"Because the theories of Special and General Relativity and the standard model for the physics of subatomic particles seem extremely intricate, artificial, irrational, and contradictory and irreconcilable between themselves; I consider it a moral obligation and an act of loyalty with regard to physics and towards myself to submit this work for the consideration and analysis by physicists’ and lay persons, as a seminal contribution to the advancement of physics in general, this work being an epistemological dissertation based on a pragmatic, discovery-helping process of reasoning and deduction, rather than a technical discussion with the mathematical detail and precision usually set forth in the presentation of modern physics.
The logical answers found for all the theoretical questions and doubts I raised for myself concerning those two important areas of modern physics are those I explain in this work to share them with my dear readers, being sure that its conceptual presentation will open up for them, as with me, new paths to arrive at an integral knowledge and understanding of physics; my main motivation and purpose being to have physics again placed under the aegis of logic, common sense and conceptual rigor in accordance with clear philosophical and epistemological basic rules, trying to avoid the ad-hoc building of geometrical and mathematical nirvanas in order to explain that which can be explained rationally and with simple words"
With solid scientific research, Rebuilding Modern Physics offers a new approach to physics, one which will clarify the dark, mysterious, intricate, and confusing areas of modern physics. Under the steady hand of Enrique Morales-Riveira, physics again becomes the realm of reason, logic, and reality.
In this epistemological discourse, Morales-Riveira shows how Minkowski’s space-time, the theories of Special and General Relativity, the standard model for the physics of fundamental particles, and the current cosmological theories are based on irrational ideas and misleading experiments. This has caused modern physics to fatally become a kind of unrealistic science where common sense and physical reality do not have any place whatsoever. This is leading modern physics to an ominous dead-end street and preventing its climb to the next platform. His discussions include:
• Why it is imperative to urgently abandon the arbitrary and unnatural conception of Minkowski’s space-time in modern physics.
• How natural space-time gives back to physics a lost symmetry, inner interdependence, unification, coherence, rationality, and simplicity.
• Reinterpretation of Newton’s Theory of Universal Gravitation.
Though controversial, Rebuilding Modern Physics marks an inflexion point in the science of physics for future generations of physicists avid to unveil the truths behind time, space, energy, and matter.
Because the theories of Special and General Relativity and the standard model for the physics of subatomic particles seem extremely intricate, artificial, irrational, and contradictory and irreconcilable between themselves; I consider it a moral obligation and an act of loyalty with regard to physics and towards myself to submit this work for the consideration and analysis by physicists' and lay persons, as a seminal contribution to the advancement of physics in general, this work being an epistemological dissertation based on a pragmatic, discovery-helping process of reasoning and deduction, rather than a technical discussion with the mathematical detail and precision usually set forth in the presentation of modern physics.
The logical answers found for all the theoretical questions and doubts I raised for myself concerning those two important areas of modern physics are those I explain in this work to share them with my dear readers, being sure that its conceptual presentation will open up for them, as with me, new paths to arrive at an integral knowledge and understanding of physics; my main motivation and purpose being to have physics again placed under the aegis of logic, common sense and conceptual rigor in accordance with clearphilosophical and epistemological basic rules, trying to avoid the ad-hoc building of geometrical and mathematical nirvanas in order to explain that which can be explained rationally and with simple words.
In the first place I open the discussion explaining the reasons why the physics community must urgently abandon Minkowski's Space Time, because it is a framework of space and time that is leading modern physics down an ominous dead-end-street, where irrationality, and the indiscriminate use of ad-hoc mathematics and questionable quantitative experimental data, are creating a new physics where common sense and reality seem to have no place whatsoever, and where everything, absolutely everything, founds an explanation, no matter how absurd, unnatural and weird such explanation may be. On the other hand, I hope that a growing awareness and the certitude of the existence of a Natural-Space-Time, will give back to physics a lost symmetry, total unification, coherence, rationality and, above all, its innate simplicity. In the second place, I demonstrate that the Theory of Special Relativity is a theory that should be circumscribed exclusively to the electromagnetic-field phenomena, that is, to kinematics of quanta and of energy waves in the void, and to the dynamics of the exchanges of energy between electrically charged particles; it being incorrect to extrapolate that theory to the gravitational field.
In the third place, I thoroughly demonstrate that Newton's Theory of Universal Gravitation is the only correct and valid theory to explain universal gravitation, incorporating the barycenter for all the calculations of the gravitational forces between two bodies, simultaneously basing myself on time's dispensability as a phenomenon, or characteristic, of the propagation of Gravity between two bodies.
I use the theory of Special Relativity as a heuristic (discovery-helping) tool for the purpose of demonstrating what is stated above, and to discredit the alleged validity of General Relativity; unmasking the false paradigms and axioms on which said theory is based.
I also suggest various experiments in my work that will prove my theoretical basic principles, free of any ambiguous, vague numerical result and of second or third interpretations, contrasting noticeably with the experiments that have been conducted historically to demonstrate the validity of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity and to justify the standard model of the physics of subatomic particles, in furtherance of which the experimenters have attempted to anxiously fish for the truth in a turbulent river of infinitesimal data, fitting physical parameters that are too complex and abstract, which can vary quantitatively with the slightest of changes in the initial conditions of the adjustment of the measuring instruments.
I provide in the last chapter, as a result of my theoretical developments, a broad yet succinct explanation of a new theory of physics which integrates the gravitational field with the electromagnetic field, which allows one to explain rationally all the phenomena of physics, unifying the physics of subatomic particles with the physics of the large cosmic bodies scattered in space's length and breadth.
Nevertheless, this work is much more than that, since it should justly be deemed a new approach to physics, which I hope will contribute to clarifying very dark, mysterious, intricate and confusing areas of modern physics. Physics again becomes, then, the realm of reason, logic and reality, and not a virtual stage for irrationality and for mathematics to shine.
I presume at this point that the reader must be thinking that only an infinitesimally slim chance exists of one single person having discovered independently something completely new in physics. Well, maybe a stranger to the international scientific community is closer to finding himself in the privileged position of running into something revolutionary in physics than a specialist, since the latter is so deeply committed to his or her own area of specialization that he or she has neither the time nor the motivation or interest to question knowledge that he or she considers valid.
The author has conceived this work to reach a very wide audience of people with a genuine, enthusiastic interest in these topics, but not necessarily having formation and training in the science of physics. I have tried to make the demonstrations and explanations easily understandable for readers who only were to have a basic knowledge of mathematics and physics, attempting to arouse his or her interest for a more intense, in-depth exploration in the field of relativity, of universal gravitation and of the physics of subatomic particles.
The topics and discussions are organized and structured in a planned way with the idea of establishing a logical sequence in tune with the reader's cognitive abilities, using graphs and examples to make the whole thing easy and agreeable for him or her, always striving for the greatest simplicity, familiarity, easiness, rationality and meaning. The language used is devoid of any type of technical jargon, and all the explanations and demonstrations steer clear of labyrinthine, philosophical ponderings and complex, mathematical abstractions.
Chapter Two
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT LEAD TO THE POSTULATION OF A NATURAL-SPACE-TIME
The international physics' community has reached a consensus in the sense that our visible universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, and will continue to do so until its thermal death.
Also, according to recent observations performed by many astrophysical teams, the international physics' community (astronomers, astrophysicists and cosmologists) has reached the conclusion that all visible three-dimensional space is flat. What is the consequence of this very important discovery? Well, the fact that the geometry of space is flat means that all points or coordinates of three-dimensional visible space are sharing the same present or now. That is, that a universal time exists for any universal observer, time then being a scalar physical parameter and not a vectorial one, as linear space actually is in any direction of three-dimensional space. On the contrary, if the geometry of visible three-dimensional space happens to be curved, or bent, time becomes a local or a positional (non universal) physical parameter, since different points or coordinates of three-dimensional space may have different times: ahead or advanced in time in reference to our local proper time.
Consequently, before getting into the formal definition of a Natural-Space-Time, it is advisable for the reader to understand the following:
° The absolute void has neither boundaries nor limits.
° The absolute void has no dimensions whatsoever. The three dimensions we are able to perceive materialize at the moment at which physical objects were to exist that would serve us as geometric references.
° The absolute void can contain everything but cannot be contained, because it is just a case of potential space; that is, space that remains to be materialized.
° Void space lacks movement and nothing moves in relation to void space. Consequently, all observers, whether inertial or not, are at complete rest in relation to the void, and vice-versa. That is why any observer, whether still, inertial, or in acceleration, cannot measure any speed or movement in relation to void space, because it lacks reference points that would allow him to measure absolute speeds. All distances and speeds are relative or geometrical, that is, they are measured relative to a reference point in space, or in relation to a coordinate system, where the observer himself, by definition, is the spatiotemporal origin of said reference system.
° The geometric space we manage to see with our eyes is isotropic (of equal physical properties along all axes), open and flat in its three spatial dimensions. Therefore, it can be represented mathematically by a three-dimensional vectorial continuum, that is, by a Cartesian coordinate system in which the three spatial dimensions are orthogonal among themselves.
° The absolute void, by itself, lacks reference points or geometric structure. Therefore, it cannot be a topological structure susceptible of being deformed, transported, or of curving, sectioning, contracting, elongating, bending, heating, cooling, twisting, rotating, etc., inasmuch as it lacks structure, mass, energy and electric charge. Geometric space materializes only when measurable distances separate bodies or objects.
° Time is a dimension we can sense but cannot see. We can sense time because all occurrences or events that take place in the Universe occur chronologically, that is, they are separated among themselves by a measurable amount of time.
° The time line, same as void space, has no borders nor limits or discontinuities; that is, it can shelter all occurrences or events that occur or may occur in the Universe, but it cannot be measured chronologically, since it, by itself, lacks events and doesn't possess a clock that can mark absolute time either. Chronological time, or measurable time, is the relative time that goes by between two events. All measurable time, as with all measurable geometric space, requires, then, an initial event and a final event to be able to be measured. Time can be defined as an always propagating, scalar - non vectorial - dimension that pervades all three-dimensional space, moving at a chronological, immutable speed of one unit of time per unit of time.
° Universal time propagates in quantum jumps of minimum possible, indivisible time units. Therefore, what separates the past from the future is not a line or a border, but rather a minimum time interval or fundamental granular time unit, something like the "width" of the present. If it were so, minimum possible space would be the amount of indivisible, linear space that would be swept by a pulse or quantum of light during that minimum possible chronological time, that is, the minimum possible amount of linear space or separation in the void between two fundamental particles.
° If light did not propagate like a wave, it would be impossible for us to perceive the three-dimensional space we permanently see.
° Light propagates in universal or absolute time throughout its entire path across void space. That is the reason why light permanently arrives to our position of observation just at our present or now, in all points of space, and from all points of same space; no matter if we are still, moving, or accelerating, and independently also of the motion of the respective light sources. Light is always a local or a proper physical phenomenon for any observer and for any detecting instrument, since light always propagates across the same present or now of the Universe. We see the light that arrives to our proper eyes, and not the light arriving to someone else's eyes.
° Space, time, mass and electric charge, apart from being granular or corpuscular, are identical or immutable for all observers in the Universe, regardless of the speed and acceleration they may have. Therefore, the size, form and age of the Universe are equal for all observers.
° We can assert that all observers and all cosmic bodies have always shared, now share and will tomorrow share the same present or proper time, and also same space. Therefore, everything that exists belongs to the same Universe, because everything was created at the present or now of the Big Bang or primeval explosion that gave life to the Universe in expansion we know. The Big bang, so to speak, synchronized, then, the present of everything that has existed, exists and will exist in the Universe. The Big Bang is the initial event starting from which chronological time, or measurable time, begins to run, as well as the point or place from which geometric or measurable space begins to extend. When events stop occurring, chronological time will reach its end. Likewise, the geometric space we know would come to an end if an infinite expansion of the Universe were to happen, in such a way that every particle would be at an infinite distance from the rest.
° The electromagnetic images we see of cosmic bodies in space, such as the planets, stars and galaxies, are images of their past, a past which is also our past. The farther away from us these bodies are, the more remote in time the images we perceive of them are. Therefore, the closer they find themselves to us, the more recent in time the images we receive of them are. How fresh or far away in time can the image we receive of a cosmic body be? Well, exactly the chronological time it takes the speed of light to travel the distance from the place the object was in the past up to our observation point in the present. Consequently, we never see the present or now of the objects, but rather an image of their past, even if they be located millimeters from our eyes. Nevertheless, we all share the same proper time, present, or now and the same geometric space, otherwise, the light emitted or radiated by said objects would never reach us.
° When we displace lineally through space, we not only travel a given distance, but also spend a certain amount of time in traveling said distance. The higher the speed, the less the time we need in order to travel said distance, and vice-versa. All the speeds we measure are a fraction or multiple of the speed of light C, which works as an absolute reference speed. The speed of light is the only absolute, non-relative or comparative measurement we can perform in any given reference system.
° When we move, neither does space contract nor time expand, that is, a second goes on being a second for us, just as a centimeter continues to be a centimeter, regardless of the speed at which we move. All measurements of time and space we perform are measurements of proper time and proper space; in other words, we never use a unit of contracted time or a unit of expanded time to carry out our measurements.
° Space and time cannot be active physical agents of any sort because they lack energy, mass and electric charge, the latter being the physical magnitudes that create the force fields that impart movement or impetus to ponderable particles by means of energy pulses.
° The Second Law of Thermodynamics establishes a defined and irreversible temporal direction for the sequence of all natural events occurring in the Universe, so that every event that takes place in the Universe is always preceded by another previous event that produces a subsequent effect-event or occurrence, and so on. Causes always precede effects, and not the contrary. Therefore, the Universe should go on expanding indefinitely, augmenting its entropy due to the irreversibility of all natural events. Therefore, it is irrational to believe in the possibility of a big crunch, or a return of the Universe to its original state, since it would require an external binding, or restitution energy, greater than the Big Bang's energy. In other words, it was impossible that the Universe could have reached its maximum entropy at the very moment of the Big Bang, since that would entail that all the potential energy of the Universe was converted, at that very moment, into kinetic energy.
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More About This Textbook
Overview
The logical answers found for all the theoretical questions and doubts I raised for myself concerning those two important areas of modern physics are those I explain in this work to share them with my dear readers, being sure that its conceptual presentation will open up for them, as with me, new paths to arrive at an integral knowledge and understanding of physics; my main motivation and purpose being to have physics again placed under the aegis of logic, common sense and conceptual rigor in accordance with clear philosophical and epistemological basic rules, trying to avoid the ad-hoc building of geometrical and mathematical nirvanas in order to explain that which can be explained rationally and with simple words"
Enrique Morales-Riveira
October 2009
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
With solid scientific research, Rebuilding Modern Physics offers a new approach to physics, one which will clarify the dark, mysterious, intricate, and confusing areas of modern physics. Under the steady hand of Enrique Morales-Riveira, physics again becomes the realm of reason, logic, and reality.
In this epistemological discourse, Morales-Riveira shows how Minkowski’s space-time, the theories of Special and General Relativity, the standard model for the physics of fundamental particles, and the current cosmological theories are based on irrational ideas and misleading experiments. This has caused modern physics to fatally become a kind of unrealistic science where common sense and physical reality do not have any place whatsoever. This is leading modern physics to an ominous dead-end street and preventing its climb to the next platform. His discussions include:
• Why it is imperative to urgently abandon the arbitrary and unnatural conception of Minkowski’s space-time in modern physics.
• How natural space-time gives back to physics a lost symmetry, inner interdependence, unification, coherence, rationality, and simplicity.
• Reinterpretation of Newton’s Theory of Universal Gravitation.
Though controversial, Rebuilding Modern Physics marks an inflexion point in the science of physics for future generations of physicists avid to unveil the truths behind time, space, energy, and matter.
Product Details
Related Subjects
Read an Excerpt
Rebuilding Modern Physics
By Enrique Morales-Riveira
Trafford Publishing
Copyright © 2009 Enrique Morales-RiveiraAll right reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-4269-1910-7
Chapter One
THE AUTHOR'S FOREWORDBecause the theories of Special and General Relativity and the standard model for the physics of subatomic particles seem extremely intricate, artificial, irrational, and contradictory and irreconcilable between themselves; I consider it a moral obligation and an act of loyalty with regard to physics and towards myself to submit this work for the consideration and analysis by physicists' and lay persons, as a seminal contribution to the advancement of physics in general, this work being an epistemological dissertation based on a pragmatic, discovery-helping process of reasoning and deduction, rather than a technical discussion with the mathematical detail and precision usually set forth in the presentation of modern physics.
The logical answers found for all the theoretical questions and doubts I raised for myself concerning those two important areas of modern physics are those I explain in this work to share them with my dear readers, being sure that its conceptual presentation will open up for them, as with me, new paths to arrive at an integral knowledge and understanding of physics; my main motivation and purpose being to have physics again placed under the aegis of logic, common sense and conceptual rigor in accordance with clearphilosophical and epistemological basic rules, trying to avoid the ad-hoc building of geometrical and mathematical nirvanas in order to explain that which can be explained rationally and with simple words.
In the first place I open the discussion explaining the reasons why the physics community must urgently abandon Minkowski's Space Time, because it is a framework of space and time that is leading modern physics down an ominous dead-end-street, where irrationality, and the indiscriminate use of ad-hoc mathematics and questionable quantitative experimental data, are creating a new physics where common sense and reality seem to have no place whatsoever, and where everything, absolutely everything, founds an explanation, no matter how absurd, unnatural and weird such explanation may be. On the other hand, I hope that a growing awareness and the certitude of the existence of a Natural-Space-Time, will give back to physics a lost symmetry, total unification, coherence, rationality and, above all, its innate simplicity. In the second place, I demonstrate that the Theory of Special Relativity is a theory that should be circumscribed exclusively to the electromagnetic-field phenomena, that is, to kinematics of quanta and of energy waves in the void, and to the dynamics of the exchanges of energy between electrically charged particles; it being incorrect to extrapolate that theory to the gravitational field.
In the third place, I thoroughly demonstrate that Newton's Theory of Universal Gravitation is the only correct and valid theory to explain universal gravitation, incorporating the barycenter for all the calculations of the gravitational forces between two bodies, simultaneously basing myself on time's dispensability as a phenomenon, or characteristic, of the propagation of Gravity between two bodies.
I use the theory of Special Relativity as a heuristic (discovery-helping) tool for the purpose of demonstrating what is stated above, and to discredit the alleged validity of General Relativity; unmasking the false paradigms and axioms on which said theory is based.
I also suggest various experiments in my work that will prove my theoretical basic principles, free of any ambiguous, vague numerical result and of second or third interpretations, contrasting noticeably with the experiments that have been conducted historically to demonstrate the validity of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity and to justify the standard model of the physics of subatomic particles, in furtherance of which the experimenters have attempted to anxiously fish for the truth in a turbulent river of infinitesimal data, fitting physical parameters that are too complex and abstract, which can vary quantitatively with the slightest of changes in the initial conditions of the adjustment of the measuring instruments.
I provide in the last chapter, as a result of my theoretical developments, a broad yet succinct explanation of a new theory of physics which integrates the gravitational field with the electromagnetic field, which allows one to explain rationally all the phenomena of physics, unifying the physics of subatomic particles with the physics of the large cosmic bodies scattered in space's length and breadth.
Nevertheless, this work is much more than that, since it should justly be deemed a new approach to physics, which I hope will contribute to clarifying very dark, mysterious, intricate and confusing areas of modern physics. Physics again becomes, then, the realm of reason, logic and reality, and not a virtual stage for irrationality and for mathematics to shine.
I presume at this point that the reader must be thinking that only an infinitesimally slim chance exists of one single person having discovered independently something completely new in physics. Well, maybe a stranger to the international scientific community is closer to finding himself in the privileged position of running into something revolutionary in physics than a specialist, since the latter is so deeply committed to his or her own area of specialization that he or she has neither the time nor the motivation or interest to question knowledge that he or she considers valid.
The author has conceived this work to reach a very wide audience of people with a genuine, enthusiastic interest in these topics, but not necessarily having formation and training in the science of physics. I have tried to make the demonstrations and explanations easily understandable for readers who only were to have a basic knowledge of mathematics and physics, attempting to arouse his or her interest for a more intense, in-depth exploration in the field of relativity, of universal gravitation and of the physics of subatomic particles.
The topics and discussions are organized and structured in a planned way with the idea of establishing a logical sequence in tune with the reader's cognitive abilities, using graphs and examples to make the whole thing easy and agreeable for him or her, always striving for the greatest simplicity, familiarity, easiness, rationality and meaning. The language used is devoid of any type of technical jargon, and all the explanations and demonstrations steer clear of labyrinthine, philosophical ponderings and complex, mathematical abstractions.
Chapter Two
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT LEAD TO THE POSTULATION OF A NATURAL-SPACE-TIMEThe international physics' community has reached a consensus in the sense that our visible universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, and will continue to do so until its thermal death.
Also, according to recent observations performed by many astrophysical teams, the international physics' community (astronomers, astrophysicists and cosmologists) has reached the conclusion that all visible three-dimensional space is flat. What is the consequence of this very important discovery? Well, the fact that the geometry of space is flat means that all points or coordinates of three-dimensional visible space are sharing the same present or now. That is, that a universal time exists for any universal observer, time then being a scalar physical parameter and not a vectorial one, as linear space actually is in any direction of three-dimensional space. On the contrary, if the geometry of visible three-dimensional space happens to be curved, or bent, time becomes a local or a positional (non universal) physical parameter, since different points or coordinates of three-dimensional space may have different times: ahead or advanced in time in reference to our local proper time.
Consequently, before getting into the formal definition of a Natural-Space-Time, it is advisable for the reader to understand the following:
° The absolute void has neither boundaries nor limits.
° The absolute void has no dimensions whatsoever. The three dimensions we are able to perceive materialize at the moment at which physical objects were to exist that would serve us as geometric references.
° The absolute void can contain everything but cannot be contained, because it is just a case of potential space; that is, space that remains to be materialized.
° Void space lacks movement and nothing moves in relation to void space. Consequently, all observers, whether inertial or not, are at complete rest in relation to the void, and vice-versa. That is why any observer, whether still, inertial, or in acceleration, cannot measure any speed or movement in relation to void space, because it lacks reference points that would allow him to measure absolute speeds. All distances and speeds are relative or geometrical, that is, they are measured relative to a reference point in space, or in relation to a coordinate system, where the observer himself, by definition, is the spatiotemporal origin of said reference system.
° The geometric space we manage to see with our eyes is isotropic (of equal physical properties along all axes), open and flat in its three spatial dimensions. Therefore, it can be represented mathematically by a three-dimensional vectorial continuum, that is, by a Cartesian coordinate system in which the three spatial dimensions are orthogonal among themselves.
° The absolute void, by itself, lacks reference points or geometric structure. Therefore, it cannot be a topological structure susceptible of being deformed, transported, or of curving, sectioning, contracting, elongating, bending, heating, cooling, twisting, rotating, etc., inasmuch as it lacks structure, mass, energy and electric charge. Geometric space materializes only when measurable distances separate bodies or objects.
° Time is a dimension we can sense but cannot see. We can sense time because all occurrences or events that take place in the Universe occur chronologically, that is, they are separated among themselves by a measurable amount of time.
° The time line, same as void space, has no borders nor limits or discontinuities; that is, it can shelter all occurrences or events that occur or may occur in the Universe, but it cannot be measured chronologically, since it, by itself, lacks events and doesn't possess a clock that can mark absolute time either. Chronological time, or measurable time, is the relative time that goes by between two events. All measurable time, as with all measurable geometric space, requires, then, an initial event and a final event to be able to be measured. Time can be defined as an always propagating, scalar - non vectorial - dimension that pervades all three-dimensional space, moving at a chronological, immutable speed of one unit of time per unit of time.
° Universal time propagates in quantum jumps of minimum possible, indivisible time units. Therefore, what separates the past from the future is not a line or a border, but rather a minimum time interval or fundamental granular time unit, something like the "width" of the present. If it were so, minimum possible space would be the amount of indivisible, linear space that would be swept by a pulse or quantum of light during that minimum possible chronological time, that is, the minimum possible amount of linear space or separation in the void between two fundamental particles.
° If light did not propagate like a wave, it would be impossible for us to perceive the three-dimensional space we permanently see.
° Light propagates in universal or absolute time throughout its entire path across void space. That is the reason why light permanently arrives to our position of observation just at our present or now, in all points of space, and from all points of same space; no matter if we are still, moving, or accelerating, and independently also of the motion of the respective light sources. Light is always a local or a proper physical phenomenon for any observer and for any detecting instrument, since light always propagates across the same present or now of the Universe. We see the light that arrives to our proper eyes, and not the light arriving to someone else's eyes.
° Space, time, mass and electric charge, apart from being granular or corpuscular, are identical or immutable for all observers in the Universe, regardless of the speed and acceleration they may have. Therefore, the size, form and age of the Universe are equal for all observers.
° We can assert that all observers and all cosmic bodies have always shared, now share and will tomorrow share the same present or proper time, and also same space. Therefore, everything that exists belongs to the same Universe, because everything was created at the present or now of the Big Bang or primeval explosion that gave life to the Universe in expansion we know. The Big bang, so to speak, synchronized, then, the present of everything that has existed, exists and will exist in the Universe. The Big Bang is the initial event starting from which chronological time, or measurable time, begins to run, as well as the point or place from which geometric or measurable space begins to extend. When events stop occurring, chronological time will reach its end. Likewise, the geometric space we know would come to an end if an infinite expansion of the Universe were to happen, in such a way that every particle would be at an infinite distance from the rest.
° The electromagnetic images we see of cosmic bodies in space, such as the planets, stars and galaxies, are images of their past, a past which is also our past. The farther away from us these bodies are, the more remote in time the images we perceive of them are. Therefore, the closer they find themselves to us, the more recent in time the images we receive of them are. How fresh or far away in time can the image we receive of a cosmic body be? Well, exactly the chronological time it takes the speed of light to travel the distance from the place the object was in the past up to our observation point in the present. Consequently, we never see the present or now of the objects, but rather an image of their past, even if they be located millimeters from our eyes. Nevertheless, we all share the same proper time, present, or now and the same geometric space, otherwise, the light emitted or radiated by said objects would never reach us.
° When we displace lineally through space, we not only travel a given distance, but also spend a certain amount of time in traveling said distance. The higher the speed, the less the time we need in order to travel said distance, and vice-versa. All the speeds we measure are a fraction or multiple of the speed of light C, which works as an absolute reference speed. The speed of light is the only absolute, non-relative or comparative measurement we can perform in any given reference system.
° When we move, neither does space contract nor time expand, that is, a second goes on being a second for us, just as a centimeter continues to be a centimeter, regardless of the speed at which we move. All measurements of time and space we perform are measurements of proper time and proper space; in other words, we never use a unit of contracted time or a unit of expanded time to carry out our measurements.
° Space and time cannot be active physical agents of any sort because they lack energy, mass and electric charge, the latter being the physical magnitudes that create the force fields that impart movement or impetus to ponderable particles by means of energy pulses.
° The Second Law of Thermodynamics establishes a defined and irreversible temporal direction for the sequence of all natural events occurring in the Universe, so that every event that takes place in the Universe is always preceded by another previous event that produces a subsequent effect-event or occurrence, and so on. Causes always precede effects, and not the contrary. Therefore, the Universe should go on expanding indefinitely, augmenting its entropy due to the irreversibility of all natural events. Therefore, it is irrational to believe in the possibility of a big crunch, or a return of the Universe to its original state, since it would require an external binding, or restitution energy, greater than the Big Bang's energy. In other words, it was impossible that the Universe could have reached its maximum entropy at the very moment of the Big Bang, since that would entail that all the potential energy of the Universe was converted, at that very moment, into kinetic energy.
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