Preface. Historical background. Part A. Basic Equations. I. Elements of relativistic kinetic theory. II. Conservation laws and H-theorem. Part B. Derivation of the Transport Equation. III. Scalar particles. IV. Spin-1/2 particles. Part C. Linear Theory. V. First Chapman-Enskog approximation. VI. Transport coefficients. VII. Moment method. VIII. Propagation of sound waves. IX. Mathematical aspects of the linearized transport equation. Part D. Applications. X. Lepton systems. XI. Systems of hadrons. A Model. XII. Photon-Electron System. XIII. Reduction of the collision brackets. Bibliography. Author index. Subject index.