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Relevant Linguistics: An Introduction to the Structure and Use of English for Teachers (CSLI Lecture Notes #137)

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As linguistic diversity in schools continues to rise, more educators find themselves studying linguistics in teacher training programs. Unfortunately, the vast majority of introductory linguistics texts do not address their needs; such teachers are likely to find the texts inaccessible and irrelevant. Relevant Linguistics, written with teachers and future teachers in mind, provides a straightforward, accessible introduction to the basics of phonetics, phonology, morphology, and ...

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Overview

As linguistic diversity in schools continues to rise, more educators find themselves studying linguistics in teacher training programs. Unfortunately, the vast majority of introductory linguistics texts do not address their needs; such teachers are likely to find the texts inaccessible and irrelevant. Relevant Linguistics, written with teachers and future teachers in mind, provides a straightforward, accessible introduction to the basics of phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781575863580
  • Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Inf
  • Publication date: 1/28/2001
  • Series: CSLI Lecture Notes , #137
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 217
  • Product dimensions: 8.56 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface x
To the Student x
To the Instructor x
Acknowledgments xii
What is Linguistics? 1
What Do Linguists Do? 1
What is the Nature of Language? 2
Focus on Expressions: The Nature of Words 4
The Nature of Grammar Rules: Prescriptivism vs. Descriptivism 5
Prescriptivism 5
Descriptivism 5
Descriptivism and the Language Arts Curriculum 7
Narrowing the Focus: English and other Languages 7
English: an Ideal Language? 8
Tying It All Together: The Relevance of Linguistics 9
Summary 10
Exercises 11
English Homophones 11
Phonetics: The Sounds of English 13
Phonetics: Its Relevance to Classroom Teachers 13
Spelling and Sounds in English 13
The Smallest Units of Language: Phonemes 14
The Consonants of English 15
Describing the Features of Consonants: Place of Articulation 15
Describing the Features of Consonants: Manner of Articulation 17
Describing the Features of Consonants: Voicing 19
The Vowels of English 20
Describing English Vowels: Tongue Height 20
Describing English Vowels: Frontness 21
Describing English Vowels: Tenseness 22
A Final Feature of Vowels: Roundedness 23
Difficult Vowels to Describe: Diphthongs 23
Some Important Points about Vowels 24
Vowels as Approximations 24
The Importance of Schwa in English 25
Second Language Issues: Phonemic Inventories 25
Summary 26
Exercises 27
Phonetics Practice: Description of Phonemes 27
Phonetics Practice: Phoneme Analogies 28
Transcription Exercises 29
Transcription Jokes 31
Strange but True Transcriptions 34
The Connection between English Spelling and Sounds 35
Phonology: The Sound System of English 37
Levels of Representation 37
Levels of Representation 37
Phonemes and Allophones 37
The Systematicity of Phonology 38
Determining the Relationship Between Sounds 39
Contrastive Sounds 39
Non-Contrastive Sounds 40
Environment and Contrast 41
Phonological Rules 41
Determining the Basic Form of a Phoneme 42
Rule Types 43
Modeling Phonological Analysis with Four Rules of English 43
Vowel Nasalization in English 43
Vowel Lengthening in English 45
Aspiration in English 46
Flapping in American English 47
Phonological Analysis Resource 49
Goals of the Analysis 49
Steps of the Analysis 50
English Spelling Revisited 50
English Phonotactics 51
The Syllable 51
Phonotactic Constraints on Syllable Structure 52
Syllable Stress in English 56
Summary 57
Exercises 58
Minimal Pair Pratice 58
Contrastive and Non-Contrastive Sounds 59
Practice with Natural Classes 60
Determining Distribution 61
English Phonology Practice 63
English Phonology Problems 64
Spanish Phonology Problems 67
Additional Phonology Problems 69
Practice with Phonotactics 73
Morphology: English Word Structure and Formation 75
Word Classes 75
Classification Criteria 75
Major Classes 75
Nouns 76
Verbs 77
Adjectives 79
Adverbs 81
Minor Classes 82
Pronouns 82
The Structure of Words 83
The Morpheme 83
Classification of Morphemes 84
Free Morphemes vs. Bound Morphemes 84
Lexical Morphemes vs. Grammatical Morphemes 85
Root Morphemes vs. Affix Morphemes 85
Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes 86
The Hierarchical Structure of Words 87
Word Creation in English 89
Affixing 89
Functional Shift 90
Semantic Shift 90
Compounding 91
Blending 91
Borrowing 91
Acronyming 92
Root Creation 92
Summary 93
Exercises 94
Word Class Exercise 94
Derivational Morpheme Exercise (three pages) 95
Morpheme Practice 98
Morphology Trees Exercise 99
Bound Roots in English 100
English Word Creation Practice 101
Morphophonology: Where Morphology Meets 103
Phonology 103
Key Concepts and Terms 103
Morphophonological Analysis 103
Root Allomorphy 104
Allomorphic Variation with Affixes 105
Morphophonological Analysis Resource 107
Some Rules of English Morphophonology 108
The Past Tense in English 108
The Plural in English 110
Relevance at Three Levels 113
Spelling and Morphophonology in English 113
Summary 114
Exercises 115
English Morphophonology Practice 115
English Morphophonology Problems 116
Additional English Morphophonology Problem 119
Addtional Morphophonology Problems 120
Syntax: English Phrase and Sentence Structure 125
More Word Classes 125
Determiners (Examples: a, the, this, my) 125
Quantifiers (Examples: one, two, many, few) 126
Prepositions (Examples: in, on, with, by) 126
Auxiliaries (Examples: might, should, will, be, have) 127
Conjunctions (Examples: and, or, but, if, because) 128
Nouns (Examples: student, linguistics, class, hair) 129
Verbs (Example: disgust, leak, approach) 130
Adjectives (Examples: leaky, serious, unfortunate, favorite, hungry) 131
Adverbs (Examples: unfortunately, very, quickly, extremely) 132
Pronouns (Examples: he, she, it) 133
Sentence Types 133
Simple Sentences 134
Coordinate sentences 134
Complex Sentences 134
Complex-Coordinate Sentences 135
Coordination vs. Subordination 135
A Different Kind of Subordination 137
The Purpose of Syntax 137
Constituents 138
Basic Constituents 138
The Importance of Hierarchical Structure 138
Determining and Representing Hierarchical Structure 140
Grammatical Relations 141
Constituent Structure of Complex and Coordinate Sentences 141
Diagramming Ambiguous Sentences 143
Constituent Tests 144
Phrase Structure 146
Subcategorization 151
Subcategories of English Verbs 152
Transitive Verbs 153
Intransitive Verbs 154
Ditransitive Verbs 154
Linking Verbs 155
Linking Verbs Revisited 155
Transformations 156
Deep and Surface Structures 158
Transformational Rules 158
Sub-Aux Inversion 158
Wh-Movement 160
Relative Clause Transformation 161
A Final Note Regarding Transformations 167
Tying It All Together 167
Summary 167
Exercises 168
Word Class Exercise 168
Word Class/Sentence Type Exercise 169
Passivization 171
Beginning Syntax Trees 172
Advanced Syntax Trees 173
Grammatical Relation Practice 178
Phrase Structure Practice 181
Even More Syntax Tree Practice 182
Subcategorization Exercise 185
Transformation Exercise 186
That Word 188
Language Variation: English Dialects 191
The Language vs. Dialect Distinction 191
Dimensions of Language Variation 192
Correctness vs. Appropriateness 193
Levels of Language Variation 194
The Case of African-American English 197
Phonological Features of AAE 198
Morphological Features of AAE 199
Syntactic Features of AAE 200
An Additional Feature of AAE 201
Implications of Dialect Study 202
Expert Voices on Dialect Issues 203
Summary 205
Exercises 206
Language Variation Survey 206
Practice with AAE 207
Glossary 209
References 213
Index 215
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