Real-Time Design Patterns: Robust Scalable Architecture for Real-Time Systems / Edition 1

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Overview

When creating real-time and embedded (RTE) systems, there is no room for error. The nature of the final product demands that systems be powerful, efficient, and highly reliable. The constraints of processor and memory resources add to this challenge. Sophisticated developers rely on design patterns—proven solutions to recurrent design challenges—for building fail-safe RTE systems.

Real-Time Design Patterns is the foremost reference for developers seeking to employ this powerful technique. The text begins with a review of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) notation and semantics then introduces the Rapid Object-Oriented Process for Embedded Systems (ROPES) process and its key technologies. A catalog of design patterns and their applications follows.

Key topics covered in this book include:

  • Identifying large-scale strategic decisions that affect most software elements
  • Coordinating and organizing system components and subsystems
  • Managing memory and resources
  • Defining how objects can be distributed across multiple systems
  • Building safe and reliable architectures
  • Mapping subsystem and component architectures to underlying hardware

The book's extensive problem-solving templates, which draw on the author's years in the trenches, will help readers find faster, easier, and more effective design solutions.

The accompanying CD-ROM contains:

  • Related papers
  • Object Management Group (OMG) specifications
  • Rhapsody™—a UML-compliant design automation tool that captures the analysis and design of systems and generates full behavioral code with intrinsic model-level debug capabilities
  • RapidRMA™—a tool that integrates with Rhapsody™ to perform schedulability and timeliness analysis of UML models

0201699567B08142002

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201699562
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 10/28/2002
  • Series: Addison-Wesley Object Technology Series
  • Edition description: Includes CDrom
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 500
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Bruce Powel Douglass is the Chief Evangelist for i-Logix, a leading producer of tools for real-time systems development. He contributed to the original specification of the UML and to the UML 2.0 as one of the co-chairs of the Object Management Group’s Real-Time Analysis and Design Working Group. Bruce consults for a number of companies and organizations, including NASA, on building large-scale, real-time, safety-critical systems. He is the author of seven other books, including Real-Time Design Patterns (Addison-Wesley, 2003) and Doing Hard Time (Addison-Wesley, 1999).

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Read an Excerpt

Goals

Real-time and embedded systems ("RTE systems") must execute in a much more constrained environment than "traditional" computer systems, such as desktop and mainframe computers. RTE systems must be highly efficient, optimally utilizing their limited processor and memory resources, and yet must often out-perform systems with significantly more compute power. In addition, many RTE systems have important safety critical and high reliability requirements due to their use in systems such as avionics flight control, nuclear power plant control, life support, medical instrumentation, just to name a few. The creation of RTE systems to meet these functional and quality of service requirements requires highly experienced developers with decades of experience. Yet, over the years, as these developers development of such systems, they see the same kinds of problems recurring over and over - not exactly the same problems, but common threads. The very best developers abstract these problems and their solutions, into generalized approaches that have been consistently effective. These generalized approaches are called design patterns. They are often best applied at the level of the system or software architecture - the sum of design decisions that affect the fundamental organization of the system. Real-Time Design Patterns is an attempt to capture in one place a set of architectural design patterns that are useful in the development of RTE systems.

Audience

The book is oriented towards the practicing professional software developer and the computer science major, in the junior or senior year. This book could also serve as an undergraduate or graduate level text, but thefocus is on practical development rather than a theoretical introduction. The book assumes a reasonable proficiency in at least one programming language and a basic understanding to the fundamental concepts of object orientation, the Unified Modeling Language (UML), and real-time systems.

Organization

The first section consists of three chapters. Chapter 1 provides a very brief review of the major concepts in the Unified Modeling Language. Chapter 2 introduces the fundamental concepts of architecture, as they are defined in the Rapid Object-oriented Process for Embedded Systems (ROPES), including the primary division of architecture into logical (design-time) and physical (run-time) aspects, and the 5 important architectural views. In the third chapter, the book gets into a discussion of design patterns and their role in defining architecture. Because it is difficult to discuss architecture in a process-free environment, the ROPES process, and the key technologies it tries to optimize, are introduced to provide a background in which design patterns may be effectively discussed. Once process has been introduced, design patterns are next. Their various aspects are explained and the fundamental organization of design patterns used in this book is provided. The chapter finishes with a discussion of how design patterns can be applied in the development of real systems.

Section 2 contains the architectural design patterns which reify the ways that large scale system components are organized and structured to optimize some set of general system criteria.

The patterns in the second section are organized around the architectural concept they address. Chapter 4 is dedicated to high-level structural patterns - focused around what is called the Subsystem or Component architecture. Because concurrency and resource management is so crucial to real-time and embedded systems, Chapter 5 focuses on the common patterns of concurrency. Memory management is crucial for many systems in this domain, and is the subject of Chapter 6. We see even more general resource management patterns in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 presents a number of common distribution architecture patterns that define how objects can be distributed across multiple address spaces and computers. Finally, Chapter 9 provides a number of patterns that deal with building safe and reliable architectures.

Two appendices appear at the end of the book. The first is simply a summary of the UML graphical notation and the second is an index of the patterns by name.

The CD-ROM has a number of interesting and hopefully useful things on it. It contains a full copy of the Rhapsody UML tool with instructions on how to get a temporary license from I-Logix. Other additional tools potentially useful for developers of real-time developers are also provided. The Papers chapter contains some papers on various topics as well as some useful OMG specifications.

More Information

Additional information on the UML, object-oriented technology and the development of real-time systems can be found at www.ilogix.com. In addition, the current UML, MDA, and CORBA standards can be seen at www.omg.org. For more information on using the UML in real-time systems, Real-Time UML 2nd Edition is also available from Addison-Wesley, as is the more comprehensive Doing Hard Time: Developing Real-Time Systems with UML, Objects, Frameworks and Patterns. Many other well-written and useful books on the UML and software engineering are similarly available.



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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter, except Chapter 9, concludes with References.)

Preface.

I. DESIGN PATTERN BASICS.

1. Introduction.

Basic Modeling Concepts of the UML.

Models.

Structural Elements and Diagrams.

Small Things: Objects, Classes and Interfaces.

Relations.

Structural Diagrams.

Big Things: Subsystems, Components, and Packages.

Behavioral Elements and Diagrams.

Actions and Activities.

Operations and Methods.

Statecharts.

Activity Charts.

Interactions.

Use Case and Requirements Models.

Capturing Black-Box Behavior without Revealing Internal Structure.

What is a Design Pattern?

2. Architecture and the UML.

Architecture.

Logical and Physical Architecture.

Logical Architecture.

Physical Architecture.

The Five Views of Architecture.

Subsystem and Component View.

Concurrency and Resource View

Distribution View.

Safety and Reliability View.

Deployment View.

Implementing Architectures.

Alphabet Soup: CORBA, UML and MDA Basics.

MDA to the Rescue.

Creating Architecture Elements—the Model Level.

Subsystem and Component View.

Concurrency and Resource View.

Distribution View.

Safety and Reliability View.

Deployment View.

3. The Role of Design Patterns.

Introduction.

The ROPES Development Process.

Why Process?

ROPES Process Overview.

The ROPES Microcycle in Detail.

Party!

Analysis with the ROPES Process.

Design with the ROPES Process.

Translation.

Test.

Design Pattern Basics.

What is a Design Pattern?

Basic Structure of Design Patterns.

How to Read Design Patterns in this Book.

Using Design Patterns in Development.

Pattern Hatching—Locating the Right Patterns.

Pattern Mining—Rolling your own Patterns.

Pattern Instantiation—Applying Patterns in Your Designs.

II. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PATTERNS.

4. Subsystem and Component Architectural Patterns.

Layered Pattern.

5-Layer Architecture Pattern.

Microkernel Architecture Pattern.

Channel Architecture Pattern.

Recursive Containment Pattern.

Hierarchical Control Pattern.

Virtual Machine Pattern.

Component-Based Architecture.

ROOM Pattern.

5. Concurrency Patterns.

Introduction.

Concurrency Patterns.

Message Queuing Pattern.

Interrupt Pattern.

Guarded Call Pattern.

Rendezvous Pattern.

Cyclic Executive Pattern.

Round Robin Pattern.

Static Priority Pattern.

Dynamic Priority Pattern.

6. Memory Patterns.

Memory Management Patterns.

Static Allocation Pattern.

Pool Allocation Pattern.

Fixed-Sized Buffer Pattern.

Smart Pointer Pattern.

Garbage Collection Pattern.

Garbage Compactor Pattern.

7. Resource Patterns.

Introduction.

Critical Section Pattern.

Priority Inheritance Pattern.

Highest Locker Pattern.

Priority Ceiling Pattern.

Simultaneous Locking Pattern.

Ordered Locking Pattern.

8. Distribution Patterns.

Introduction.

Shared Memory Pattern.

Remote Method Call Pattern.

Observer Pattern.

Data Bus Pattern.

Proxy Pattern.

Broker Pattern.

9. Safety and Reliability Patterns.

Introduction.

Handling Faults.

Protected Single Channel Pattern.

Homogeneous Redundancy Pattern.

Triple Modular Redundancy Pattern.

Heterogeneous Redundancy Pattern.

Monitor-Actuator Pattern.

Sanity Check Pattern.

Watchdog Pattern.

Safety Executive Pattern.

Appendix A: Notational Summary.

Appendix B: Pattern Index.

Index. 0201699567T08282002

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Preface

Goals

Real-time and embedded systems (RTE systems) must execute in a much more constrained environment than "traditional" computer systems such as desktop and mainframe computers. RTE systems must be highly efficient, optimally utilizing their limited processor and memory resources, and yet must often outperform systems with significantly more compute power. In addition, many RTE systems have important safety-critical and high-reliability requirements because they are often used in systems such as avionics flight control, nuclear power plant control, life support and medical instrumentation. The creation of RTE systems to meet these functional and quality of service requirements requires highly experienced developers with decades of experience. Yet, over the years, these developers have encountered the same problems over and over--maybe not exactly the same problems but common threads. The very best developers abstract these problems and their solutions into generalized approaches that have proved consistently effective. These generalized approaches are called design patterns. They are often best applied at the level of the system or software architecture--the sum of design decisions that affect the fundamental organization of the system. Real-Time Design Patterns is an attempt to capture in one place a set of architectural design patterns that are useful in the development of RTE systems.

Audience

The book is oriented toward the practicing professional software developer and the computer science major in the junior or senior year. This book could also serve as an undergraduate- or graduate-level text, but the focus is on practical development rather than a theoretical dissertation. The book assumes a reasonable proficiency in at least one programming language and a basic understanding of the fundamental concepts of object orientation, the Unified Modeling Language (UML), and real-time systems.

Organization

Part I consists of three chapters. Chapter 1 provides a very brief review of the major concepts in the Unified Modeling Language. Chapter 2 introduces the fundamental concepts of architecture as they are defined in the Rapid Object-oriented Process for Embedded Systems (ROPES), including the primary division of architecture into logical (design-time) and physical (run-time) aspects, and the five important architectural views. In the third chapter, the book gets into a discussion of design patterns and their role in defining architecture. Because it is difficult to discuss architecture in a process-free environment, the ROPES process, and the key technologies it tries to optimize, are introduced to provide a background in which design patterns may be effectively discussed. Once process has been introduced, design patterns are next. Their various aspects are explained, and the fundamental organization of design patterns used in this book is provided. The chapter finishes with a discussion of how design patterns can be applied in the development of real systems.

Part II contains the architectural design patterns that reify the ways that large-scale system components are organized and structured to optimize some set of general system criteria.

The patterns in Part II are organized around the architectural concept they address. Chapter 4 is dedicated to high-level structural patterns--focused around what is called the Subsystem or Component architecture. Because concurrency and resource management is so crucial to real-time and embedded systems, Chapter 5 focuses on the common patterns of concurrency. Memory management is crucial for many systems in this domain, and it is the subject of Chapter 6. We see even more general resource management patterns in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 presents a number of common distribution architecture patterns that define how objects can be distributed across multiple address spaces and computers. Finally, Chapter 9 provides a number of patterns that deal with building safe and reliable architectures.

Two appendixes appear at the end of the book. The first is simply a summary of the UML graphical notation, and the second is an index of the patterns by name.

The CD-ROM provides a number of interesting and useful tools. It contains a full copy of the Rhapsody UML tool with instructions on how to get a temporary license from I-Logix. Other additional potentially useful tools for developers of real-time systems are also provided. The Papers chapter contains some papers on various topics as well as some useful OMG specifications.

More Information

Additional information on the UML, object-oriented technology, and the development of real-time systems can be found at www.ilogix.com. In addition, the current UML, MDA, and CORBA standards can be seen at www.omg.org. For more information on using the UML in real-time systems, Real-Time UML, 2nd Edition is also available from Addison-Wesley, as is the more comprehensive Doing Hard Time: Developing Real-Time Systems with UML, Objects, Frameworks and Patterns. Many other well-written and useful books on the UML and software engineering are similarly available.

Acknowledgments

A book like this is always a joint effort, not only of the direct contributors, such as the editorial staff of Addison-Wesley Professional (and I'd especially like to thank my editor, Paul Becker, for the sometimes less-than-gentle pushing to complete the book!) but of many others who in their own way have raised the bar for all of us. The core team members working on the UML--Cris Kobryn, Eran Gery, Jim Rumbaugh, Bran Selic, and many, many others are certainly among those who should be acknowledged in bringing forth a useful standard language for capturing and manipulating models of systems. Also, Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides deserve recognition for bringing the concept of design patterns into common use with their wonderful book Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. David Harel (inventor of statecharts, the semantic basis for all behavior in the UML) and Werner Damn continue to make significant contributions to the state of the art, especially with respect to formal verification of systems modeled with the UML.

My two boys, Scott and Blake Douglass, continue to delight and amaze me--and keep me humble at the same time--and make all this effort worthwhile.

0201699567P08292002

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