Relationships of Natural Enemies and Non-prey Foods / Edition 1

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Overview

There are very few natural enemies so maladapted as to rely on prey as their sole nutritional resource. The importance of non-prey sources of nutrition have received disproportionately less attention than prey when one considers how important non-prey foods are to the evolution and ecology of natural enemies. This book examines the intricate and diverse interactions between non-prey foods and natural enemies from both parties' perspectives, beginning at an organismal level and taking the reader on a journey that illustrates how these interactions are inextricably tied to the outcome of biological control programs targeting insects and weed seeds.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
From the reviews:

"This work focuses on the role of non-prey nutritional resources with the worthy goal of improving the understanding and use of natural enemies. Lundgren … presents the nature and importance of glucophagy, pollinivory, granivory, and mycophagy to natural enemies, followed by an extensive discussion of applications, including diet supplementation strategies, compatibility with genetically modified plants, and biological control of weed seeds. … Includes taxonomic and subject indexes. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduate through professional collections." (M. K. Harris, Choice, Vol. 47 (2), October, 2009)

“This book would be useful for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers with an interest in biological control natural enemy biology food web dynamics, nutritional ecology, or plant-insect interactions. … serve as a valuable reference tool. … The book clearly succeeds in providing a comprehensive overview of the field. … Relationships of Natural Enemies of Non Prey Foods is a must read for those involved with biological control and arthropod pest management in general.” (Ian Kaplan, American Entomologist, Summer, 2011)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781402092343
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 3/4/2009
  • Series: Progress in Biological Control Series , #7
  • Edition description: 2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 460
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 1.06 (d)

Table of Contents

Progress in Biological Control vii

Foreword ix

Preface xxv

Acknowledgements xxvii

1 The Functions of Non-Prey Foods in the Diets of Entomophagous Species 1

1.1 The Non-Prey Foods of Entomophagous Arthropods 2

1.2 The Functions Served by Non-Prey Foods 3

1.2.1 Dispersal 4

1.2.2 Reproduction 5

1.2.3 Other Roles of Non-Prey Foods in Natural Enemy Ecology 12

1.3 Closing the Introduction; Opening the Rest of the Book 14

Section I Glucophagy

1.1 Interclass Differences in Sugar Sources 19

2 The Sugar Feeders 23

2.1 Predators 23

2.1.1 Arachnida: Araneage 23

2.1.2 Arachnida: Acari 26

2.1.3 Heteroptera 27

2.1.4 Coleoptera: Coccinellidae 28

2.1.5 Neuroptera: Chrysopidae 30

2.1.6 Diptera: Syrphidae 32

2.1.7 Hymenoptera: Formicidae 34

2.2 Parasitoids 37

2.2.1 Parasitoid Diptera 37

2.2.2 Parasitoid Hymenoptera 39

2.3 Conclusions 42

3 Floral Nectar 45

3.1 Structure of Floral Nectaries 45

3.2 Nutrition and Chemistry of Floral Nectar 46

3.3 Factors That Influence the Production and Nutrition of Nectar 48

3.4 The Plant-Protective Benefits of Floral Nectar 52

3.5 Cost of Nectar Production 54

3.6 Defenses of Floral Nectar 55

3.6.1 Architectural Defenses Guarding Floral Nectar 55

3.6.2 Chemical Defenses of Floral Nectar 56

3.7 Conclusions 58

4 Extrafloral Nectar 61

4.1 Phylogenetic and Geographical Trends 61

4.2 Physiology and Nutritional Composition of EFN 62

4.3 Protective Benefits of EFNs 64

4.4 Temporal Occurrence of EFN 66

4.5 Regulation of EFN Production 68

4.6 Conclusion 71

5 Honeydew 73

5.1 Nutritional Value of Honeydew 73

5.2 Factors That Influence Honeydew Production 75

5.3 Honeydew inMutualistic Interactions 76

5.3.1 Honeydew-Guarding Ants 76

5.3.2 Antinutrient Properties of Honeydew 79

5.4 The Downside of Honeydew: Its Kairomone Effects 79

5.5 Conclusion 83

Section II Pollinivory

6 The Pollen Feeders 87

6.1 Predators 87

6.1.1 Arachnida: Araneae 87

6.1.2 Arachnida: Acari 88

6.1.3 Coleoptera: Carabidae 94

6.1.4 Coleoptera: Coccinellidae 108

6.1.5 Neuroptera: Chrysopidae 109

6.1.6 Heteroptera 110

6.1.7 Diptera: Syrphidae 111

6.1.8 Hymenoptera: Formicidae 112

6.1.9 Mantodea: Mantidae 112

6.2 Parasitoids 112

6.2.1 Diptera 113

6.2.2 Hymenoptera 114

6.3 Conclusions 115

7 Adaptations to Pollen feeding 117

7.1 The Pollen-Feeding Process in Entomophages 117

7.2 Sensory Adaptations for Detecting Pollen 118

7.2.1 Vision 118

7.2.2 Chemical Cues 120

7.3 Morphological Adaptations 121

7.3.1 Setae 121

7.3.2 Mouthparts 121

7.3.3 Internal Anatomy 122

7.4 Adaptations to Digesting the Nutrients of Pollen 123

7.4.1 Enzymatic Adaptations to Digesting Pollen 123

7.4.2 Other Strategies for Digesting Pollen 124

7.5 Conclusion 126

8 Pollen Nutrition and Defense 127

8.1 Nutrition 127

8.1.1 Carbohydrates 130

8.1.2 Proteins 130

8.1.3 Lipids 131

8.1.4 Vitamins 132

8.1.5 Inorganic Minerals 133

8.2 Defense 133

8.2.1 Floral Morphology 134

8.2.2 Structural Defenses 134

8.2.3 Antinutritive Qualities 136

8.2.4 Toxic Pollens 137

8.3 Conclusions 138

Section III Granivory

9 The Seed Feeders 143

9.1 Carabidae 143

9.1.1 Adult Feeding Behavior 156

9.1.2 Granivory by Larvae 158

9.2 Formicidae 161

9.2.1 Harvester Ants 162

9.3 Gryllidae 164

9.4 Conclusions 165

10 Adaptations to Granivory 167

10.1 Morphological Adaptations to Seed Feeding 167

10.1.1 Adaptations in Adult Granivores 168

10.1.2 Adaptations in Larval Granivores 172

10.2 Seed Feeding Techniques 174

10.2.1 Seed Consumption Behavior 174

10.2.2 Internalizing the Seed 175

10.2.3 Digestive Enzymes 176

10.3 Seed Digestion in Harvester Ants 177

10.3.1 Nutrient Dissemination in Ant Colonies 177

10.3.2 Colony-Level Digestion of Seeds 178

10.4 Conclusions 180

11 Seed Nutrition and Defense 183

11.1 Seed Nutrition 184

11.1.1 Carbohydrates 186

11.1.2 Proteins 187

11.1.3 Lipids 188

11.1.4 Minerals 189

11.1.5 Vitamins 190

11.1.6 Water 191

11.1.7 Caloric Content 191

11.2 Seed Defense 191

11.2.1 Seed Size 192

11.2.2 Mechanical Defenses of the Seed 194

11.2.3 External Structures 194

11.2.4 Seed Covering 198

11.2.5 Seed Chemistry 200

11.2.6 Mucilaginous Secretions 207

11.3 Conclusions 209

12 Seed-Associated Food Bodies 211

12.1 Diversity of Plants that Produce Seed-Associated Food Bodies 214

12.2 Physical Characteristics of Food Bodies 215

12.3 Chemical Composition of Food Bodies 216

12.4 Diplochory and Seed Cleaning 218

12.5 Ants 219

12.6 Other Entomophagous Insects 222

12.7 Ants as Dispersal Agents 224

12.7.1 Ant-Treated Seeds 224

12.7.2 Escaping Seed Mortality 225

12.7.3 Avoiding Competition 226

12.7.4 Providing Favorable Germination Sites 226

12.8 Invasive Species and Myrmecochorous Plants 227

12.9 Conclusions 228

13 Seed Preferences of Natural Enemies 229

13.1 Sensory Cues Involved in Seed Selection 229

13.2 Seed Traits Influencing Seed Selection 231

13.2.1 Seed Size 231

13.2.2 External Features 234

13.2.3 Seed Covering 234

13.2.4 Nutrition 235

13.2.5 Seed Viability 235

13.2.6 Grass Versus Broadleaf Species 236

13.3 The Dynamics of Preferences 236

13.4 Conclusions 237

Section IV Fungi and Microorganisms

IV.1 Fungi as Food for Arthropods 239

IV.2 Symbioses 241

14 Mycophagy 243

14.1 Fungi as Food for Natural Enemies 243

14.1.1 Water Content 244

14.1.2 Carbohydrates 244

14.1.3 Proteins 244

14.1.4 Lipids 245

14.1.5 Vitamins and Minerals 245

14.1.6 Defensive Properties of Fungi 246

14.2 When Mycophagy Benefits the Fungus 247

14.3 Mycophagous Taxa 247

14.3.1 Arachnida: Araneae 247

14.3.2 Arachnida: Acari 248

14.3.3 Coleoptera: Carabidae 248

14.3.4 Coleoptera: Coccinellidae 251

14.3.5 Coleoptera: Staphylinidae 253

14.3.6 Neuroptera: Chrysopidae 255

14.3.7 Heteroptera 256

14.3.8 Diptera 256

14.3.9 Parasitoid Hymenoptera 257

14.3.10 Formicidae 257

14.4 Conclusions 258

15 Symbioses with Microorganisms 259

15.1 Contaminated Non-Prey Foods 259

15.1.1 Endophytes and Seeds 259

15.1.2 Nectar and Yeasts 263

15.1.3 Sooty Molds and Honeydew 264

15.2 Nutritional Symbionts of Entomophagous Species 265

15.2.1 Physiological Adaptations to Symbioses in Insects 266

15.2.2 Nutritional Functions of Microbial Symbioses 267

15.2.3 Natural Enemies and Microorganism Associations 269

15.3 Conclusions 276

Section V Applied Aspects of Non-Prey Foods for Natural Enemies

16 Non-Prey Foods and Biological Control of Arthropods 279

16.1 Improving Biological Control of Arthropods Using Non-Prey Foods 279

16.1.1 Improving Natural Enemy Releases 279

16.1.2 Conservation Biological Control 282

16.2 Strategies for Incorporating Non-Prey Foods into Cropland 284

16.2.1 Land-and Farm-Scape Diversity as a Source of Non-Prey Foods 285

16.2.2 Integrating Vegetational Diversity Within Fields 287

16.2.3 Food Sprays 289

16.3 Complications with Utilizing Non-Prey Foods in Pest Management 298

16.3.1 Are Non-Prey Foods a Sink for Biological Control? 299

16.3.2 Caveats to Vegetational Diversity 303

16.3.3 Troubles with Food Sprays 304

16.3.4 Are Omnivorous Natural Enemies Pests? 305

16.4 Conclusion 306

17 Plant-Incorporated Pest Resistance and Natural Enemies 309

17.1 Host Plant Resistance 310

17.1.1 Nutritional Suitability of Resistant Plants to Natural Enemies 311

17.1.2 Intraspecific Variation in Synomone Production 312

17.1.3 Intraspecific Variation in Non-Prey Food Production 314

17.2 Systemic Insecticides 315

17.2.1 Systemic Insecticides in Non-Prey Foods 315

17.2.2 The Compatibility of Systemics and Natural Enemies 316

17.3 Insecticidal GM Crops 324

17.3.1 Transgenic Toxins in Non-Prey Foods 324

17.3.2 Bi-trophic Interactions of Natural Enemies and GM Crops 327

17.4 Conclusions 329

18 Biological Control of Weed Seeds in Agriculture Using Omnivorous Insects 333

18.1 Are Weed Seeds Limited? 336

18.1.1 Seed Production in Agriculture 336

18.1.2 Are Weeds Seed Limited? 337

18.2 Does Disturbance Associated with Crop Production Preclude Biological Control of Weed Seeds? 338

18.3 Is Biological and Habitat Diversity on Farms Sufficient to Support Biological Control of Weed Seeds? 339

18.3.1 The Effects of Landscape Diversity 339

18.3.2 Farm Practices that Promote Granivores 340

18.3.3 Community Interactions Among Granivores 342

18.4 Do Granivores Respond Positively to Increasing Seed Densities? 343

18.5 Characteristics of a Good Weed Seed Biological Control Agent 345

18.5.1 Traits of Biological Control Agents 345

18.6 Seed Burial 349

18.7 Conclusions: How Can Biological Control of Weed Seeds Be Promoted? 350

19 Conclusions and the Relative Quality of Non-Prey Foods for Natural Enemies 353

19.1 The Nutritional and Energetic Qualities of Prey and Non-Prey Foods 353

19.2 Relative Conservation Benefits of Different Non-Prey Foods 358

19.2.1 Re-evaluating Flower-Bound Resources 358

19.2.2 Attributes of Alternative Non-Prey Foods 359

19.3 Adaptations that Fuel Omnivory 361

19.4 Applied Aspects of Omnivory - Complexity Within Multitrophic Interactions 363

19.5 Concluding Remarks 364

References 365

Taxonomic Index 435

Subject Index 449

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