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Overview
Reinforced Concrete: A Fundamental Approach
Edition: Sixth
Author(s): Edward G. Nawy
ISBN13 : 9780132417037
ISBN10: 0132417030
This new edition of Edward G. Nawy’s highly acclaimed work reflects the very latest ACI31808 Building Code and includes these major changes and additions:
× All design examples conform to the Strain Limits Design Method, using the applicable load factors and strength reduction factors.
× An updated chapter on seismic design of buildings to comply with the major changes in the ACI 318 Code, and the new International Building Code provisions (IBC 2006) on seismic design. The chapter includes several design examples on confinement, frames, and shear walls.
× A chapter on LRFD design of bridge deck structures in accordance with AASHTO 2004, revamped to reflect the changes in torsional and shear strain equations.
× A new comprehensive chapter on Strength Design of Masonry Structures, conforming to the latest 2007 Masonry Code.
× An expanded section with examples on the strutandtie modeling for the design of deep concrete beams and corbels, with extensive design examples using the ACI 31808 appendix provisions for this method.
× Chapter 9 on compression members was totally revamped to reflect the ACI 31808 approach.
× A comprehensive chapter on concrete materials and design of concrete mixtures for normalstrength and highstrength concretes, as well as provisions for environmental structures and a new section with extensive tables on concrete durability.
A selfcontained textbook, Reinforced Concrete, Sixth Edition can be used for a onesemester undergraduate level course and a onesemester graduate level course in reinforced concrete in standard civil engineering programs. It is equally useful for the practicing engineer. It is the only book that closely and systematically uses and follows procedures in numerous flowcharts within each chapter that simplify the understanding and application of the subject in design.
This edition provides thorough coverage of short and longterm material behavior, design of concrete mixtures, reliability and structural safety, serviceability behavior of beams and twoway slabs and plates, torsion and shear, design of twoway structural slab and plate systems, continuity in concrete structures, seismic design of highrise buildings in highintensity earthquake zones, LRFD design of bridge structures, and the design of masonry structures.
Comprehensive sketches and sets of working drawings, endofchapter problems, pictures of actual structural tests to failure, and flowcharts appear throughout the book. The book also includes an extended appendix of nomograms and tables.
The most cuttingedge book on reinforced concrete to date. Studying the subject through a practical stepbystep trial and adjustment procedure, this book offers the industry's most stateoftheart applications and ACI 318 Building Code required methods and solutions for the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures.
Editorial Reviews
Booknews
A text for a onesemester undergraduate course or graduate course in reinforced concrete in standard civil engineering programs. Provides thorough coverage of short and longterm material behavior, design of concrete mixtures, reliability and structural safety, serviceability behavior of beams and slabs, continuity in concrete structures, and seismic design of high rise buildings in earthquake zones. Sketches and sets of working drawings, chapter problems, b&w photos of actual structural tests to failure, and flowcharts are featured. The author teaches civil and environmental engineering at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)Product Details
Related Subjects
Meet the Author
Dr. Edward G. Nawy is a distinguished professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. He has been active in the ACI and PCI since 1959 and is internationally recognized for his extensive research work in the fields of reinforced and prestressed concrete, particularly in the areas of crack and deflection control. Dr. Nawy has published more than 175 papers in numerous technical journals worldwide. He is also the author of several books, including Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach, Fifth Edition (2006), published by Prentice Hall; Fundamentals of High Performance Concrete , Second Edition (2001), published by John Wiley and Sons; and Concrete Construction Engineering Handbook, Second Edition (2008), published by Taylor and Francis/CRC Press. He has been the recipient of several major awards, including the Henry L. Kennedy Award of the ACI, the ACI Concrete Research Council Award, the ACI Design Practice Award, honorary membership of the ACI, honorary professorship with the Nanjing Institute of Technology, and the emeritus honorary membership of the Transportation Research Board Committee on Concrete. Dr. Nawy is a licensed Professional Engineer in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, California, and Florida, Evaluator for the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), Chartered Civil Engineer overseas, and has been a consultant in forensic engineering throughout the United States.
Read an Excerpt
PREFACE
Reinforced concrete is a widely used material for constructed systems. Hence, graduates of every civil engineering program must have, as a minimum requirement, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of reinforced concrete. Additionally, design of the members of a total structure is achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section, then analyzing it. Consequently, design and analysis were combined to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of reinforced concrete design.
This fourth edition of the book revises the previous text so as to conform to the ACI 31899 Code and also to include major additional topics in several chapters such as in Chapter 3 on concrete materials, Chapter 5 on flexure, Chapter 8 on serviceability, Chapter 9 on compression members, and Chapter 15 on seismic design of structures. Chapter 15 on seismic design of concrete structures has been completely rewritten so as to conform to the new provisions of the International Building Code (IBC 2000) on seismic design.
To Chapter 3 was added a complete discussion with a computational example for the design of concrete mixtures for highstrength highperformance concrete. To Chapter 5 was added a new section dealing with the strain limits approach of Appendix B of the ACI 31899 Code. All the examples in this chapter were also solved by the strain limits approach. Discussion and design examples were also added for proportioning concrete floor joists. The provisions for crack control in Chapter 8 for beams and oneway slabs were changed and the examples revamped in order to conform to the new ACI31899 provisions. Additional topics wereadded to Chapter 9 in order to give alternative methods for the design of columns subjected to biaxial bending. Specifically, a modified, simpler reciprocal method using moments rather than loads was added in addition to the Bressler reciprocal method, and design examples were added to illustrate the different methods. Chapter 15 on seismic design of concrete structures was rewritten to conform both to the ACI 31899 new Chapter 21 as well as the new International Building Code, IBC 2000. Equations for both the spectral response method and the equivalent static load method have been systematically presented and several additional design examples for the base shear force, confinement, probable moments, and a full shear wall design example for a highrise building have been given.
In addition to the prolific number of analysis and design examples in the book as well as the numerous flowcharts, another significant feature of this edition is the inclusion of examples in SI units in most of the chapters and a listing of the relevant equation in the SI format. In this manner, the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves of the tools for transition from the lbin. (PI) system to the System International (SI) where needed.
The text is an outgrowth of the author's lecture notes evolved in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past forty years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph.D. level. The material is presented in such a manner that the student can be familiarized with the properties of plain concrete and its components both for normal strength and highperformance concrete, prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks at this level in that a good segment of its contents can be covered in one semester in spite of the indepth discussions of some of its major topics.
The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 4 on the historical development of concrete, the proportioning of the constituent materials, longterm basic behavior, and the development of safety factors should give an adequate introduction to the subject of reinforced concrete. It should also aid in developing fundamental laboratory experiments and essential knowledge of mixture proportioning, strength and behavioral requirements, and the concepts of reliability of performance of structures to which every engineering student and engineer should be exposed. The discussion of quality assurance should also give the reader a good introduction to a systematic approach needed to administer the development of concrete structural systems from conception to turnkey use.
Since concrete is a nonelastic material, with the nonlinearity of its behavior starting at a very early stage of loading, only the ultimate strength approach, or what is sometimes termed the "limit state at failure approach," is given in this book. Adequate coverage is given of the serviceability checks in terms of cracking and deflection behavior as well as longterm effects. In this manner, the design should satisfy all the serviceloadlevel requirements while ensuring that the theory used in the analysis (design) truly describes the actual behavior of the designed components.
Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 cover the flexural, diagonal tension, torsion, and serviceability behavior of onedimensional members: beams and oneway slabs. Full emphasis has been placed on giving the student and the engineer a feeling for the internal strain distribution in structural reinforced concrete elements and a basic understanding of the reserve strength and the safety factors inherent in the design expressions. Chapter 9, on the analysis and design of columns and other compression members, treats the subject of strain compatibility and strain distribution in a similar manner as in Chapter 5 on flexural analysis and design of beams. It includes a detailed discussion of how to construct interaction diagrams for columns as well as proportioning columns subjected to biaxial bending and buckling as well as the Pdelta effect.
It is important to mention that Chapter 6, on diagonal tension, also contains detailed coverage of the behavior of deep beams, corbels, and brackets, with sufficient design examples to supplement the theory. This topic has been included in view of the increased use of precast construction, the wider understanding of the effects of induced horizontal loads on floors, and the frequent need for including shear walls and deep beams in today's multilevel structures. Additionally, Chapter 7 treats the topic of torsion in some detail considering the space constraints of the book. The discussion ranges from the basic fundamentals of pure torsion in elastic and plastic materials to the design of reinforced concrete members subjected to combined torsion, shear, and bending. The material presented and the accompanying illustrative examples should give the background necessary for pursuing more advanced studies in this area, as listed in the selected references. Chapter 10 covers in detail the latest ACI Code provision on bond development of reinforcement while Chapter 12 covers design of foundations.
Chapter 11 presents an extensive coverage of the subject of analysis and design of twoway slab and plate floor systems. Following a discussion of fundamental behavior, it gives detailed design examples using both the ACI procedures and yieldline theory for the flexural design of reinforced concrete floors. It also includes ultimate load solutions to most floor shapes and possible gravity loading patterns. Detailed discussion of the deflection behavior and evaluation of twoway panels as well as the cracking mechanism of such panels, with appropriate analysis examples, makes this chapter another unique feature of this concise textbook.
Chapter 13 deals with continuous reinforced concrete structures. It presents a review of the various methods of analysis for continuity of multispan beams and portals and gives relevant examples including those on the topics of limit theory and plastic hinging. Chapter 14 is an introduction to prestressed concrete. It should serve as a brief treatment of the subject in order to illustrate the fundamental differences between reinforced and prestressed concrete. As discussed above, Chapter 15, dealing with the seismic behavior of concrete structures, is one of the highlights of this book since it presents the subject in as concise a manner as possible, yet it is comprehensive enough to give several examples on the proportioning of elements of a frame and a shear wall with boundary elements, conforming to the latest ACI and IBC 2000 provisions.
It is important to emphasize that in this field, the use of computers prevails today. Access to transportable personal computers, due to their affordable cost, has made it possible for almost every student to be equipped with such a tool. Hence, the extensive flowcharts presented throughout the book should aid the students or the designers in writing their own computer programs. Also, Appendix A contains eight computer programs written in QBASIC for DOS and Windows, covering the topics of flexure, shear, torsion, combined loading, brackets and corbels, and deep beams. As a result, the use of handbook charts was kept to a minimum in Appendix B. Computer program 32 inch diskettes can be purchased from the author as indicated in Appendix A. The numerous flowcharts for every topic presented in this book should aid the user in developing the logic and stepbystep thinking in easily comprehending the analysis and design procedures for efficient reinforced concrete systems.
Selected photographs of various areas of structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. They are taken from the published research work by the author with many of his M.S. and Ph.D. students at Rutgers University over the past four decades. Additionally, photographs of landmark structures, mainly in the United States, are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in reinforced concrete.
The textbook conforms to the provisions of ACI 31899 with an eye to stressing the basics rather than tying every step to the code, which changes once every six years. Consequently, no attempt was made to tie any design or analysis step to the particular equation numbers in the code, but rather, the student is expected to gain the habit of getting familiar with the provisions and section numbers of the ACI Code as a dynamic, everchanging document. Conversions to SI units are included in the illustrative examples throughout the book, in addition to the separate solutions in SI units which have been added to most chapters in this edition.
The various topics have been presented in as concise a manner as possible but without sacrificing the need for the instructional details by students first exposed to reinforced concrete design. Hence, the topic of prestressed concrete has been only briefly covered in Chapter 14, and the reader is left to pursue more advanced works such as the author's book Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach (3rd ed., 2000) also conforming to the ACI 31899 Code.
Portions of this book are intended for a first course at the junior or senior level of the standard college or university curriculum in civil engineering while the advanced topics can be adequately covered for use at the graduate level. The contents should also serve as a valuable guideline to the practicing engineer who has to keep abreast of the state of the art in concrete, as well as the designer who is interested in a concise treatment of the fundamentals.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Grateful acknowledge is due to the American Concrete Institute for contribution to the author's accomplishments and for permitting generous quotations of its ACI 318 Code and the illustrations from other ACI publications. Special mention is made of his original mentor, the late Professor A. L. L. Baker of London University's Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, who inspired him with the affection that he had developed for systems constructed of concrete. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the author's many students, both undergraduate and graduate, who have had much to do with generating the writing of this book; to the many who assisted in his research activities over the years, shown in the various photographs of laboratory tests throughout the book, and to the many colleagues at other universities who have continuously used the book and have given advice and suggestions over the years for modifications and additions.
Thanks are due to the panel of reviewers of the first edition: Professor William J. Hall of the University of Illinois at Urbana, Engineering Editor of the Prentice Hall Advanced Series; Professor Vitelmo V. Bertero of the University of California at Berkeley; Professor Dan E. Branson of the University of Iowa; and particularly to Professor Thomas T. C. Hsu of the University of Houston who has meticulously reviewed and contributed to the chapters on shear and torsion in the first and the subsequent editions of this book, for their suggestions and advice. Thanks also to Professor P. N. Balaguru of Rutgers, for his input to the flexure and axial load sections of the first edition, to engineer Mark J. Cipollone, MS Rutgers, for his input to the original manuscript; to Regina Silviera Rocha Souza, MS Rutgers, for her ideas and computational review of the first edition; to Robert M. Nawy, BA BS MBA Rutgers engineering class of 1983, for his extensive work on the solutions; and to engineers Abe Daly and Lily Sehayek, Ph.D, Rutgers, for their input to some of the first edition original computer programs in QBASIC.
Special gratitude and thanks for this edition are due to Dr. Basile G. Rabbat, PCA Manager, Transportation Structures and Structural Codes, Professor Thomas T. C. Hsu of the University of Houston; Dr. Douglas D. Lee, President of Douglas D. Lee Associates; Dr. S. K. Ghosh, Consulting Engineer, Professor Murat Saatcioglu of the University of Ottawa, and Professor Alex Aswad of Penn State University at Harrisburg, for their input and advice during the development of changes made to the second, third and fourth editions.
Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the Prentice Hall officers and staff, particularly to Marcia Horton, EditorinChief for her support over the years, to Associate Editor Alice Dworkin, to Executive Senior Production Editor Vincent O'Brien, and staff contact Dolores Mars, and to Patty Donovan, Senior Coordinator, Pine Tree Composition, Inc., for commendable efforts in bringing to fruition this fourth enlarged edition of the book. Last but not least, the author is grateful to his former students: Anand Bhatt, and Ryan Laub, both MS Rutgers, and Moira Treacy, M.S. Princeton, for their diligent contribution to the additional computational and processing work in this edition.
Edward G. Nawy
Rutgers University
The State University of New Jersey
Piscataway, New Jersey
Table of Contents
PREFACE
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Historical Development of Structural Concrete
1.2 Basic Hypothesis of Reinforced Concrete
1.3 Analysis versus Design of Sections
2 CONCRETEPRODUCING MATERIALS
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Portland Cement
2.3 Water and Air
2.4 Aggregates
2.5 Admixtures
Selected References
3 CONCRETE
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Proportioning Theory—Normal Strength Concrete
3.3 HighStrength HighPerformance Concrete Mixtures Design
3.4 PCA Method of Mixture Design
3.5 Estimating Compressive Strength of a Trial Mixture Using the Specified
Compressive Strength
3.6 Mixture Designs for NuclearShielding Concrete
3.7 Quality Tests on Concrete
3.8 Placing and Curing of Concrete
3.9 Properties of Hardened Concrete
3.10 HighStrength Concrete
Selected References
Problems for Solution
4 REINFORCED CONCRETE
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types and Properties of Steel Reinforcement
4.3 Bar Spacing and Concrete Cover for Steel Reinforcement
4.4 Concrete Structural Systems
4.5 Reliability and Structural Safety of Concrete Components
4.6 ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins
4.7 Design Strength versus Nominal Strength: Strength Reduction Factor
4.8 Quality Control and Quality Assurance
Selected References
5 FLEXURE IN BEAMS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Equivalent Rectangular Block
5.3 Strain Limits Method for Analysis and Design
5.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams for Flexure
5.5 TrialandAdjustment Procedures for the Design of Singly Reinforced Beams
5.6 OneWay Slabs
5.7 Doubly Reinforced Sections
5.8 Nonrectangular Sections
5.9 Analysis of T and L Beams
5.10 TrialandAdjustment Procedure for the Design of Flanged Sections
5.11 Concrete Joist Construction
5.12 SI Expressions and Example for Flexural Design of Beams
Selected References
Problems for Solution
6 SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION IN BEAMS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Behavior of Homogeneous Beams
6.3 Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections
6.4 Reinforced Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement
6.5 Diagonal Tension Analysis of Slender and Intermediate Beams
6.6 Web Steel Planar Truss Analogy
6.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear
6.8 Examples of the Design of Web Steel for Shear
6.9 Deep Beams: NonLinear Approach
6.10 Brackets or Corbels
6.11 Strut and Tie Model Analysis and Design of Concrete Elements
6.12 SI Design Expressions and Example for Shear Design
Selected References
Problems for Solution
7 TORSION
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Pure Torsion in Plain Concrete Elements
7.3 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Elements
7.4 Shear–Torsion–Bending Interaction
7.5 ACI Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined Torsion, Bending,
and Shear
7.6 SI Metric Torsion Expressions and Example for Torsion Design
Selected References
Problems for Solution
8 SERVICEABILITY OF BEAMS AND ONEWAY SLABS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Significance of Deflection Observation
8.3 Deflection Behavior of Beams
8.4 LongTerm Deflection
8.5 Permissible Deflections in Beams and OneWay Slabs
8.6 Computation of Deflections
8.7 Deflection of Continuous Beams
8.8 Operational Deflection Calculation Procedure and Flowchart
8.9 Deflection Control in OneWay Slabs
8.10 Flexural Cracking in Beams and OneWay Slabs
8.11 Tolerable Crack Widths
8.12 ACI 318 Code Provisions for Control of Flexural Cracking
8.13 SI Conversion Expressions and Example of Deflection Evaluation
Selected References
Problems for Solution
9 COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Types of Columns
9.3 Strength of NonSlender Concentrically Loaded Columns
9.4 Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Columns: Axial Load and Bending
9.5 Strain Limits Method to Establish Reliability Factor and Analysis and Design
of Compression Members
9.6 Whitney’s Approximate Solution in Lieu of Exact Solutions
9.7 Column Strength Reduction Factor
9.8 Load–Moment Strength Interaction Diagrams (P–M Diagrams) for Columns Controlled
by Material Failure
9.9 Practical Design Considerations
9.10 Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Columns
9.11 Numerical Examples for Analysis and Design of Nonslender Columns
9.12 Limit State at Buckling Failure (Slender or Long Columns)
9.13 Moment Magnification: FirstOrder Analysis
9.14 SecondOrder Frame Analysis and the PΔ effect
9.15 Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns
9.16 Compression Members in Biaxial Bending
9.17 SI Expressions and Example for the Design of Compression Members
Selected References
Problems for Solution
10 BOND DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCING BARS
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Bond Stress Development
10.3 Basic Development Length
10.4 Development of Flexural Reinforcement in Continuous Beams
10.5 Splicing of Reinforcement
10.6 Examples of Embedment Length and Splice Design for Beam Reinforcement
10.7 Typical Detailing of Reinforcement and Bar Scheduling
Selected References
Problems for Solution
11 DESIGN OF TWOWAY SLABS AND PLATES
11.1 Introduction: Review of Methods
11.2 Flexural Behavior of TwoWay Slabs and Plates
11.3 The Direct Design Method
11.4 Distributed Factored Moments and Slab Reinforcement by the Direct Design Method
11.5 Design and Analysis Procedure: Direct Design Method
11.6 Equivalent Frame Method for Floor Slab Design
11.7 SI TwoWay Slab Design Expressions and Example
11.8 Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation
11.9 Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in TwoWayAction Slabs and Plates
11.10 YieldLine Theory for TwoWay Action Plates
Selected References
Problems for Solution
12 FOOTINGS
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Types of Foundations
12.3 Shear and Flexural Behavior of Footings
12.4 Soil Bearing Pressure at Base of Footings
12.5 Design Considerations in Flexure
12.6 Design Considerations in Shear
12.7 Operational Procedure for the Design of Footings
12.8 Examples of Footing Design
12.9 Structural Design of Other Types of Foundations
Selected References
Problems for Solution
13 CONTINUOUS REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Longhand Displacement Methods
13.3 Force Method of Analysis
13.4 Displacement Method of Analysis
13.5 FiniteElement Methods and Computer Usage
13.6 Approximate Analysis of Continuous Beams and Frames
13.7 Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames
Selected References
Problems for Solution
14 INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
14.1 Basic Concepts of Prestressing
14.2 Partial Loss of Prestress
14.3 Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements
14.4 Serviceability Requirements in Prestressed Concrete Members
14.5 UltimateStrength Flexural Design of Prestressed Beams
14.6 Example 14.5: UltimateStrength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam
by Strain Compatibility
14.7 Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear
Selected References
Problems for Solution
15 LRFD AASHTO DESIGN OF CONCRETE
BRIDGE STRUCTURES
15.1 LRFD Truck Load Specifications
15.2 Flexural Design Considerations
15.3 Shear Design Considerations
15.4 Horizontal Interface Shear
15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion
15.6 StepbyStep LRFD Design Procedures
15.7 LRFD Design of BulbTee Bridge Deck: Example 15.1
15.8 LRFD Shear and Deflection Design: Example 15.2
Selected References
Problems for Solution
16 SEISMIC DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
16.1 Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes
16.2 Spectral Response Method
16.3 Equivalent Lateral Force Method
16.4 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Design of Buildings
16.5 Other Aspects in Seismic Design
16.6 Flexural Design of Beams and Columns
16.7 Seismic Detailing Requirements for Beams and Columns
16.8 Horizontal Shear in Beam–Column Connections (Joints)
16.9 Design of Shear Walls
16.10 Design Procedure for EarthquakeResistant Structures
16.11 Example 16.1: Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the International
Building Code (IBC) Approach
16.12 Example 16.2: Design of Confining Reinforcement for Beam–Column Connections
16.13 Example 16.3: Transverse Reinforcement in a Beam Potential Hinge Region
16.14 Example 16.4: Probable Shear Strength of Monolithic Beam–Column Joint
16.15 Example 16.5: Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing
Selected References
Problems for Solution
17 STRENGTH DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Design Principles
17.3 Strength Reduction Factors
17.4 Flexural Strength
17.5 Shear Strength
17.6 Axial Compression Strength
17.7 Anchorage of Masonry Reinforcement
17.8 Prestressed Masonry
17.9 Deflection
17.10 Example 17.9: Detailed Design of CMU Lintel in Seismic Zone
17.11 Example 17.10: Design of Grouted CMU Wall Supporting Beam Lintel of Example 17.9
17.12 Example 17.11: Tension Anchor Design
Selected References
Problems for Solution
APPENDIX A TABLES AND NOMOGRAMS
INDEX
Preface
PREFACE
Reinforced concrete is a widely used material for constructed systems. Hence, graduates of every civil engineering program must have, as a minimum requirement, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of reinforced concrete. Additionally, design of the members of a total structure is achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section, then analyzing it. Consequently, design and analysis were combined to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of reinforced concrete design.
This fourth edition of the book revises the previous text so as to conform to the ACI 31899 Code and also to include major additional topics in several chapters such as in Chapter 3 on concrete materials, Chapter 5 on flexure, Chapter 8 on serviceability, Chapter 9 on compression members, and Chapter 15 on seismic design of structures. Chapter 15 on seismic design of concrete structures has been completely rewritten so as to conform to the new provisions of the International Building Code (IBC 2000) on seismic design.
To Chapter 3 was added a complete discussion with a computational example for the design of concrete mixtures for highstrength highperformance concrete. To Chapter 5 was added a new section dealing with the strain limits approach of Appendix B of the ACI 31899 Code. All the examples in this chapter were also solved by the strain limits approach. Discussion and design examples were also added for proportioning concrete floor joists. The provisions for crack control in Chapter 8 for beams and oneway slabs were changed and the examples revamped in order to conform to the new ACI31899 provisions. Additional topicswereadded to Chapter 9 in order to give alternative methods for the design of columns subjected to biaxial bending. Specifically, a modified, simpler reciprocal method using moments rather than loads was added in addition to the Bressler reciprocal method, and design examples were added to illustrate the different methods. Chapter 15 on seismic design of concrete structures was rewritten to conform both to the ACI 31899 new Chapter 21 as well as the new International Building Code, IBC 2000. Equations for both the spectral response method and the equivalent static load method have been systematically presented and several additional design examples for the base shear force, confinement, probable moments, and a full shear wall design example for a highrise building have been given.
In addition to the prolific number of analysis and design examples in the book as well as the numerous flowcharts, another significant feature of this edition is the inclusion of examples in SI units in most of the chapters and a listing of the relevant equation in the SI format. In this manner, the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves of the tools for transition from the lbin. (PI) system to the System International (SI) where needed.
The text is an outgrowth of the author's lecture notes evolved in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past forty years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph.D. level. The material is presented in such a manner that the student can be familiarized with the properties of plain concrete and its components both for normal strength and highperformance concrete, prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks at this level in that a good segment of its contents can be covered in one semester in spite of the indepth discussions of some of its major topics.
The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 4 on the historical development of concrete, the proportioning of the constituent materials, longterm basic behavior, and the development of safety factors should give an adequate introduction to the subject of reinforced concrete. It should also aid in developing fundamental laboratory experiments and essential knowledge of mixture proportioning, strength and behavioral requirements, and the concepts of reliability of performance of structures to which every engineering student and engineer should be exposed. The discussion of quality assurance should also give the reader a good introduction to a systematic approach needed to administer the development of concrete structural systems from conception to turnkey use.
Since concrete is a nonelastic material, with the nonlinearity of its behavior starting at a very early stage of loading, only the ultimate strength approach, or what is sometimes termed the "limit state at failure approach," is given in this book. Adequate coverage is given of the serviceability checks in terms of cracking and deflection behavior as well as longterm effects. In this manner, the design should satisfy all the serviceloadlevel requirements while ensuring that the theory used in the analysis (design) truly describes the actual behavior of the designed components.
Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 cover the flexural, diagonal tension, torsion, and serviceability behavior of onedimensional members: beams and oneway slabs. Full emphasis has been placed on giving the student and the engineer a feeling for the internal strain distribution in structural reinforced concrete elements and a basic understanding of the reserve strength and the safety factors inherent in the design expressions. Chapter 9, on the analysis and design of columns and other compression members, treats the subject of strain compatibility and strain distribution in a similar manner as in Chapter 5 on flexural analysis and design of beams. It includes a detailed discussion of how to construct interaction diagrams for columns as well as proportioning columns subjected to biaxial bending and buckling as well as the Pdelta effect.
It is important to mention that Chapter 6, on diagonal tension, also contains detailed coverage of the behavior of deep beams, corbels, and brackets, with sufficient design examples to supplement the theory. This topic has been included in view of the increased use of precast construction, the wider understanding of the effects of induced horizontal loads on floors, and the frequent need for including shear walls and deep beams in today's multilevel structures. Additionally, Chapter 7 treats the topic of torsion in some detail considering the space constraints of the book. The discussion ranges from the basic fundamentals of pure torsion in elastic and plastic materials to the design of reinforced concrete members subjected to combined torsion, shear, and bending. The material presented and the accompanying illustrative examples should give the background necessary for pursuing more advanced studies in this area, as listed in the selected references. Chapter 10 covers in detail the latest ACI Code provision on bond development of reinforcement while Chapter 12 covers design of foundations.
Chapter 11 presents an extensive coverage of the subject of analysis and design of twoway slab and plate floor systems. Following a discussion of fundamental behavior, it gives detailed design examples using both the ACI procedures and yieldline theory for the flexural design of reinforced concrete floors. It also includes ultimate load solutions to most floor shapes and possible gravity loading patterns. Detailed discussion of the deflection behavior and evaluation of twoway panels as well as the cracking mechanism of such panels, with appropriate analysis examples, makes this chapter another unique feature of this concise textbook.
Chapter 13 deals with continuous reinforced concrete structures. It presents a review of the various methods of analysis for continuity of multispan beams and portals and gives relevant examples including those on the topics of limit theory and plastic hinging. Chapter 14 is an introduction to prestressed concrete. It should serve as a brief treatment of the subject in order to illustrate the fundamental differences between reinforced and prestressed concrete. As discussed above, Chapter 15, dealing with the seismic behavior of concrete structures, is one of the highlights of this book since it presents the subject in as concise a manner as possible, yet it is comprehensive enough to give several examples on the proportioning of elements of a frame and a shear wall with boundary elements, conforming to the latest ACI and IBC 2000 provisions.
It is important to emphasize that in this field, the use of computers prevails today. Access to transportable personal computers, due to their affordable cost, has made it possible for almost every student to be equipped with such a tool. Hence, the extensive flowcharts presented throughout the book should aid the students or the designers in writing their own computer programs. Also, Appendix A contains eight computer programs written in QBASIC for DOS and Windows, covering the topics of flexure, shear, torsion, combined loading, brackets and corbels, and deep beams. As a result, the use of handbook charts was kept to a minimum in Appendix B. Computer program 32 inch diskettes can be purchased from the author as indicated in Appendix A. The numerous flowcharts for every topic presented in this book should aid the user in developing the logic and stepbystep thinking in easily comprehending the analysis and design procedures for efficient reinforced concrete systems.
Selected photographs of various areas of structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. They are taken from the published research work by the author with many of his M.S. and Ph.D. students at Rutgers University over the past four decades. Additionally, photographs of landmark structures, mainly in the United States, are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in reinforced concrete.
The textbook conforms to the provisions of ACI 31899 with an eye to stressing the basics rather than tying every step to the code, which changes once every six years. Consequently, no attempt was made to tie any design or analysis step to the particular equation numbers in the code, but rather, the student is expected to gain the habit of getting familiar with the provisions and section numbers of the ACI Code as a dynamic, everchanging document. Conversions to SI units are included in the illustrative examples throughout the book, in addition to the separate solutions in SI units which have been added to most chapters in this edition.
The various topics have been presented in as concise a manner as possible but without sacrificing the need for the instructional details by students first exposed to reinforced concrete design. Hence, the topic of prestressed concrete has been only briefly covered in Chapter 14, and the reader is left to pursue more advanced works such as the author's book Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach (3rd ed., 2000) also conforming to the ACI 31899 Code.
Portions of this book are intended for a first course at the junior or senior level of the standard college or university curriculum in civil engineering while the advanced topics can be adequately covered for use at the graduate level. The contents should also serve as a valuable guideline to the practicing engineer who has to keep abreast of the state of the art in concrete, as well as the designer who is interested in a concise treatment of the fundamentals.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Grateful acknowledge is due to the American Concrete Institute for contribution to the author's accomplishments and for permitting generous quotations of its ACI 318 Code and the illustrations from other ACI publications. Special mention is made of his original mentor, the late Professor A. L. L. Baker of London University's Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, who inspired him with the affection that he had developed for systems constructed of concrete. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the author's many students, both undergraduate and graduate, who have had much to do with generating the writing of this book; to the many who assisted in his research activities over the years, shown in the various photographs of laboratory tests throughout the book, and to the many colleagues at other universities who have continuously used the book and have given advice and suggestions over the years for modifications and additions.
Thanks are due to the panel of reviewers of the first edition: Professor William J. Hall of the University of Illinois at Urbana, Engineering Editor of the Prentice Hall Advanced Series; Professor Vitelmo V. Bertero of the University of California at Berkeley; Professor Dan E. Branson of the University of Iowa; and particularly to Professor Thomas T. C. Hsu of the University of Houston who has meticulously reviewed and contributed to the chapters on shear and torsion in the first and the subsequent editions of this book, for their suggestions and advice. Thanks also to Professor P. N. Balaguru of Rutgers, for his input to the flexure and axial load sections of the first edition, to engineer Mark J. Cipollone, MS Rutgers, for his input to the original manuscript; to Regina Silviera Rocha Souza, MS Rutgers, for her ideas and computational review of the first edition; to Robert M. Nawy, BA BS MBA Rutgers engineering class of 1983, for his extensive work on the solutions; and to engineers Abe Daly and Lily Sehayek, Ph.D, Rutgers, for their input to some of the first edition original computer programs in QBASIC.
Special gratitude and thanks for this edition are due to Dr. Basile G. Rabbat, PCA Manager, Transportation Structures and Structural Codes, Professor Thomas T. C. Hsu of the University of Houston; Dr. Douglas D. Lee, President of Douglas D. Lee Associates; Dr. S. K. Ghosh, Consulting Engineer, Professor Murat Saatcioglu of the University of Ottawa, and Professor Alex Aswad of Penn State University at Harrisburg, for their input and advice during the development of changes made to the second, third and fourth editions.
Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the Prentice Hall officers and staff, particularly to Marcia Horton, EditorinChief for her support over the years, to Associate Editor Alice Dworkin, to Executive Senior Production Editor Vincent O'Brien, and staff contact Dolores Mars, and to Patty Donovan, Senior Coordinator, Pine Tree Composition, Inc., for commendable efforts in bringing to fruition this fourth enlarged edition of the book. Last but not least, the author is grateful to his former students: Anand Bhatt, and Ryan Laub, both MS Rutgers, and Moira Treacy, M.S. Princeton, for their diligent contribution to the additional computational and processing work in this edition.
Edward G. Nawy
Rutgers University
The State University of New Jersey
Piscataway, New Jersey