Reading Process and Practice / Edition 3

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Overview

Authoritative. Comprehensive. Definitive.

Reading Process and Practice, since its original publication in 1988, has helped countless preservice and practicing teachers better understand the reading process and translate it into classroom practice-so much so that the book has become the essential guide for teachers. Now, internationally recognized researcher and educator Constance Weaver has thoroughly updated her book. Clarifying theory with explanations and examples, as always, Weaver incorporates especially timely information-accurate data, informed critique, and results of often-ignored research-to help teachers counteract government and corporate intrusion into classrooms. Effective instruction stems from a sensitive, informed response to students' needs; the aim of this book is to help teachers achieve that goal.

To that end, Weaver has written five new chapters on assessing and helping readers-enough information to do miscue analysis successfully, to develop a reader profile, and to carry out instructional support for individual readers. To make the book accessible to both undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to new and veteran teachers, she has included definitions and concepts that are repeated throughout the book to provide multiple entry points into key understandings and issues. A new chapter describes what a comprehensive literacy program might include and how it might be structured, while practical chapters flesh out specific components of such a program. Finally, the book is designed so that teachers and teacher educators can cluster chapters in alternative orderings, depending upon the literacy programs in which they teach or the nature of the courses they are teaching.

And there's another new and special addition. An associated website contains an extensive bibliography compiled and annotated by first-grade teacher Catherine Compton-Lilly. Numerous sections cover topics that range from being a teacher, choosing books for children, and working with parents to teaching reading in elementary, middle, and high school. Purchasers of the book can download this information-and more-for free at www.heinemann.com/weaver.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780325003771
  • Publisher: Heinemann
  • Publication date: 4/26/2002
  • Edition description: 3RD
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 448
  • Sales rank: 744,849
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.87 (d)

Meet the Author

For more than three decades, Constance Weaver has been one of the fields' leading voices on literacy topics ranging from the reading process to grammar instruction with writing. Reading Process & Practice first appeared in 1988 and became widely known as the most authoritative, comprehensive, and definitive book of its kind. Now available in a Brief Edition, it continues to help teaches define reading in ways that support high-quality instruction. Connie once again led the way with the 1996 publication of the bestselling Teaching Grammar in Context and its companion Lessons to Share on Teaching Grammar in Context. Since then she has expanded and deepened her insights and specific teaching ideas in The Grammar Plan Book and Grammar to Enrich and Enhance Writing. In 1996, the Michigan Council of Teachers of English honored Weaver with the Charles C. Fries award for outstanding leadership in the profession. Connie is the Heckert Professor of Reading and Writing at Miami University , Oxford, Ohio, and Professor Emerita of English at Western Michigan University .
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Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 Definitions of Reading: They Make a Difference 1
The Importance of a Definition 1
Characterizing Reading and Reading Instruction 4
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
For Further Exploration 10
2 Schemas and Transactions in the Reading Process 14
Comprehending and Learning to Read 14
The Meaning of Words and Sentences: A First Look 15
Schemas: What Are They? 17
Schemas in Reading 19
Schemas and Transactions 21
Pragmatics: Situational, Social, and Cultural Factors in Reading 24
Transactions Within the Language of the Text: Grammatical Signals 27
Surface Versus Deep Structure 29
Contrasting Models of Reading and Learning to Read 32
Comprehending Language in Reading
A Skills View of Reading and Learning to Read
A Transactional, Sociopsycholinguistic View of Reading and Learning to Read
For Further Exploration 38
3 Contexts and Strategies in the Reading Process 41
The Varieties of Context: An Overview 41
Context Beyond the Sentence and the Text 44
Using Context to Determine Meaning and Acquire Vocabulary
Using Context to Identify Words
Context Within the Sentence 49
Language Cues and Reading Strategies 52
Context in Reading: Review and Preview 54
For Further Exploration 57
4 What Miscues Tell Us About Reading and Readers: Reciprocal Insights 61
Reading Proficiency and the Use of Context 62
Miscues on Basic Sight Words
Constructing Meaning and Reconstructing Text
Good Versus Less Proficient Readers' Use of Context
Why Not Word Identification? 71
Words as Symbols
Constructing Meaning Without All the Words
Constructing Meaning and Forgetting the Words
Implications for Understanding Dialect Miscues 74
Revaluing Readers 77
Review and Beyond 80
For Further Exploration 81
5 Word Perception in the Reading Process 88
The Eyes and the Brain 89
Parts of Words at Work 91
Activity 1
Activity 2
Activity 3
Parts of Words in Review
How We Perceive Words 94
Activity 1
Activity 2
Syllables: A Perceptually Salient Unit
More on Reading by Analogy 99
The Role of Phonics Rules in the Reading Process 101
Word Parts and Word Perception in Review 104
Eye Movement and Eye Fixation Studies and the Perception of Words 105
Popular Claims by Oft-Cited Researchers
Eye Fixation Research
Proficient Reading: "Flow" Rather than "Fluency" 110
Towards a More Complete Model of the Reading Process 111
For Further Exploration 116
6 Understanding What Miscues Can Tell Us About Readers' Strategies 120
What We Can Learn by Analyzing Miscues 121
Miscue Markings 122
Substitution
Insertion
Omission
Partial
Reversal
Correction
Unsuccessful Attempt at Correction
Abandoning a Correct Response
Repetition
Pause
Sounding Out
Mumble
Miscues That Reflect Good Strategies 125
Miscues That Reflect Good Prediction
Miscues Involving Pronouns and Function Words
Miscues That Reflect Readers' Language Patterns
Immature Speech Pattern
Ethnic, Social, or Regional Dialect
ESL-Related and EFL-Related Miscues
Miscues That Result from Monitoring Comprehension
Restructurings
Regressions to Correct
Repetitions and Pauses
Miscues That Suggest Inefficient Reading 133
Overcorrection of Miscues
Miscues That Suggest Ineffective Reading 135
The Use of Graphic Cues in Relation to Other Cues 136
Effective Use of Graphic Cues Along with Other Cues
Underuse of Graphic Cues
Overuse of Graphic Cues and Underuse of Other Cues
Related but Different Approaches to Miscue Analysis 138
Miscue Analysis in the Goodman Tradition
Crucial Differences Between Miscue Analysis and Running Records
For Further Exploration 144
7 Analyzing Miscues and Looking for Patterns 155
Miscues and the Use of Context 156
Marking and Coding Miscues on the Selection Copy 161
Coding the Miscues
Analyzing, Coding, and Interpreting the Data from Tony's Miscues 163
Analyzing and Coding Tony's Miscues
Interpretation of Tony's Miscue Patterns
Another Way of Coding Tony's Miscues
Marking Miscues for Coding 168
How to Mark Miscues on the Selection Copy
General Principles and Procedures for Coding Miscues 170
Question 1 Did the miscue reflect the speaker's ordinary speech patterns?
Question 2 Did the miscue go with the grammar and meaning of what came before?
Question 3 Did the miscue go with the grammar and meaning of what followed?
Question 4 Did the miscue leave the essential meaning of the sentence intact?
Question 5 Was the miscue corrected?
Question 6 Was the miscue graphically similar?
Question 7 Was the sentence, as the reader finally left it, semantically acceptable within the whole original selection that was read?
Alternative Miscue Analysis Procedures and Forms 175
Analyzing Jay's Miscues 179
Interpretation of Jay's Miscue Patterns
For Further Exploration 183
8 Developing a Reader Profile: From Assessment to Instruction 184
The Reading Interview and the First Session 185
The Reading Interview
Preparing for and Conducting the First Session
Recording the Data from the Interview
Preparing for and Conducting the Second Session 191
Preparing for the Reading
Preparing for the Retelling and Extended Discussion
Preparing to Ask Questions About a Story
Conducting the Oral Reading and Retelling
Discussion
Recording the Retelling Data
Recording the Miscues on the Selection Copy
Coding the Miscues and Analyzing Patterns
Developing a Reader Profile: Tangling with the Messiness of Reality 200
The Reading Interview
The Retelling and Discussion
Miscues, Miscue Patterns, and Reading Strategies
An Instructional Plan
Additional Forms for Recording Data 208
Other Aspects of a Reading Portfolio and Profile 211
For Further Exploration 211
9 Revaluing Readers, Retrospective Miscue Analysis, and Other Strategies for Helping Readers 212
Phonics, Words, and Reading 213
Efficient Reading and Fluency 214
Revaluing Readers 215
Erica: From Analysis to Assistance 216
Analyzing Erica's Miscues
Helping Erica Revalue Herself as a Reader
Retrospective Miscue Analysis 221
Teachers Choosing the Miscues for Discussion
Readers Selecting Their Own Miscues for Discussion
Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Pairs or Groups
The "Think-Aloud" Strategy 226
Helping Readers Develop Needed Concepts, Vocabulary, and Strategies 227
Extra Help Through Shared Reading and Constructive Reading Strategies 228
For Further Exploration 230
10 Addressing Students' Needs in a Comprehensive Literacy Program 231
Major Components of a Comprehensive Literacy Program 232
Other Literacy Experiences for Readers in Need 235
Language Experience and Guided Writing
Books on Tape
Support from Another Reader
Unrehearsed Reading: The Pitfalls of "Round-Robin" Reading
Choral Reading and Readers Theater
Choosing Appropriate Texts 242
Matching Instruction to Readers' Varied Needs 243
In Conclusion 249
For Further Exploration 250
11 Reading Research from Differing Perspectives 251
Research from a Skills Perspective 253
An Attempt to Achieve Consensus: Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
Before the National Reading Panel Report: Critiques of the Skills Research
The National Reading Panel Report
Other Critiques of the NRP Report and Its Methodology
Research from a Comprehensive Literacy Perspective 262
Research on "Decodable" Texts
Classroom Research on the Effects and Effectiveness of Comprehensive Literacy Programs
Acquiring Literacy in a Second Language Through Book-Based Programs
Observational Research from the Center on English Learning and Achievement
For Further Exploration 275
12 Designing a Comprehensive Literacy Program 276
Guiding Principles and Practices 278
Reading and Writing Workshops: The Heart of a Comprehensive Literacy Program 280
Reading Workshops
Assessment
Writing Workshops
How Might We Organize a Classroom Literacy Program? 298
Comments on the Sample Schedules
For Further Exploration 303
13 Research on Learning and Teaching Phonics 304
Clarifying Some Concepts and Terms 305
Phonological Awareness
Phonics, "Phonics Knowledge," and Decoding
Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to Read Words 310
Reading Words by Analogy
Developmental Patterns in Review
Relationships Between Phonemic Awareness and Learning to Read 314
Phonemic Awareness Promotes Learning to Read
Learning to Read Promotes Phonemic Awareness
Learning to Read and Phonemic Awareness Facilitate Each Other
The National Reading Panel Report on Phonics 317
Major Distortions in the Summary of the NRP Report
Interpreting NRP Claims About Reading Growth
Negative or No Conclusions from the NRP Subgroup Report on Phonics
Summary of Actual NRP Findings
Considerations and Cautions
For Further Exploration 324
14 Teaching Comprehension Strategies and Phonics Skills 325
Teaching Reading Strategies at the Macro Level 327
Teaching Strategies in the Primary Grades
Teaching Strategies in the Intermediate and Middle Grades
Teaching Reading Strategies at the Micro Level 333
A Reading Detective Club
Considering Strategies for Dealing with Words
Using Prompts and Developing Strategy Charts and Bookmarks
Teaching Phonics and Phonemic Awareness 343
The Shared Reading Experience--and More
Intensive, Systematic Phonics
A Perspective on Teaching Phonics
And Let Us Keep in Mind... 359
So Let Us Not Forget...
For Further Exploration 359
15 Foundations for Universal Literacy, by Margaret Moustafa 365
Early Readers 365
Early Reading Instruction 369
Beyond Decoding 373
Beyond Instruction 374
Towards Universal Literacy 376
For Further Exploration 377
Notes 379
References 385
Index 417
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