Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals

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Scientific advances in our understanding of animal physiology and behavior often require theories to be revised and standards of practice to be updated to improve laboratory animal welfare. This new book from the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) at the National Research Council, Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals, focuses on the stress and distress which is experienced by animals when used in laboratory research. This book aims to educate laboratory animal veterinarians; students, researchers, and investigators; animal care staff, as well as animal welfare officers on the current scientific and ethical issues associated with stress and distress in laboratory animals. It evaluates pertinent scientific literature to generate practical and pragmatic guidelines. Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals focuses specifically on the scientific understanding of the causes and the functions of stress and distress, the transformation of stress to distress, and the identification of principles for the recognition and alleviation of distress. This book discusses the role of humane endpoints in situations of distress and principles for the minimization of distress in laboratory animals. It also identifies areas in which further scientific investigation is needed to improve laboratory animal welfare in order to adhere to scientific and ethical principles that promote humane care and practice.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780309108171
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • Publication date: 3/10/2008
  • Pages: 136
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.30 (d)

Table of Contents

Summary     1
Scope of the Study     1
Stress versus Distress     2
Recognition and Assessment of Stress and Distress     3
Avoiding, Minimizing, and Alleviating Distress     5
Future Studies and Recommendations     6
References     8
Introduction     9
Regulations Governing Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals     9
Organization of the Report     11
References     12
Stress and Distress: Definitions     13
Introduction     13
What Is Stress?     14
What Is Distress?     15
Implications for Animal Welfare     17
Implications for Research     21
Conclusions     22
References     22
Recognition and Assessment of Stress and Distress     25
Introduction     25
Behavioral Recognition of Stress and Distress     26
Physiologic Measures of Stress and Distress     36
Assessment of Distress     42
References     44
Additional References     52
Avoiding, Minimizing, and Alleviating Distress     63
Introduction     63
Avoidingor Minimizing Distress in Laboratory Animal Care     64
Avoiding or Minimizing Distress in Laboratory Animal Use     70
Alleviating Distress in Laboratory Animals     75
Studying Distress     79
References     80
Topics for Further Investigation and Recommendations     87
Research Directions     87
Recommendations     90
References     92
Appendix     95
Tools to Monitor and Assess Health Status and Well-Being in Stress and Distress     95
About the Authors     113
Index     117
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