Reading Process and Practice / Edition 3

Reading Process and Practice / Edition 3

by Constance Weaver

ISBN-10: 0325003777

ISBN-13: 9780325003771

Pub. Date: 04/26/2002

Publisher: Heinemann

Authoritative. Comprehensive. Definitive.

Reading Process and Practice, since its original publication in 1988, has helped countless preservice and practicing teachers better understand the reading process and translate it into classroom practice-so much so that the book has become the essential guide for teachers. Now, internationally recognized

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Authoritative. Comprehensive. Definitive.

Reading Process and Practice, since its original publication in 1988, has helped countless preservice and practicing teachers better understand the reading process and translate it into classroom practice-so much so that the book has become the essential guide for teachers. Now, internationally recognized researcher and educator Constance Weaver has thoroughly updated her book. Clarifying theory with explanations and examples, as always, Weaver incorporates especially timely information-accurate data, informed critique, and results of often-ignored research-to help teachers counteract government and corporate intrusion into classrooms. Effective instruction stems from a sensitive, informed response to students' needs; the aim of this book is to help teachers achieve that goal.

To that end, Weaver has written five new chapters on assessing and helping readers-enough information to do miscue analysis successfully, to develop a reader profile, and to carry out instructional support for individual readers. To make the book accessible to both undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to new and veteran teachers, she has included definitions and concepts that are repeated throughout the book to provide multiple entry points into key understandings and issues. A new chapter describes what a comprehensive literacy program might include and how it might be structured, while practical chapters flesh out specific components of such a program. Finally, the book is designed so that teachers and teacher educators can cluster chapters in alternative orderings, depending upon the literacy programs in which they teach or the nature of the courses they are teaching.

And there's another new and special addition. An associated website contains an extensive bibliography compiled and annotated by first-grade teacher Catherine Compton-Lilly. Numerous sections cover topics that range from being a teacher, choosing books for children, and working with parents to teaching reading in elementary, middle, and high school. Purchasers of the book can download this information-and more-for free at

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Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
Sales rank:
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.87(d)
Age Range:
5 - 13 Years

Table of Contents

1Definitions of Reading: They Make a Difference1
The Importance of a Definition1
Characterizing Reading and Reading Instruction4
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
For Further Exploration10
2Schemas and Transactions in the Reading Process14
Comprehending and Learning to Read14
The Meaning of Words and Sentences: A First Look15
Schemas: What Are They?17
Schemas in Reading19
Schemas and Transactions21
Pragmatics: Situational, Social, and Cultural Factors in Reading24
Transactions Within the Language of the Text: Grammatical Signals27
Surface Versus Deep Structure29
Contrasting Models of Reading and Learning to Read32
Comprehending Language in Reading
A Skills View of Reading and Learning to Read
A Transactional, Sociopsycholinguistic View of Reading and Learning to Read
For Further Exploration38
3Contexts and Strategies in the Reading Process41
The Varieties of Context: An Overview41
Context Beyond the Sentence and the Text44
Using Context to Determine Meaning and Acquire Vocabulary
Using Context to Identify Words
Context Within the Sentence49
Language Cues and Reading Strategies52
Context in Reading: Review and Preview54
For Further Exploration57
4What Miscues Tell Us About Reading and Readers: Reciprocal Insights61
Reading Proficiency and the Use of Context62
Miscues on Basic Sight Words
Constructing Meaning and Reconstructing Text
Good Versus Less Proficient Readers' Use of Context
Why Not Word Identification?71
Words as Symbols
Constructing Meaning Without All the Words
Constructing Meaning and Forgetting the Words
Implications for Understanding Dialect Miscues74
Revaluing Readers77
Review and Beyond80
For Further Exploration81
5Word Perception in the Reading Process88
The Eyes and the Brain89
Parts of Words at Work91
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
Parts of Words in Review
How We Perceive Words94
Activity 1
Activity 2
Syllables: A Perceptually Salient Unit
More on Reading by Analogy99
The Role of Phonics Rules in the Reading Process101
Word Parts and Word Perception in Review104
Eye Movement and Eye Fixation Studies and the Perception of Words105
Popular Claims by Oft-Cited Researchers
Eye Fixation Research
Proficient Reading: "Flow" Rather than "Fluency"110
Towards a More Complete Model of the Reading Process111
For Further Exploration116
6Understanding What Miscues Can Tell Us About Readers' Strategies120
What We Can Learn by Analyzing Miscues121
Miscue Markings122
Unsuccessful Attempt at Correction
Abandoning a Correct Response
Sounding Out
Miscues That Reflect Good Strategies125
Miscues That Reflect Good Prediction
Miscues Involving Pronouns and Function Words
Miscues That Reflect Readers' Language Patterns
Immature Speech Pattern
Ethnic, Social, or Regional Dialect
ESL-Related and EFL-Related Miscues
Miscues That Result from Monitoring Comprehension
Regressions to Correct
Repetitions and Pauses
Miscues That Suggest Inefficient Reading133
Overcorrection of Miscues
Miscues That Suggest Ineffective Reading135
The Use of Graphic Cues in Relation to Other Cues136
Effective Use of Graphic Cues Along with Other Cues
Underuse of Graphic Cues
Overuse of Graphic Cues and Underuse of Other Cues
Related but Different Approaches to Miscue Analysis138
Miscue Analysis in the Goodman Tradition
Crucial Differences Between Miscue Analysis and Running Records
For Further Exploration144
7Analyzing Miscues and Looking for Patterns155
Miscues and the Use of Context156
Marking and Coding Miscues on the Selection Copy161
Coding the Miscues
Analyzing, Coding, and Interpreting the Data from Tony's Miscues163
Analyzing and Coding Tony's Miscues
Interpretation of Tony's Miscue Patterns
Another Way of Coding Tony's Miscues
Marking Miscues for Coding168
How to Mark Miscues on the Selection Copy
General Principles and Procedures for Coding Miscues170
Question 1Did the miscue reflect the speaker's ordinary speech patterns?
Question 2Did the miscue go with the grammar and meaning of what came before?
Question 3Did the miscue go with the grammar and meaning of what followed?
Question 4Did the miscue leave the essential meaning of the sentence intact?
Question 5Was the miscue corrected?
Question 6Was the miscue graphically similar?
Question 7Was the sentence, as the reader finally left it, semantically acceptable within the whole original selection that was read?
Alternative Miscue Analysis Procedures and Forms175
Analyzing Jay's Miscues179
Interpretation of Jay's Miscue Patterns
For Further Exploration183
8Developing a Reader Profile: From Assessment to Instruction184
The Reading Interview and the First Session185
The Reading Interview
Preparing for and Conducting the First Session
Recording the Data from the Interview
Preparing for and Conducting the Second Session191
Preparing for the Reading
Preparing for the Retelling and Extended Discussion
Preparing to Ask Questions About a Story
Conducting the Oral Reading and Retelling
Recording the Retelling Data
Recording the Miscues on the Selection Copy
Coding the Miscues and Analyzing Patterns
Developing a Reader Profile: Tangling with the Messiness of Reality200
The Reading Interview
The Retelling and Discussion
Miscues, Miscue Patterns, and Reading Strategies
An Instructional Plan
Additional Forms for Recording Data208
Other Aspects of a Reading Portfolio and Profile211
For Further Exploration211
9Revaluing Readers, Retrospective Miscue Analysis, and Other Strategies for Helping Readers212
Phonics, Words, and Reading213
Efficient Reading and Fluency214
Revaluing Readers215
Erica: From Analysis to Assistance216
Analyzing Erica's Miscues
Helping Erica Revalue Herself as a Reader
Retrospective Miscue Analysis221
Teachers Choosing the Miscues for Discussion
Readers Selecting Their Own Miscues for Discussion
Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Pairs or Groups
The "Think-Aloud" Strategy226
Helping Readers Develop Needed Concepts, Vocabulary, and Strategies227
Extra Help Through Shared Reading and Constructive Reading Strategies228
For Further Exploration230
10Addressing Students' Needs in a Comprehensive Literacy Program231
Major Components of a Comprehensive Literacy Program232
Other Literacy Experiences for Readers in Need235
Language Experience and Guided Writing
Books on Tape
Support from Another Reader
Unrehearsed Reading: The Pitfalls of "Round-Robin" Reading
Choral Reading and Readers Theater
Choosing Appropriate Texts242
Matching Instruction to Readers' Varied Needs243
In Conclusion249
For Further Exploration250
11Reading Research from Differing Perspectives251
Research from a Skills Perspective253
An Attempt to Achieve Consensus: Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
Before the National Reading Panel Report: Critiques of the Skills Research
The National Reading Panel Report
Other Critiques of the NRP Report and Its Methodology
Research from a Comprehensive Literacy Perspective262
Research on "Decodable" Texts
Classroom Research on the Effects and Effectiveness of Comprehensive Literacy Programs
Acquiring Literacy in a Second Language Through Book-Based Programs
Observational Research from the Center on English Learning and Achievement
For Further Exploration275
12Designing a Comprehensive Literacy Program276
Guiding Principles and Practices278
Reading and Writing Workshops: The Heart of a Comprehensive Literacy Program280
Reading Workshops
Writing Workshops
How Might We Organize a Classroom Literacy Program?298
Comments on the Sample Schedules
For Further Exploration303
13Research on Learning and Teaching Phonics304
Clarifying Some Concepts and Terms305
Phonological Awareness
Phonics, "Phonics Knowledge," and Decoding
Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to Read Words310
Reading Words by Analogy
Developmental Patterns in Review
Relationships Between Phonemic Awareness and Learning to Read314
Phonemic Awareness Promotes Learning to Read
Learning to Read Promotes Phonemic Awareness
Learning to Read and Phonemic Awareness Facilitate Each Other
The National Reading Panel Report on Phonics317
Major Distortions in the Summary of the NRP Report
Interpreting NRP Claims About Reading Growth
Negative or No Conclusions from the NRP Subgroup Report on Phonics
Summary of Actual NRP Findings
Considerations and Cautions
For Further Exploration324
14Teaching Comprehension Strategies and Phonics Skills325
Teaching Reading Strategies at the Macro Level327
Teaching Strategies in the Primary Grades
Teaching Strategies in the Intermediate and Middle Grades
Teaching Reading Strategies at the Micro Level333
A Reading Detective Club
Considering Strategies for Dealing with Words
Using Prompts and Developing Strategy Charts and Bookmarks
Teaching Phonics and Phonemic Awareness343
The Shared Reading Experience--and More
Intensive, Systematic Phonics
A Perspective on Teaching Phonics
And Let Us Keep in Mind...359
So Let Us Not Forget...
For Further Exploration359
15Foundations for Universal Literacy, by Margaret Moustafa365
Early Readers365
Early Reading Instruction369
Beyond Decoding373
Beyond Instruction374
Towards Universal Literacy376
For Further Exploration377

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