Recent Developments in Alcoholism

Recent Developments in Alcoholism

by Marc Galanter

ISBN-10: 0306418525

ISBN-13: 9780306418525

Pub. Date: 01/28/1985

Publisher: Basic Books

From the President of the Research Society on Alcoholism Alcohol research has entered an era of growth which brings enhanced opti­ mism regarding the elucidation of the biochemical and psychosocial factors which combine to produce the phenomena of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. The solidification of knowledge regarding the genetic determinants of certain


From the President of the Research Society on Alcoholism Alcohol research has entered an era of growth which brings enhanced opti­ mism regarding the elucidation of the biochemical and psychosocial factors which combine to produce the phenomena of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. The solidification of knowledge regarding the genetic determinants of certain alcohol-related problems puts on firm footing the biological approaches for developing solutions to these problems. The current volume of Recent Devel­ opments in Alcoholism contains an excellent blend of information both on stud­ ies assessing the behavioral and physiological variables which may be ge­ netically linked to an individual's risk of developing problems with alcohol, and on clinical and basic science investigations of the pathological conse­ quences of excessive ethanol ingestion. Further progress in the alcoholism research area will continue to require investigation of the interactions of en­ vironmental variables with the genetically determined biology of an individ­ ual. Novel techniques in the fields of molecular genetics, physical chemistry, and behavioral pharmacology are being brought to bear on the central issues in the field, and the addition of these tools to the science of alcohol research brings closer the prospect of fruitful clinical application of our basic knowl­ edge. The Research Society on Alcoholism remains devoted to the task of promoting the generation of knowledge regarding the actions of alcohol and the mechanisms which produce alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

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Basic Books
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Table of Contents

I. High-Risk Studies of Alcoholism.- Overview.- 1 Behavioral Effects of Alcohol in Sons of Alcoholics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 3. Results.- 3.1. Metabolism.- 3.2. Personality.- 3.3. Reaction to Ethanol.- 3.4. Electrophysiology.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 2 The EEG in Persons at Risk for Alcoholism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Resting EEG.- 2.1. The EEGs of Alcoholics.- 2.2. The EEG in Alcoholics’ Biologic Relatives.- 3. The EEG Effects of a Single Dose of Alcohol.- 3.1. Alcoholics and Normals.- 3.2. The EEG Response to Alcohol in High-Risk Subjects.- 4. Comment.- References.- 3 Psychopathology in Adopted-Out Children of Alcoholics: The Stockholm Adoption Study.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Inheritance of Complex Behaviors: General Principles.- 2.1. Goals of Analysis.- 2.2. Multiple Risk Factors and Heterogeneity.- 2.3. Gene-Environment Interaction.- 3. The Stockholm Adoption Study.- 3.1. The Subjects.- 3.2. Assessment Data.- 4. Genetic Factors in Susceptibility to Alcohol Abuse.- 5. Environmental Risk Factors.- 5.1. Imitation of Parental Alcohol Abuse.- 5.2. Social Status and Stability of Childhood Care.- 5.3. Selective Placement and Gene-Environment Correlation.- 6. Alcoholic Subtypes and Gene-Environment Interaction.- 6.1. Genetic Heterogeneity and Severity of Abuse.- 6.2. Milieu-Limited (Type 1) Alcohol Abuse.- 6.3. Male-Limited (Type 2) Alcohol Abuse.- 7. Relationship to Other Psychopathology.- 7.1. Criminality.- 7.2. Affective Disorders.- 8. Implications of Findings.- References.- 4 Premorbid Assessment of Young Men at High Risk for Alcoholism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methodology.- 3. The Sample.- 4. Hypotheses and Variables.- 4.1. “Neuro” Hypothesis.- 4.2. Biochemical Hypotheses.- 4.3. “Psychopathy” Hypothesis.- 4.4. Social Hypotheses.- 4.5. Psychological Hypotheses.- 5. Results.- 6. Discussion.- References.- 5 Minimal Brain Dysfunction and Neuropsychological Test Performance in Offspring of Alcoholics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. Subjects.- 3. Results.- 3.1. Childhood Problem Behaviors.- 3.2. Neuropsychological Test Results.- 3.3. Childhood Problem Behaviors, Neuropsychological Test Performance, and Drinking History.- 3.4. Age-Similar Alcoholic Probands.- 4. Discussion.- 4.1. Childhood Problem Behaviors.- 4.2. Neuropsychological Test Performance.- 4.3. Childhood Problem Behavior and Adult Neuropsychological Performance.- References.- II. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Alcohol.- Overview.- 6 Synthesis of Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes: Effects of Ethanol.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Arachidonic Acid and Metabolism.- 2.1. Phospholipases.- 2.2. Cyclooxygenase Pathway.- 2.3. Lipoxygenase.- 3. Lipoxygenase Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid and Effects of Ethanol.- 4. Conclusion.- References.- 7 Biochemical Interactions of Ethanol with the Arachidonic Acid Cascade.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ethanol-Induced Alterations in Prostaglandin and Thromboxane Synthesis.- 2.1. Effect on Precursor Availability.- 2.2. Direct Effect of Ethanol on PG and TX Synthesis.- 3. The Effect of Ethanol on PG Degradation.- 3.1. Male PGDH Activity.- 3.2. Maternal and Fetal PGDH Activity.- 4. Ethanol, Prostaglandins, and Cyclic AMP.- 4.1. Ethanol and Cyclic AMP.- 4.2. Molecular Mechanism.- 5. Ethanol, Prostaglandins, and Cytoprotection.- 5.1. Gastric Acid Secretion.- 5.2. Gastric Mucosa Protection.- 6. Miscellaneous.- 6.1. Ethanol and Vascular Response to PGs.- 6.2. PGs and Ethanol Metabolism.- 6.3. Other Cell Interactions.- References.- 8 Brain Arachidonic Acid Metabolites: Functions and Interactions with Ethanol.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Arachidonic Acid Metabolites and Brain.- 3. Ethanol-Prostaglandin Behavioral Interactions.- 4. Ethanol and Brain Prostaglandin Content.- 5. Summary.- References.- III. Cardiovascular Effects of Alcohol Abuse.- Overview.- 9 Alcohol, Coronary Heart Disease, and Total Mortality.- Conclusion.- Discussion.- References.- 10 Alcohol Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Alcohol Consumption and HDL-Chol.- 2.1. HDL Composition and CHD Risk.- 2.2. Alcohol Consumption and Total HDL-Chol.- 2.3. Alcohol Consumption and HDL-Chol Subfractions.- 2.4. Alcohol Consumption and Apoprotein Levels.- 2.5. Mechanisms.- 3. Alcohol Consumption and Blood Pressure.- 3.1. An Ecological Study.- 3.2. Studies of Alcoholics and Problem Drinkers.- 3.3. Studies of Hypertensive Patients.- 3.4. Studies of General Population Samples.- 3.5. Biochemical Measurements and Blood Pressure.- 3.6. Mechanisms.- 4. Summary.- References.- 11 Myocardial Effects of Alcohol Abuse: Clinical and Physiologic Consequences.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Alcoholic Myocardiopathy.- 3. Cardiac Arrhythmias due to Alcohol Abuse.- 4. Acute Cardiovascular Effects of Ethanol.- 5. Histology of Alcoholic Myocardial Disease.- 6. Summary.- References.- 12 Biochemical Mechanisms Responsible for Alcohol-Associated Myocardiopathy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Alcohol Metabolism.- 3. Cardiac Metabolism of Alcohol.- 4. Role of Acetaldehyde.- 5. Ethanol Fatty Acid Esters.- 6. Contractile Proteins.- 7. Summary.- References.- IV. Cerebral Functioning in Social Drinkers.- Overview.- 13 The Continuity Hypothesis: The Relationship of Long-Term Alcoholism to the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome1.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Anterograde Memory Deficits.- 3. Retrograde Memory Deficits.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 14 The Impact of Fathers’ Drinking on Cognitive Loss among Social Drinkers.- 1. Cognitive Loss in Alcoholic Patients.- 2. Cognitive Loss in Selected Samples of Social Drinkers.- 3. Cognitive Loss in a Representative Sample of Employed Persons.- 4. Impact of Fathers’ Drinking.- 5. The Carry-over Model.- 6. Conclusions.- References.- 15 Alcohol Use and Cognitive Functioning in Men and Women College Students.- 1. Previous Studies of College Students.- 1.1. Importance of Studying College Students.- 1.2. Objectives of Studies to be Described.- 2. Correlational Studies.- 2.1. Study 1.- 2.2. Study 2a.- 2.3. Combined Study 1 and Study 2a Data.- 2.4. Conclusions on Correlational Studies.- 3. Reversibility Study.- 3.1. Reversibility Data.- 3.2. Correlational Data.- 3.3. Conclusions on Reversibility Study.- 4. General Conclusions.- References.- 16 CT Demonstration of the Early Effects of Alcohol on the Brain.- 1. Pilot Studies.- 1.1. Normal Subjects.- 1.2. Alcoholic Patients.- 1.3. Heavy Social Drinkers.- 2. Light to Moderate Social Drinkers.- 2.1. Results of First Visit of Light to Moderate Social Drinkers.- 2.2. Results of Second Visit of Light to Moderate Social Drinkers.- 2.3. Results of Third Visit of Light to Moderate Social Drinkers.- 3. Discussion.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 17 Cognitive Deficits and Morphological Cerebral Changes in a Random Sample of Social Drinkers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Method.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- References.- 18 Brain Damage in Social Drinkers? Reasons for Caution.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Evidence of Neuropsychological Changes in Social Drinkers.- 3. A Two-Factor Model of Cognitive Deficits among Social Drinkers.- 4. Reversibility of Neuropsychological Changes in Social Drinkers.- 5. Neuroradiological Indices of Brain Pathology in Social Drinkers.- 6. Clinical Significance of Social Drinking Studies.- 7. Public Health Implications of Social Drinking Research.- References.- 19 Statistical Issues for Research on Social Drinkers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Statistical Control.- 3. Measurement.- 4. Sampling.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 20 Functional Brain Imaging.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Inert Gas Blood Flow Studies.- 3. Position Tomography.- 4. Single-Photon Tomography.- 5. Discussion.- References.

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