Reading Process: Brief Edition of Reading Process and Practice / Edition 3

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Still authoritative. Still definitive. Now focused on the reading process.

The Brief Edition of Constance Weaver's classic Reading Process & Practice begins with the seemingly simple question "What is reading, anyway? What is the essence of the reading process itself?" With so many competing, often antithetical interpretations, teachers need an answer they can trust and put to use. Connie Weaver knows the research and her book is designed to help teachers develop their own research-based definition of reading.

Written in clear, concise language, Reading Process, Brief Edition, is still comprehensive. It takes the chapters from the third edition of Reading Process & Practice that explore the reading process, miscue analysis, and supporting struggling readers, combining them with features ideal for preservice, post-graduate, and in-service learning:

  • a new introduction that succinctly discusses of the implementation and fallout from Reading First, the National Reading Panel report, and DIBELS
  • definitions, concepts, interactive activities, and examples that make the research accessible
  • a model of reading that synthesizes reading research from several perspectives while emphasizing insights from sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic research
  • a companion website ( with printable forms for miscue analysis and case studies of readers across the grades
  • a new, detailed, interactive study guide, perfect for study by individuals, reading groups, and whole classes.

To answer "What is reading?" we must examine how readers interact with texts in normal settings. To learn what this research says, we can trust Connie Weaver and Reading Process, Brief Edition. It remains the essential guide for teachers who want an understanding of reading around which they can build effective practices.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780325028439
  • Publisher: Heinemann
  • Publication date: 8/17/2009
  • Edition description: Third
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 304
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

For more than three decades, Constance Weaver has been one of the fields' leading voices on literacy topics ranging from the reading process to grammar instruction with writing. Reading Process & Practice first appeared in 1988 and became widely known as the most authoritative, comprehensive, and definitive book of its kind. Now available in a Brief Edition, it continues to help teaches define reading in ways that support high-quality instruction. Connie once again led the way with the 1996 publication of the bestselling Teaching Grammar in Context and its companion Lessons to Share on Teaching Grammar in Context. Since then she has expanded and deepened her insights and specific teaching ideas in The Grammar Plan Book and Grammar to Enrich and Enhance Writing. In 1996, the Michigan Council of Teachers of English honored Weaver with the Charles C. Fries award for outstanding leadership in the profession. Connie is the Heckert Professor of Reading and Writing at Miami University , Oxford, Ohio, and Professor Emerita of English at Western Michigan University .
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Introduction xiii

Introducing the National Reading Panel Report xiv

The Failure of the Reading First Initiative xvi

Reading as a Sociopsycholinguistic Process xviii

Teaching Phonics and Phonemic Awareness xix

Problems with Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Fluency in Reading First xxi

Dissecting DIBELS

The Unwanted Demand for Fluency in DIBELS

Reading as a Cognitive, Constructive, and "Chaotic" Process

1 Definitions of Reading: They Make a Difference 1

The Importance of a Definition 1

Characterizing Reading and Reading Instruction 4

Activity 1

Activity 2

Activity 3

For Further Exploration 10

2 Schemas and Transactions in the Reading Process 14

Comprehending and Learning to Read 14

The Meaning of Words and Sentences: A First Look 15

Schemas: What Are They? 17

Schemas in Reading 19

Schemas and Transactions 21

Pragmatics: Situational, Social, and Cultural Factors in Reading 24

Transactions Within the Language of the Text: Grammatical Signals 27

Surface Versus Deep Structure 29

Contrasting Models of Reading and Learning to Read 32

Comprehending Language in Reading

A skills View of Reading and Learning to Read

A Transactional, Sociopsycholinguistic View of Reading and Learning to Read

For Further Exploration 38

3 Contexts and Strategies in the Reading Process 41

The Varieties of Context: An Overview 41

Context Beyond the Sentence and the Text 44

Using Context to Determine Meaning and Acquire Vocabulary

Using Context to Identify Words

Context Within the Sentence 49

Language Cues and Reading Strategies 52

Context in Reading: Review and Preview 54

For Further Exploration 57

4What Miscues Tell Us About Reading and Readers: Reciprocal Insights 61

Reading Proficiency and the Use of Context 62

Miscues on Basic Sight Words

Constructing Meaning and Reconstructing Text

Good Versus Less Proficient Readers' Use of Context

Why Not Word Identification? 71

Words as Symbols

Constructing Meaning Without All the Words

Constructing Meaning and Forgetting the Words

Implications for Understanding Dialect Miscues 74

Revaluing Readers 77

Review and Beyond 80

For Further Exploration 81

5 Word Perception in the Reading Process 88

The Eyes and the Brain 89

Parts of Words at Work 91

Activity 1

Activity 2

Activity 3

Parts of Words in Review

How We Perceive Words 94

Activity 1

Activity 2

Syllables: A Perceptually Salient Unit

More on Reading by Analogy 99

The Role of Phonics Rules in the Reading Process 101

Word Parts and Word Perception in Review 104

Eye Movement and Eye Fixation Studies and the Perception of Words 105

Popular Claims by Oft-Cited Researchers

Eye Fixation Research

Proficient Reading: "Flow" Rather than "Fluency" 110

Toward a More Complete Model of the Reading Process 111

For Further Exploration 116

6 Understanding What Miscues Can Tell Us About Readers' Strategies 120

What We Can Learn by Analyzing Miscues 121

Miscue Markings 122







Unsuccessful Attempt at Correction

Abandoning a Correct Response



Sounding Out


Miscues That Reflect Good Strategies 125

Miscues That Reflect Good Prediction

Miscues Involving Pronouns and Function Words

Miscues That Reflect Readers' Language Patterns

Immature Speech Pattern

Ethnic, Social, or Regional Dialect

ESL-Related and EFL-Related Miscues

Miscues That Result from Monitoring Comprehension


Regressions to Correct

Repetitions and Pauses

Miscues That Suggest Inefficient Reading 133

Overcorrection of Miscues

Miscues That Suggest Ineffective Reading 135

The Use of Graphic Cues in Relation to Other Cues 136

Effective Use of Graphic Cues Along with Other Cues

Underuse of Graphic Cues

Overuse of Graphic Cues and Underuse of Other Cues

Related but Different Approaches to Miscue Analysis 138

Miscue Analysis in the Goodman Tradition

Crucial Differences Between Miscue Analysis and Running Records

For Further Exploration 144

7 Analyzing Miscues and Looking for Patterns 155



Coding the Miscues

Analyzing, Coding, and Interpreting the Data from Tony's Miscues 163

Analyzing and Coding Tony's Miscues

Interpretation of Tony's Miscue Patterns

Another Way of Coding Tony's Miscues

Marking Miscues for Coding 168

How to Mark Miscues on the Selection Copy

General Principles and Procedures for Coding Miscues 170

Question 1 Did the miscue reflect the speaker's ordinary speech patterns?

Question 2 Did the miscue go with the grammar and meaning of what came before?

Question 3 Did the miscue go with the grammar and meaning of what followed?

Question 4 Did the miscue leave the essential meaning of the sentence intact?

Question 5 Was the miscue corrected?

Question 6 Was the miscue graphically similar?

Question 7 Was the sentence, as the reader finally left it, semantically acceptable ivithin the whole original selection that was read?

Alternative Miscue Analysis Procedures and Forms 175

Analyzing Jay's Miscues 179

Interpretation of Jay's Miscue Patterns

For Further Exploration 183

8 Developing a Reader Profile: From Assessment to Instruction 184

The Reading Interview and the First Session 185

The Reading Interview

Preparing for and Conducting the First Session

Recording the Data from the Interview

Preparing for and Conducting the Second Session 191

Preparing for the Reading

Preparing for the Retelling and Extended Discussion

Preparing to Ask Questions About a Story

Conducting the Oral Reading and Retelling


Recording the Retelling Data

Recording the Miscues on the Selection Copy

Coding the Miscues and Analyzing Patterns

Developing a Reader Profile: Tangling with the Messiness of Reality 200

The Reading Intervieiu

The Retelling and Discussion

Miscues, Miscue Patterns, and Reading Strategies

An Instructional Plan

Additional Forms for Recording Data 208

Other Aspects of a Reading Portfolio and Profile 211

For Further Exploration 211

9 Revaluing Readers, Retrospective Miscue Analysis, and Other Strategies for Helping Readers 212

Phonics, Words, and Reading 213

Efficient Reading and Fluency 214

Revaluing Readers 215

Erica: From Analysis to Assistance 216

Analyzing Erica's Miscues

Helping Erica Revalue Herself as a Reader

Retrospective Miscue Analysis 221

Teachers Choosing the Miscues for Discussion

Readers Selecting Their Own Miscues for Discussion

Retrospective Miscue Analysis with Pairs or Groups

The "Think-Aloud" Strategy 226

Helping Readers Develop Needed Concepts, Vocabulary, and Strategies 227

Extra Help Through Shared Reading and Constructive Reading Strategies 228

For Further Exploration 230

Appendix to Chapter 9: Matching Instniction to Readers' Varied Needs 231

Notes 239

References 243

Index 271

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