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ABOUT THIS BOOK
This book provides excellent preparation for the Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test. Inside you will find lessons, drills, strategies, and test practice-all of it with a single-minded focus: success on this achievement test.
This book is divided into several parts: a pretest, which introduces students to some of the key components on the actual test, including:
o Fiction and nonfiction reading excerpts o Multiple-choice questions o Short-answer writing prompts
Following the pretest is a lesson section, which teaches students about the different types of questions on the reading test, step by step. Students will begin with shorter selections and easier questions and conclude each lesson by completing full-length selections and questions modeled after those on the Achievement Test. Answer explanations are provided for each question in each lesson. "Tips" are also given below each question to guide students toward answering the question correctly. Lastly, this book includes a full-length posttest, which is modeled after the Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test.
Begin by assigning students the pretest. Answers and answer explanations follow the pretest. Then work through each of the lessons one by one. When students have completed the book, they should complete the posttest. Answers and answer explanations follow the posttest.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
FOR STUDENTS: To make getting through the book as easy as possible, we've included icons shown on the next page that highlight sections like lessons, questions, and answers. You'll find that our practice tests are very much like the actual Achievement Test you'll encounter on test day. The best way to prepare for a test is to practice, so we've included drills with answers throughout the book, and our two practice tests include detailed answers.
FOR PARENTS: Ohio has created grade-appropriate learning standards that are listed in the table in this introduction. Students need to meet these objectives as measured by the Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test. Our book will help your child review for the achievement test. It includes review sections, drills, and two practice tests complete with explanations to help your child focus on the areas he/she needs to work on to help master the test.
FOR TEACHERS: No doubt, you are already familiar with the Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test and its format. Begin by assigning students the pretest. An answer key and detailed explanations follow the pretest. Then work through each of the lessons in succession. When students have completed the subject review, they should move on to the posttest. Answers and answer explanations follow the posttest.
WHY STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO TAKE THE OHIO GRADE 8 READING ACHIEVEMENT TEST
The Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test measures the extent to which students are meeting the standards set forth by the Ohio Department of Education and the Ohio Board of Regents. Ohio teachers, curriculum experts, business experts, and parents developed the standards and the test in cooperation with the Ohio State Board of Education.
WHAT'S ON THE OHIO GRADE 8 READING ACHIEVEMENT TEST
Reading selections on the Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test can be fiction or nonfiction informational. There are a wide variety of subjects addressed in the reading passages, with most passages being at or near grade level.
Most questions on the Ohio Grade 8 Reading Achievement Test are multiple-choice. Both multiple-choice and open-ended questions are based on the Ohio Learning Standards, which follow.
OHIO GRADE 8 READING ACHIEVEMENT TEST STANARDS*
Acquisition of Vocabulary:
1.Define unknown words through context clues and the author's use of comparison, contrast, and cause and effect.
2.Apply knowledge of connotation and denotation to determine the meaning of words.
3.Identify the relationships of pairs of words in analogical statements (e.g., synonyms and antonyms) and infer word meanings from these relationships.
4.Infer the literal and figurative meaning of words and phrases and discuss the function of figurative language, including metaphors, similes and idioms.
5.Examine and discuss the ways that different events (e.g., cultural, political, social, technological, and scientific events) impact and change the English language.
6.Use knowledge of Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes and suffixes to understand complex words and new subject-area vocabulary (e.g., unknown words in science, mathematics and social studies).
7.Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars.
Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies:
1.Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing and making inferences and drawing conclusions.
2.Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media.
3.Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back, note taking or summarizing what has been read so far in text.
4.Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres, or recommendations from others).
5.Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task).
Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text:
1.Compare and contrast text features, including format and headers of various informational texts in terms of their structure and purpose.
2.Identify and use the organizational structure of a text, such as chronological, compare-contrast, cause-effect, problem-solution, and evaluate its effectiveness.
3.Compare and contrast the treatment, scope and organization of ideas from different sources on the same topic.
4.Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams, cutaways and overlays.
5.Assess the adequacy, accuracy and appropriateness of an author's details, identifying persuasive techniques (e.g., bandwagon, testimonial and emotional word repetition) and examples of bias and stereotyping.
6.Identify the author's purpose and intended audience for the text.
7.Analyze an author's argument, perspective or viewpoint and explain the development of key points.
8.Recognize how to cite facts, draw inferences and present opinion in informational text.
9.Distinguish the characteristics of consumer materials (e.g., warranties, product information, instructional materials), functional or workplace documents (e.g., job-related materials, memoranda, instructions) and public documents (e.g., speeches or newspaper editorials).
Reading Applications: Literary Text:
1.Identify and explain various types of characters (e.g., flat, round, dynamic, static) and how their interactions and conflicts affect the plot.
2.Analyze the influence of setting in relation to other literary elements.
3.Explain how authors pace action and use subplots, parallel episodes and climax.
4.Compare and contrast different points of view (e.g., first person and third person limited, omniscient, objective and subjective), and explain how voice affects literary text.
5.Identify and explain universal themes across different works by the same author and by different authors.
6.Explain how an author's choice of genre affects the expression of theme or topic.
7.Identify examples of foreshadowing and flashback in a literary text.
8.Explain ways in which the author conveys mood and tone through word choice, figurative language, and syntax.
9.Examine symbols used in literary texts.