Readings in the History and Systems of Psychology / Edition 2

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Overview

Designed for use on its own or in conjunction with any main book on the history/systems of psychology (including Brennan's History and Systems of Psychology). This anthology provides a representative sampling of primary sources — from Plato to Descartes to Freud to Watson — that provides a coherent exposure to the evolution of ideas within psychology. It is written for those students without an advanced academic background in history, philosophy, or biology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136267973
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/28/1997
  • Series: MySearchLab Series 15% off Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 280
  • Sales rank: 1,076,273
  • Product dimensions: 5.98 (w) x 8.74 (h) x 0.78 (d)

Read an Excerpt

Preface

The purpose of this book is to provide a selection of primary source readings to accompany the study of psychology's long history. From the time of ancient societies, intellectual writers have recorded their observations and interpretations of human activities, motives, and emotions. The progression of ideas that led to the post-Renaissance development of empirical science in Europe allowed psychology to assume its present, diverse form. Accordingly, the scope of twentieth-century systems of psychology may be best understood in terms of the evolution of Western thought from the time of antiquity.

While a textbook can provide the outline of this historical development, the writers themselves perhaps best document their thoughts on psychology. This collection of readings can supplement any textual exposition of the history and systems of psychology, and it offers a coherent perspective by itself as well.

After presenting approaches to the scholarly study of psychology's past, the readings follow a general chronology. Following the outlines of most textbooks, the selections introduce the major themes of psychological inquiry, initially considered by Greek scholars and subsequently modified by early Christian writers. As modern science grew out of the Renaissance, the place of psychological inquiry became a source of controversy that resulted in competing philosophical models of the nature of psychology, represented in the writings of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). These models followed trends of psychological views proposed by scholars selected from the intellectual climates of France (Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, 1715-1780), Britain (John Locke, 1632-1704; John Stuart Mill, 1806-1873), and Germany (Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804). The tremendous advances of the empirical disciplines, which culminated in the nineteenth century, led to the articulation of the formal study of psychology in the 1870s. This period is represented by the writings of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) and Franz Brentano (1838-1917).

The remainder of the readings deals with the major twentieth-century systems of psychology: the American functional movement (William James, 1842-1910; John Dewey, 1859-1952; James Angell, 1869-1949), Gestalt psychology (Kurt Koflka, 1886-1941), psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud, 1856-1939), reflexology and behaviorism (Ivan Pavlov, 1849-1936; John Broadus Watson, 1878-1958; Edward C. Tolman, 1886-1959; B. E Skinner, 1904-1990), and the third force movement (Maurice Merleau-Ponty, 1908-1961; Carl Rogers, 1902-1987).

A project such as this develops in competition with a wide range of faculty demands, and I want to thank those colleagues and research assistants who have helped throughout this project, including Bill Faw of Brewton-Parker College, Denis Nissim-Sabat of Mary Washington College, and Eric Vanman of the University of Southern California, who critically reviewed the material. I especially want to acknowledge the help of Diane Shaw and Tracy Foxworth of The Graduate School staff of Loyola University of Chicago for their invaluable assistance in helping me to meet my deadlines.

For their continuing help, I am grateful to my wife Maria and daughters Tara and Mikala, who have always been a source of support for these projects.

James F Brennan
Chicago, Illinois

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Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY.

1. Thomas Kuhn, Excerpt from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970).

II. CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGY.

2. Plato, Excerpt from Book VII. “Story of the Cave” from The Republic (ca. 380 B.C.).

3. Aristotle, Excerpts from Book II, Ch. 2, “Second Definition of the Soul,” Ch. 3, “The Faculties of the Soul,” Ch. 5 “Sense-Perception” from De Anima (ca. 330 B.C.).

4. Augustine, Excerpt from the The Confessions (ca. A.D. 310).

5. Thomas Aquinas, Excerpts from Summa Theologiae (ca. 1272).

6. René Descartes, Excerpt from Part I, “About the Passions in General, and Incidentally about the Entire Nature of Man” from The Passions of the Soul (1649).

7. Baruch Spinoza, Excerpt from “The Emendation of the Intellect” (1677).

8. Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Excerpt from Treatise on the Sensations (1754).

9. John Locke, Excerpts from Book II, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689).

10. John Stuart Mill, Excerpt from Book VI of A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and Methods of Scientific Investigation (1843).

11. Immanuel Kant, Excerpt from Critique of Pure Reason (1781).

IV. THE FOUNDING OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY.

12. Wilhelm Wundt, Excerpt from Grundriss der Psychologie (Outlines of Psychology) (1897, 1902).

13. Franz Brentano, Excerpt from Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (1874).

V. AMERICAN FUNCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.

14. William James, Excerpt from The Principles of Psychology (1890).

15. John Dewey, “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology” (1896).

16. James Angell, Excerpt from “The Province of Functional Psychology” (1907).

VI. GERMAN DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY.

17. Kurt Koffka, Excerpt from “Perception: An Introduction to Gestalt-Theorie” (1922).

18. Sigmund Freud, Excerpt from New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1933).

VII. BEHAVIORISM.

19. Ivan Pavlov, Excerpt from Lecture I of Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex (1927).

20. John Broadus Watson, “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It” (1913).

21. Edward C. Tolman, “Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men” (1948).

22. B.F. Skinner, “Can Psychology Be a Science of Mind?”

VIII. THE THIRD FORCE MOVEMENT.

23. Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Excerpts from The Structure of Behavior (1942).

24. Carl Rogers, “Person or Science? A Philosophical Question” (1955).

Index.

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Preface

Preface

The purpose of this book is to provide a selection of primary source readings to accompany the study of psychology's long history. From the time of ancient societies, intellectual writers have recorded their observations and interpretations of human activities, motives, and emotions. The progression of ideas that led to the post-Renaissance development of empirical science in Europe allowed psychology to assume its present, diverse form. Accordingly, the scope of twentieth-century systems of psychology may be best understood in terms of the evolution of Western thought from the time of antiquity.

While a textbook can provide the outline of this historical development, the writers themselves perhaps best document their thoughts on psychology. This collection of readings can supplement any textual exposition of the history and systems of psychology, and it offers a coherent perspective by itself as well.

After presenting approaches to the scholarly study of psychology's past, the readings follow a general chronology. Following the outlines of most textbooks, the selections introduce the major themes of psychological inquiry, initially considered by Greek scholars and subsequently modified by early Christian writers. As modern science grew out of the Renaissance, the place of psychological inquiry became a source of controversy that resulted in competing philosophical models of the nature of psychology, represented in the writings of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). These models followed trends of psychological views proposed by scholars selected from the intellectual climates of France (Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, 1715-1780), Britain (John Locke, 1632-1704; John Stuart Mill, 1806-1873), and Germany (Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804). The tremendous advances of the empirical disciplines, which culminated in the nineteenth century, led to the articulation of the formal study of psychology in the 1870s. This period is represented by the writings of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) and Franz Brentano (1838-1917).

The remainder of the readings deals with the major twentieth-century systems of psychology: the American functional movement (William James, 1842-1910; John Dewey, 1859-1952; James Angell, 1869-1949), Gestalt psychology (Kurt Koflka, 1886-1941), psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud, 1856-1939), reflexology and behaviorism (Ivan Pavlov, 1849-1936; John Broadus Watson, 1878-1958; Edward C. Tolman, 1886-1959; B. E Skinner, 1904-1990), and the third force movement (Maurice Merleau-Ponty, 1908-1961; Carl Rogers, 1902-1987).

A project such as this develops in competition with a wide range of faculty demands, and I want to thank those colleagues and research assistants who have helped throughout this project, including Bill Faw of Brewton-Parker College, Denis Nissim-Sabat of Mary Washington College, and Eric Vanman of the University of Southern California, who critically reviewed the material. I especially want to acknowledge the help of Diane Shaw and Tracy Foxworth of The Graduate School staff of Loyola University of Chicago for their invaluable assistance in helping me to meet my deadlines.

For their continuing help, I am grateful to my wife Maria and daughters Tara and Mikala, who have always been a source of support for these projects.

James F Brennan
Chicago, Illinois

Read More Show Less

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