How to Use this Book.
Part I: Introduction:.
The Cry for Reform.
The Concept of 'Reformation'.
The Lutheran Reformation.
The Reformed Church.
The Radical Reformation (Anabaptism).
The Catholic Reformation.
The Importance of Printing.
The Social Context of the Reformation.
The Religious Ideas of the Reformers.
The Social Role of Religious Ideas: Germany and England.
Part II: Late Medieval Religion:.
The Growth of Popular Religion.
The Rise in Anti-Clericalism.
The Rise of Doctrinal Pluralism.
A Crisis of Authority.
An English Case Study: Lollardy.
Part III: Humanism and the Reformation. The Concept of "Renaissance":.
The Concept of "Humanism".
Classical Scholarship and Philosophy.
The New Philosophy of the Renaissance.
Kristeller's View of Humanism.
Ad fontes -Back to the Sources.
Northern European Humanism.
The Northern European Reception of the Italian Renaissance.
The Ideals of Northern European Humanism.
Eastern Swiss Humanism.
French Legal Humanism.
Erasmus of Rotterdam.
Humanism and the Reformation -An Evaluation.
Humanism and the Swiss Reformation.
Humanism and the Wittenburg Reformation.
Tensions between Reformation and Humanism.
Part IV: Scholasticism and the Reformation:.
Scholasticism and the Universities.
Types of Scholasticism.
Realism versus Nominalisation.
"Pelaginism" and "Augustinianism".
The Via Moderna ("Nominalism").
The Schola Augustiniana Moderna ("Augustinianism").
The Impact of Medieval Scholasticism upon the Reformation.
Luther's Relation to Late Medieval Scholasticism.
Calvin's Relation to Late Medieval Scholasticism.
The Social Context of Scholasticism.
PartV: The Reformers: A Biographical Introduction:.
Part VI: The Doctrine of Justification by Faith:.
A Foundational Theme: Redemption through Christ.
The Concept of Grace.
Martin Luther's Theological Breakthrough.
The Doctrine of Justification.
Luther's Early Views on Justification.
Luther's Discovery of the 'Righteousness of God'.
The Nature of Justifying Faith.
Causes and Consequences of Luther's Doctrine of Justification.
The Concept of 'Forensic Justification'.
Divergences among the Reformers on Justification.
Justification and the Swiss Reformation.
Later Developments: Bucer and Calvin on Justification.
The Catholic Response: Trent on Justification.
The Nature of Justification.
The Nature of Justifying Righteousness.
The Nature of Justifying Faith.
The Assurance of Salvation.
PartVII: The Doctrine of Predestination:.
Zwingli on the Divine Sovereignty.
Calvin on Predestination.
Predestination in Later Calvinism.
The Doctrine of Grace and the Reformation.
Part VIII: The Return to Scripture:.
Scripture in the Middle Ages.
The Concept of 'Tradition'.
The Vulgate Translation of the Bible.
The Medieval Vernacular Versions of Scripture.
Humanists and the Bible.
The Bible and the Reformation.
The Canon of Scripture.
The Authority of Scripture.
The Role of Tradition.
Methods of Interpreting Scripture.
The Right to Interpret Scripture.
The Catholic Response: Trent on Scripture.
Part IX: The Doctrine of the Sacraments:.
The Sacraments and the Promises of Grace.
Luther on the Sacraments.
Luther's Views on the Real Presence.
Zwingli on the Real Presence.
Zwingli on Infant Baptism.
Luther versus Zwingli: A Summary and Evaluation.
Calvin on the Sacraments.
The Catholic Response: Trent on the Sacraments.
Part X: The Doctrine of the Church:.
The Background to the Reformation Debates: The Donatist Controversy.
The Context of the Reformation Views on the Church.
Luther on the Nature of the Church.
The Radical view of the Church.
Tensions within Luther's Doctrine of the Church.
Calvin on the Nature of the Church.
The Two Marks of the Church.
Calvin on Church and Consistory.
Calvin on the Role of the Church.
The Debate over the Catholicity of the Church.
Part XI: The Political Thought of the Reformation:.
The Radical Reformation and Secular Authority.
Luther's Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms.
Zwingli on the State and Magistrate.
Bucer on Magistrate and Ministry.
Calvin on Magistrate and Ministry.
Part XII: The Diffusion of the Thought of the Reformation:.
The Physical Agencies of Diffusion.
The Interchange of People.
Confessions of Faith.
Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion.
Part XIII: The Thought of the English Reformation:.
The Origins of the English Reformation: Henry VIII.
The Consolidation of the English Reformation: Edward VI to Elizabeth I.
Justification by Faith in the English Reformation.
The Real Presence in the English Reformation.
Part XIV: The Impact of Reformation Thought upon History:.
An Affirmative Attitude towards the World.
The Protestant Work Ethic.
Reformation Thought and the Origins of Capitalisation.
The Notions of Human Rights and Justifiable Regicide.
Reformation Thought and the Emergence of the Natural Sciences.
Appendix 1. A Glossary of Theological and Historical Terms.
Appendix 2. English Translations of Major Primary Sources.
Appendix 3. Standard Abbreviations of Major Journals and Sources.
Appendix 4. How to Refer to Major Primary Sources.
Appendix 5. Referring to the Psalms in the Sixteenth Century.
Appendix 6. Updating Reformation Bibliographies.
Appendix 7. Chronology of Political and Intellectual History.