Recent Sedimentary Carbonates: Part 1 Marine Carbonates

Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642655302
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 378
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.82 (d)

Table of Contents

I. Introduction.- 1. Carbonates and the Ocean.- Carbonate Mineralogy.- The Oceans as a Chemical System.- The C02 System in the Oceans.- pH.- Alkalinity.- Variations in the C02 in Nature.- Calcium Carbonate in Sea Water.- 2. Methods.- Texture.- Petrography.- Sediment Impregnation.- Peels.- Mineralogy.- Staining.- X-ray Diffraction.- Quantitative Mineralogy.- MgC03 Content in Carbonate.- Chemical Composition.- Calcium Carbonate Determination.- Elemental Analysis.- Stable Isotopes.- II. Carbonate Components.- 3. Non-Skeletal Components.- Lithoclasts.- Pelletoids.- Ooids.- Aggregates and Cryprystalline Lumps.- Composition of Non-Skeletal Carbonates.- Origin of Non-Skeletal Carbonates.- 4. Skeletal Components.- Plants.- Cyanophyta (Blue-green Algae).- Chrysophyta (Coccolithophorids).- Rhodophyta (Red Algae).- Ecology, Growth Rates and Sedimentary Distribution.- Petrography.- Composition.- Phaecophyta (Brown Algae).- Chlorophyta (Green Algae).- Ecology, Calcification and Sedimentary Significance.- Petrography.- Composition.- Dinoflagellates.- Invertebrates.- Foraminifera.- Ecology and Sedimentary Significance.- Composition.- Tintinnida.- Porifera.- Coelenterata.- Ecology and Calcification.- Hydrozoa.- Ocorallia.- Zoantharia (Scleractinia).- Stable Isotopes.- Bryozoa.- Ecology and Petrology.- Composition.- Brachiopoda.- Mollusca.- Amphineura.- Scaphopoda.- Cephalopoda.- Pteropoda.- Pelecypoda.- Gastropoda.- Variations in Gastropod and Pelecypod Composition.- Annelida.- Arthropoda.- Cirripedia.- Ostracoda.- Decapoda.- Other Arthropods.- Echinodermata.- Skeletal Elements.- Composition.- Chordata.- Vertebrata.- 5. Summary of Carbonate Composition.- Elemental Distributions in Carbonates.- Variations in Composition with Mineralogy.- Physiologic and Generic Factors.- Environmental Considerations.- Ontogeny.- Morphology.- Mode of Living.- III. Marine Carbonate Sedimentation.- 6. Eulittoral (Shallow-Water) Sedimentation.- The Coral Reef Environment.- Environmental Factors Governing Coral Reef Distribution.- Reef Types and Their Evolution.- Indo-Pacific versus Caribbean Reefs.- Morphology of the Coral Reef Habitat.- Reef Environments.- Morphology and Ecology.- Reef Sedimentation.- Lagoonal Environments.- Types of Lagoons.- Grass Banks and Algal Mats.- Burrowing Organisms.- Lagoonal Sediments.- Genesis of Shallow-Water Carbonate Muds.- Carbonate Cays.- Mud Cays and Tidal Flats.- Sand Cays.- Effect of Cataclysmic Events (Storms) on Coral Reefs.- Other Tropical and Subtropical Carbonates.- Vermetid Reefs.- Serpulid Reefs.- Oyster Reefs.- Non-Tropical Carbonates.- 7. Transitional (Sublittoral) Carbonate Sedimentation.- Distribution of Calcium Carbonate on Continental Shelves...- Carbonate Sediments on Continental Shelves.- Inner Shelf Sediments.- Outer Shelf Sediments.- The Algal Ridge System.- Shelf Oolite.- Age of Shelf Carbonates.- Summary.- 8. Deep-Sea Carbonates.- Factors Influencing Distribution.- Distribution of Calcium Carbonate in Deep-Sea Sediments.- Oozes.- Planktonic Foraminifera (Globigerina) Ooze.- Coccolith Ooze.- Pteropod Ooze.- Miscellaneous Deep-Sea Carbonate Components.- Deep-Water Coral Reefs.- Deep-Sea Precipitates.- World-Wide Distribution of Calcium Carbonate in Marine Sediments.- Variations in Deep-Sea Carbonate Deposition with Geologic Time.- Calcium Carbonate Budget for the World Oceans.- IV. Carbonate Diagenesis.- 9. Carbonate Degradation.- Biological Erosion.- Borers.- Predators.- Grazers.- Browsers.- Mechanical Erosion.- Chemical Alteration.- Intertidal Dissolution.- Marine Dissolution.- Summary.- 10. Carbonate Cementation.- Intragranular Cementation (Cryprystallization).- Intergranular Cementation and Lithification.- Intertidal Cementation.- Beachrock.- Mangrove Reefs.- Supratidal Crusts.- Submarine Lithification.- Shallow-Water Limestones.- Deep-Water Limestones.- Summary.- 11. Dolomitization.- Intertidal and Supratidal.- Organic Dolomites.- Deep-Sea Dolomites.- Summary.- Appendix I. Key to the Identification of Carbonate Components in Thin Section.- Appendix II. Key to the Identification of Carbonate Components. Under Reflected Light.

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