tested approaches for helping struggling readers of all ages.

The sixth edition of this well-respected text introduces multiple approaches to teaching students with reading problems and presents them in an accessible, balanced, and readable format. Reading Problems:Assessment and Teaching Strategies is practical, presenting many informal assessment tools and multicultural strategies, research on intervention programs, and extensive descriptions of tests. Reflecting the authors' work on building a positive, rich literacy environment, specific strategies are given for using themes, physical arrangements, community support, and using favorite books to build a sense of sharing and a love of reading.

This edition also includes updated information about laws focused on education, No Child Left Behind (NCLB), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA-2004). Response to Intervention (RTI) is also a new focus in this revision. Finally, the book emphasizes teaching reading to English language learners (ELLs) and including all students in general education classes.

What Is New to the Sixth Edition?

  • Encourages the collaboration of general education teachers and reading teachers to help students with reading difficulties.
  • Emphasizes language and cultural issues due to the increased ELL population.
  • Discusses both formal and informal assessment procedures that are crucial for students with reading disabilities.
  • Emphasizes the importance of early literacy development for young children and an understanding of the student’s early childhood experiences with reading.
  • The thorough discussion of specific reading skills includes word recognition skills, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension of narrative and informational text.
  • A MyEducationLab interactive website ( ) created specifically to accompany this edition that includes videos, simulations, case studies, activities, practice tests, study plans, an e-book, and more to help prepare students for teaching careers.

    To order this book WITH MyEducationLab, use either ISBN:

    ISBN-13: 9780136100867

    ISBN-10: 0136100864

    To order this book WITHOUT MyEducationLab use either ISBN:

    ISBN-13: 9780137008575

    ISBN-10: 0137008570

Reviewers Rave

“The assessment information is ordered in an appropriate meaningful way. I especially like the fact that students can go to the website and download an IRI." –Dr. Priscilla Leggett, Fayetteville State University

“I like how assessment is embedded with text topics as well as with teaching strategies favoring developing readers and writers. [The] text goes into greater detail about the causes of reading problems and addresses the nature versus nurture question better than I have seen in other texts. It does have very good coverage of assessment and teaching strategies for the reading process.”Terrence V. Stange, Marshall University

Product Details

Publication date:
MyEducationLab Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents



1 Overview of Reading and Reading Problems 1

Introduction 2

Reading Problems: A National Dilemma 3

National Reading Levels 4
Reading Needs in Today’s World 5
Need for Early Identification and Instruction 5

Where Do Children with Reading Problems Receive Help? 7

Different Models of Reading Assessment and Instruction 7

Response-to-Intervention 7
The Components Model of Reading 10
Differentiated Instruction 11

How Does a Student Construct Meaning in Reading? 13

Contribution of the Reader 14
Contribution of the Written Material 16
Contribution of the Reading Situation 16

Key Elements of Teaching Reading 17

Early Literacy 17
Word Recognition 17
Reading Fluency 17
Reading Comprehension 17
Reading Vocabulary 18
Reading-Writing Connection 19
Enjoyment and Appreciation 19

The Website for This Book 19

Summary 19

References 20

2 Factors Associated with Reading Disability 22

Introduction 23

Neurological and Cognitive Factors 23




Environmental Factors 25

The Home Environment 25
The School Environment 26
The Social Environment 27
Cultural Environment 28
Assessing Environmental Factors 29

Emotional Factors 29

Emotional Problems 31
Assessing Emotional and Behavioral Factors 31

Intelligence and Intellectual Factors 31

Definitions of Intelligence 31
Cultural Bias in the Measurement of Intelligence 33
Using Intelligence Tests to Determine the Existence of a Reading
Disability 33
Concerns about Using Intelligence Tests to Determine a Reading
Disability 34

Language Factors 36

Oral and Written Language 36
Receptive and Expressive Language 37
Systems of Oral Language 37
Speech Problems and Language Disorders 38
English Language Learners 40
Assessing Language Development 40

Physical Factors 40

Hearing Impairment 40
Visual Impairment 41
Gender Differences 43
Other Physical Problems 43

Summary 44

References 45

3 Obtaining Background Information 49

Introduction 50

Information about the Environment 50

Home Environment 51
School Environment 53
Social and Cultural Environments 57



Information about the Individual 58

Emotional Information 58
Information about Potential (Intelligence) 60
Physical Information 60
Information about Language Development 62

Methods of Collecting Information 63

Interview and Questionnaire 64
Informal Talks 65
School Records and Materials 66
Observation during Reading Lessons 66

Summary 67

References 67

4 Assessing Reading: Formal Measures 70

Introduction 71

Using Both Formal and Informal Assessment 71

Norm-Referenced Tests 72
Criterion-Referenced Tests 73
Bias in Testing 73
Ethical Considerations 73
Scores on Norm-Referenced Tests 74
Standardization, Validity, and Reliability 75

Tests of General Reading Assessment 76

Group Survey Tests 77
Individual Survey Tests 79
Normed Oral Reading Tests 82

Diagnostic Reading Tests 83

Diagnostic Reading Batteries 83
Diagnostic Tests of Specific Areas 86

Measuring Intelligence 87

Using Intelligence Test Information in Reading Assessment 88
Intelligence Tests that Should Be Administered by Psychologists 89
Intelligence Tests that Can Be Administered by Teachers and Reading
Specialists 92
Interpreting Intelligence Test Scores 94

Summary 95

References 95



Using an Informal Reading Inventory for
Assessment 100

Introduction 101

General Diagnostic Questions: An Overview 101

Does the Student Have a Reading Problem and How Severe Is It? 101
What Is the General Area of the Reading Problem? 102

Overview of Informal Assessment Measures 104

Informal Reading Inventory 104

Obtaining Answers to General Diagnostic Questions 105
Administering and Scoring the Informal Reading Inventory 106
Interpreting the Score of the IRI 118
Special Issues and Options in Using IRIs 125

Combining IRI Assessment with Think-Alouds 128

Summary 131

References 132

Providing Instructional Support for Struggling
Readers 134

Introduction 135

Effective Instruction for Struggling Readers 135

Early Intervention Programs 136

Reading Recovery 136
Early Steps 137
Reading Rescue 137
Howard Street Tutoring Model 138
Book Buddies 138
The Boulder Project 138
Early Intervention in Reading 139
First-Grade Group Intervention 139
Reading Club 139
The Anna Plan 140
Literacy Booster Groups 140
Cross-Age Tutoring 140

Interventions for Older Students 141

Third-Grade Intervention 141
The Memphis Comprehension Framework 141

Contents vii

Project Success 142
Sixth-Grade Reading Class 142
Intervention Within the Classroom 142
Cross-Age Tutoring 143
Literacy Tutoring for Adolescents 143
Readers’ Workshop 144

Total School or Classroom Interventions 144

Success for All 144
Four-Blocks Literacy Model 145
Fluency-Oriented Reading Program 146

Guidelines for Teaching Students Struggling with Literacy 146

Emphasize Reading 146
Teach Students the Strategies that Good Readers Use 150
Make Assessment an Ongoing Component of Instruction 152
Provide a Balanced Instructional Framework 154
Provide a Consistent Instructional Structure and Use Time Effectively 155
Provide Time for Word Study and Fluency Development 155
Include Writing as Part of the Lesson Structure 156
Keep the Size of the Group as Small as Possible 156
Coordinate Intervention Instruction and Classroom Instruction 157
Application of Common Intervention Elements to Program Design 158

Summary 159

References 160

7 Early Literacy 166

Introduction 167

Early Literacy Concepts 167

Oral Language Development 168
Listening Comprehension 169
Print Knowledge 170
Environmental Print 171
Alphabet Knowledge 172
Phonemic Awareness 173
Short-Term Phonological Memory 174
Rapid Naming 176
Visual Memory 176
Visual Perceptual Skills 177

Strategies to Develop Early Literacy Concepts 177

Oral Language Development 178
Print Knowledge 181
Alphabet Knowledge and Phonemic Awareness 183



Beginning Reading Vocabulary 186

Summary 186

References 187

8 Improving Word Recognition Accuracy 190

Introduction 191

Stages of Word Recognition Development 191

Strategies for Identifying Words 192

Assessing Phonics Strategies 193

Miscue Analysis 193

Tests of Phonics Patterns 193

Teaching Phonics Strategies 195

Letter-Sound Relationships 195

Organizing Phonics Instruction 196

Decoding Through Analogy 198

Combining Phonics and Meaning 200

Making Students Aware of Their Strategies 201

Dealing with Exceptions 201

Ideas for Practicing Phonics 202

Teaching Multisyllable Words 203

Assessing Structural Analysis Strategies 206

Teaching Structural Analysis Strategies 207

Assessing Context Strategies 208

Miscue Analysis 209
Comparison of Words Recognized in Lists and Passages 209

Teaching Context Strategies 209

Encouraging Students to Monitor for Meaning 210
Using Cloze 210

Summary 211

References 211



9 Improving Reading Fluency 214

Introduction 215

Role of Fluency in the Reading Process 215

Assessing Word Recognition Fluency 216

Listening to Students Read Orally 216
Determining Reading Rate 217
Timed Administration of Word Lists 218

Strategies for Developing Fluency in Context 219

Promoting Wide Reading of Easy Text 219
Using Patterned Books 221
Assisted Oral Reading 223
Repeated Readings 225
Performance Reading 227
The Language Experience Approach 228
Making Oral and Silent Reading Effective 229
Fluency Development Lesson 231

Strategies for Developing Sight Words in Isolation 231

Choosing Words for Instructional Focus 232
Guidelines for Teaching Sight Words 232
Strategies for Focusing on Words 233
Mastering Function Words 236
Dealing with Reversals 237
The Curious George Strategy 237

Summary 239

References 240

Improving Vocabulary Development and Listening
Comprehension 243

Introduction 244

Importance of Language to Reading 244

Causes of Problems with Language 244

Language Disability and Delay 244
Lack of Reading 245
Lack of a Rich Language Environment 245



Assessing Language Abilities 245

Informal Measures 245
Formal Measures 248

Conditions that Foster Language Learning 248

Exposure to Rich Language 249
Active Participation 250
Planning for Vocabulary and Language Learning 250
Making Connections 250

Strategies for Fostering Language: Listening Comprehension 252

Reading Books to Students 252
Paired Story Reading 253
Direct Listening-Thinking Activity 253
Sentence Stretchers 254
Encouraging Verbal Expression 254

Strategies for Fostering Language: Meaning Vocabulary 256

Introducing Words Before Reading 257
Practicing and Reinforcing Meaning Vocabulary 259
Fostering Vocabulary Learning through Rich Literate Experiences 260
Using Strategies to Figure Out Unknown Words 263

Using Poetry to Develop Language 269

Summary 271

References 271

11 Improving Comprehension of Narrative Text 274

Introduction 275

Effective Reading Comprehension 275

The Purpose of Reading Is Comprehension 275
Comprehension Is an Active and Accurate Process 275
Comprehension Uses Background Knowledge 276
Comprehension Requires Higher-Level Thinking 277

Comprehending Narrative Materials 277

Narratives Inspire Imaginative Personal Responses 277
Narratives Have Story Organization 278

Assessing Abilities with Narrative Text 279

Measuring General Comprehension Ability 279
Judging the Comprehension of Specific Materials 280

A Strategic Approach to Teaching Reading Comprehension 282



Strategies for Improving Comprehension before Reading 283

Building Background Knowledge 283
Making Predictions about Text 284
Reading a Story to Students 286

Strategies for Improving Comprehension during Reading 287

The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity 287
Monitoring Responses to Reading 291
Making Mental Images 291
Constructing Content-Free Questions 293
Using Discussion Cards 294

Strategies for Improving Comprehension after Reading 296

Comprehension Strategies that Develop an Understanding of Story
Structure 296
Comprehension Strategies that Nurture Personal Response 299

Connecting the Literacy Experience 301

Conceptually Connected Instruction Using Themes 301
Studying Different Genres 303

Summary 303

References 305

12 Improving Comprehension of Informational Text 308

Introduction 309

Nature of Informational Text 309

Types of Informational Text 309
Difficulties Presented by Informational Text 310
Importance of Informational Text 311

Assessing Abilities with Informational Text 311

Focusing the Informal Reading Inventory on Informational Text 311
Assessing the Use of Background Knowledge 312
Assessing Comprehension Monitoring 312
Assessing Ability to Transform Text for Studying 313

Strategies for Helping Students Read Informational Text 313

Strategies for Combining Prior Knowledge with Informational Text 314
Strategies for Monitoring the Comprehension of Informational Text 319
Content-Free Questions 320
Question Answer Relationships 328
Strategies for Transforming Informational Text 329



Summary 332

References 335

Reading and Writing 337

Introduction 338

Importance of Teaching Writing 338

Assessing Writing 339

Writing Instruction 340

Writing Process 340
Supporting Students’ Writing 343

Personal Communication 345

Written Conversations 345
Personal Journals 347

Strategies for Integrating Reading and Writing 347

Writing and Reading Narrative Text 348
Writing and Reading Informational Text 352

Writing with Poetry 354

Developing the Ability to Spell 356

Spelling Development 358
Spelling Assessment 359
Spelling Instruction 361

Handwriting 362

Summary 363

References 364

Literacy Instruction for Diverse Populations: Multicultural
Diversity, English Language Learners, Parents and Families,
Adolescents, and Adults with Reading Problems 367

Introduction 368

Literacy in a Multicultural Society 368

Diverse Cultural Views about Reading 368
Teaching Children from Diverse Cultures 369

Contents xiii

English Language Learners 372

Who Are ELLs? 372
Methods for Teaching ELLs 373
Teaching Reading to ELLs 373
Strategies for Teaching Reading to ELL Students 374

The Important Role of Parents and Family in Fostering
Literacy 376

Parent Workshops 376

Adolescents with Reading Problems 377

Characteristics of Adolescents with Reading Problems 378
Special Considerations at the Secondary Level 378
Components of Effective Secondary Programs 379

Adults with Reading Problems 379

Postsecondary and College Programs 379
Needs of Adults with Reading Problems 380
Instructional Programs for Adults 380

Summary 381

References 382

15 Literacy Instruction for Students with Special Needs 384

Introduction 385

Students with Disabilities 385

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 385
The Individualized Education Program 387
Transition Services 388
Procedural Safeguards 388

Learning Disabilities 388

Characteristics of Learning Disabilities 388
Educational Settings for Students with Learning Disabilities 389
Eligibility of Learning Disabilities for Special Education 390
Dyslexia 390

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 391

Characteristics of ADHD 391
Educational Settings for Students with ADHD 392
Medication for Students with ADHD 392

Students Who Are at Risk for School Failure 392

Providing Reading Instruction for Students with Special
Needs 393

Adapting Standard Reading Methods for Students with Severe Reading
Disabilities 393



Differentiated Instruction 396
Differences in Cognitive Processing 396
Multisensory Methods for Teaching Reading 397
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program 399
Direct Instruction Reading Program 400
Fast ForWord 400

Summary 401

References 401

16 Collaborative Assessment and Instruction 404

Introduction 405

Changing Roles of Reading Specialists 405

Title I Programs 405
No Child Left Behind Act 407
Narrowing the Achievement Gap 407

Role of the Reading Specialist in Assessment 408

Evaluation of Student Performance 408
Individual Diagnostic Procedures 408

Role of the Reading Specialist in Instruction 410

Working with Classroom Teachers 411
Working with Other Professionals 411

Reading Specialists as Literacy Leaders 411

Providing Support for Teachers 412
Providing Support for Paraprofessionals 413
Serving as Liaison between Teachers and Administrators 413
Serving on Student Services Teams 415
Serving on the Instructional Intervention Team 417
Working with Parents 419
Literacy Advocates in the Community 421

Summary 423

References 423

Test Index 425

Name Index 000

Subject Index 000

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