The Reformation / Edition 1

The Reformation / Edition 1

4.2 9
by Diarmaid MacCulloch

The Reformation and Counter-Reformation represented the greatest upheaval in Western society since the collapse of the Roman Empire a millennium before. The consequences of those shattering events are still felt today—from the stark divisions between (and within) Catholic and Protestant countries to the Protestant ideology that governs America, the

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The Reformation and Counter-Reformation represented the greatest upheaval in Western society since the collapse of the Roman Empire a millennium before. The consequences of those shattering events are still felt today—from the stark divisions between (and within) Catholic and Protestant countries to the Protestant ideology that governs America, the world’s only remaining superpower.

In this masterful history, Diarmaid MacCulloch conveys the drama, complexity, and continuing relevance of these events. He offers vivid portraits of the most significant individuals—Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Loyola, Henry VIII, and a number of popes—but also conveys why their ideas were so powerful and how the Reformation affected everyday lives. The result is a landmark book that will be the standard work on the Reformation for years to come. The narrative verve of The Reformation as well as its provocative analysis of American culture’s debt to the period will ensure the book’s wide appeal among history readers.

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Product Details

Viking Adult
Publication date:
Edition description:
First American Edition
Product dimensions:
6.44(w) x 9.52(h) x 2.09(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents


Preface and Acknowledgments vii List of Illustrations and Maps xiii Introduction xvii

part 1: a common culture

1. The Old Church, 1490-1517 3
Seeing Salvation in Church/3 ò The First Pillar: The Mass and Purgatory/10 ò Layfolk at Prayer/16 ò The Second Pillar: Papal Primacy/26 ò A Pillar Cracks: Politics and the Papacy/34 ò
Church Versus Commonwealth?/41

2. Hopes and Fears, 1490-1517 51
Shifting Boundaries/51 ò The Iberian Exception/55 ò The Iberian Achievement: The Western Church Exported/62 ò New Possibilities:
Paper and Printing/68 ò Humanism: A New World from Books/73 ò
Putting Renewal into Practice/84 ò Reform or the Last Days?/90 ò
Erasmus: Hopes Fulfilled, Fears Stilled?/94

3. New Heaven: New Earth, 1517-24 103
The Shadow of Augustine/103 ò Luther: A Good Monk, 1483û1517/111 ò
An Accidental Revolution, 1517û21/119 ò Whose Revolution? 1521û22/128 ò Evangelical Challenges:
Zwingli and Radicalism, 1521û22/133 ò Znrich and Wittenberg, 1522û24/140 ò The Years of Carnival, 1521û24/147

4. Wooing the Magistrate, 1524-40 154
Europe's Greatest Rebellion, 1524û25/154 ò Princely Churches or Christian Separation, 1525û30/158 ò The Birth of Protestantisms,
1529û33/166 ò Strassburg: New Rome or New Jerusalem?/174 ò
Kings and Reformers, 1530û40/184 ò A New King David?
Mnnster and Its Aftermath/199

5. Reunion Deferred: Catholic and Protestant, 1530-60 207
A Southern Revival/207 ò Ignatius Loyola and the Early Jesuits/212 ò
Hopes for a Deal: The 1541-42 Crisis/219 ò A Council at Trent:
The First Session, 1545û49/227 ò Calvin in Geneva: The Reformed Answer to Mnnster/230 ò Calvin and the Eucharist: Protestant Divisions Confirmed/240 ò Reformed Protestantism: Alternatives to Calvin, 1540û60/245

6. Reunion Scorned, 1547-70 262
Crisis for the Habsburgs, 1547û55/262 ò 1555: An Emperor's Exhaustion, a Pope's Obsession/268 ò A Catholic Recovery: England,
1553-58/272 ò 1558û59: Turning Points for Dynasties/277 ò The Last Session of the Council of Trent, 1561û63/294 ò Protestants in Arms:
France and the Low Countries, 1562û70/296

part ii: europe divided: 1570û1619

7. The New Europe Defined, 1569-72 307
Northern and Southern Religion/307 ò Tridentine Successes/312 ò
The Catholic Defense of Christendom, 1565û71/319 ò Militant Northern Protestants, 1569-72/321 ò The Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572/327 ò
Poland 1569-76: An Alternative Future?/329 ò Protestantism and Providence/333

8. The North: Protestant Heartlands 337
Defining Lutheranism: Toward the Formula of Concord/337 ò
The "Second Reformation" in Germany/343 ò Baltic Religious Contests:
Poland-Lithuania and Scandinavia/348 ò The Northern Netherlands:
Protestant Victory/356 ò The Northern Netherlands: The Arminian Crisis/363 ò A Reformed Success: Scotland/368 ò Elizabethan England: A Reformed Church?/371 ò Ireland: The Coming of the Counter-Reformation/382

9. The South: Catholic Heartlands 388
Italy: The Counter-Reformation's Heart/389 ò Spain and Portugal:
King Philip's Church/404 ò The Counter-Reformation as World Mission/414

10. Central Europe: Religion Contested 428
The Empire and Habsburg Lands: A Shattered Church/428 ò Habsburgs,
Wittelsbachs, and a Catholic Recovery/435 ò Transylvania: A Reformed Israel/442 ò France: Collapse of a Kingdom, 1572û98/449 ò France: A Late Counter-Reformation/459

11. Decision and Destruction, 1618-48 469

12. Coda: A British Legacy, 1600-1700 485
New English Beginnings: Richard Hooker and Lancelot Andrewes/486 ò Early Stuart England: The Church's Golden Age?/495 ò War in Three Kingdoms, 1638û60/503 ò A Spectrum of Protestantisms, 1660û1700/511 ò American Beginnings/515

part iii: patterns of life
13. Changing Times 531
Time Ending/532 ò Hearing God's Voice/537 ò Fighting Antichrist:
Idols/539 ò Fighting Antichrist: Witches/544

14. Death, Life, and Discipline 557
Negotiations with Death and Magic/557 ò Telling out the Word/564 ò Godly Discipline/572 ò A Spirit of Protestantism?/580

15. Love and Sex: Staying the Same 587
A Common Legacy/587 ò The Family in Society/594 ò The Fear of Sodomy/599

16. Love and Sex: Moving On 608
The "Reformation of Manners"/608 ò Catholicism, the Family, and Celibacy/614 ò Protestantism and the Family/624 ò Choices in Religion/640

17. Outcomes 645
Wars of Reformation/646 ò Tolerating Difference/651 ò Crosscurrents:
Humanism and Natural Philosophy/656 ò Crosscurrents: Judaism and Doubts/664 ò The Enlightenment and Beyond/674

Appendix of Texts: Creeds, Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments, and Hail Mary 685
Notes 689
Further Reading 745
Index 751



1a. Chancel arch figure, Preston Bissett (photo: author).
1b. People of "Calicut," from Triumph des Kaisers Maximilian I (Vienna, 1883-84), no. 131/124 (Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission).
2. Vulgate text: Biblia Sacra (Lyon, 1511, author's possession).
3. Doom painting, Wenhaston (photo: Dr. Katherine Whale, by permission from her and the Council of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History).
4. Statue of Charlemagne, Grossmnnster, Znrich (Hoch bauamt Kanton Znrich, Fotoarchiv).
5. Huldrych Zwingli (¬ Swiss National Museum, Znrich, neg. no. 109736, by permission).
6a. St. Sebaldus Shrine, St. Sebaldus Church, Nuremberg: J. Chipps Smith, German Sculpture of the Late Renaissance c. 1520-1580: Art in an Age of Uncertainty (photo: Sackler Library, Oxford, ¬ Princeton University Press, 1994, reproduced by permission).
6b. South porch gable, Priston, Somerset (photo: author).
7. Philip of Spain and Queen Mary at the Last Supper, St. Janskerk, Gouda (¬ Stichting Fonds Goudse Glazen, reproduced by permission).
8. Charles V (Prado Museum, Madrid. Photo: Bridgeman Art Library).
9. Armada portrait of Queen Elizabeth I, Woburn Abbey (¬ the Marquess of Tavistock and the Trustees of the Bedford Estates, reproduced by permission).
10. Martin Luther and Katharina von Bora (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Hope 66752, by permission).
11. A papal blessing at St. Peter's Rome (Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce Prints Portfolio 141 [93], by permission).
12. St. Ursula with her virgins: N. Circignani, Ecclesiµ Anglicanµ troph£a (Rome, 1584; Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission).
13. English torture of Catholic missionary clergy (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Douce Prints Portfolio 141 [471], by permission).
14a. John Calvin by Johann Michael Pnchler (¬ Bildarchiv Preussische, Kulturbesitz, Berlin, reproduced by permission).
14b. Panorama of Amsterdam: A. M. Mallet, Description de l'univers (5 vols., Paris 1683, Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission).
15a. Cologne Cathedral, 1824 (¬ Rheinisches Bildarchiv, reproduced by permission).
15b. Our Lady of Victory, Bila Hora, Prague (photo: Maria Dowling and Edmund Green).
16. Auto da fT, Spain (Bodleian Library, Douce Portfolio 141 [471], by permission).
17. Siege of Heidelberg, 1622 (Bodleian Library, Douce prints E.2.3 [53], by permission).
18a. Elizabethan communion plate: Charsfield (by permission of the Council of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History).
18b. Chalice: St. John's College, Oxford (the President and Fellows, St. John's College, by permission).
19a. Ceiling paintings, Tancs parish church, Transylvania (photo: Andrew Spicer).
19b. Burntisland, Fife, Mariners' Gallery (photo: Margo Todd).
20. Map of Palestine: The New Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ (London, 1606, author's possession).
21a. Rood screen, Roxton, Bedfordshire, England (photo: Eamon Duffy).
21b. Dutch bilingual Psalter: Les CL Pseaulmes David/De CL Psalmen Davids (Amsterdam, c. 1640, author's possession).
22. Mary overcoming heresy, Naples Cathedral: G. Barraclough, ed., The Christian World: A Social and Cultural History (New York, 1981; ¬ Thames and Hudson, reproduced by permission).
23a. John Winthrop (¬ Massachusetts Historical Society; Bridgeman Art Library, reproduced by permission).
23b. Derry Cathedral: Reliquary, New Series, vol. 5 (1891).
24. Anna Maria van Schurman (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Douce Prints Portfolio 134 [227], by permission).

illustrations in the text

1. The Wittenberg Reformers in their early years. Martin Luther (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: Hope Collection 66752, by permission). Philipp Melanchthon: J. Boissard, Icones (1597). 137
2. The leading Reformers of Strassburg: J. Boissard, Icones (1597). Matthias Zell and Martin Bucer (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: Hope Collection 68868, by permission). 178
3. Two early champions of Catholic renewal. Gasparo Contarini and Ignatius Loyola (Bodleian Library, Oxford, Douce Prints Portfolio 134 [613, 627], by permission). 217
4. Two Italian refugees from the downfall of the Spirituali. Peter Martyr Vermigli: S. Clark, The Marrow of Ecclesiastical Historie (London, 1650), p. 201. Bernardino Ochino: J. F. Rein, Das gesamte Augspurgische Evangelische Ministerium in Bildern und schriften von den ersten Jahren der Reformation Lutheri bis auf 1748 (Augsburg, 1749). 226
5. Two Reformed leaders of northern Europe. John Knox: J. Knox, The historie of the Reformation of Religioun in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1732). Jan Laski: S. Clark, The Marrow of Ecclesiastical Historie (London, 1650). 285
6. Counter-Reformation preacher: D. ValadTs, Rhetorica christiana ad concionandi (Perugia, 1579) (Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission). 317
7. Panorama of Bremen: M. Merian, Topographia Saxoniµ Inferioris: das ist, Beschreibung der vornehmsten StStte vnnd PlStz in dem hochlöblichten Nider SSchssen Graisse (Frankfurt, 1653) (By permis- sion, Taylor Library, Oxford). 349
8. Philip II of Spain: Jehan Lhermite's Passetemps, BibliothFque Royale, Brussels, MS II 1028/157 (¬ Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium, reproduced by permission). 406
9. Cartagena: A. M. Mallet, Description de L'Univers (5 vols, Paris, 1683) (Bodleian Library, Oxford, by permission). 425
10. Commemorative centenary medal, Confession of Augsburg, 1630 (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: Hope Collection 66772, by permission). 475
11. The architects of Arminian policies in England: Charles I and William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury. The History of the Grand Rebellion...digested into verse (3 vols., London, 1713). 502
12. Lambeth Palace: A Description of England and Wales (London, 1770). 512
13. The reign of Edward VI: J. Foxe, Acts and Monuments, 1570 (by permission, Bodleian Library, Oxford). 543
14. Stool of Repentance, Greyfriars: W. Andrews (ed.), Bygone Church Life in Scotland (London, 1899). 579
15. Two important Reformation beards: Heinrich Bullinger and Thomas Cranmer, from J. Boissard, Icones (1645). 630


1. Europe's Political Units, c. 1500 4
2. The Swiss Confederation in the Early Sixteenth Century 105
3. The Holy Roman Empire, c. 1600, Showing Second Reformation Territories 339
4. The Iberian World Empires, c. 1600 390
5. East and Central Europe, 1648 431
6. Confessional Divisions in Europe, c. 1600 470
7. North American Seaboard, c. 1700 488

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