Religions of the World with Sacred World CD-ROM / Edition 10

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Overview

“Hopfe did an incredible job of making the material readable and flow in a logical fashion…Even with a recent flood of introductory-level texts dealing with the subject, it remains the best introductory text dealing with religions of the world.”

                                                                                              Michael Krogman, Chattanooga State Technical College

 

How does religion affect you?  Religion plays a large role in the world events that affect us all; it has an impact on almost everything, from politics to pop culture.  The study of religions is essential and Religions of the World provides a comprehensive and engaging introduction.

 

Using a style that is friendly and readable, Religions of the World explains complex themes within the context of real people in real life.  This text acquaints you with the teachings, ethics, worship-style, and celebrations of a broad range of religions, from their inception to today.  Each chapter features primary source material that gives you first-hand experience with writings that help define each religion.

 

  For the tenth edition of  Religions of the World, Mark R.  Woodward has drawn on his relationships in the Arizona Native American community, his experience living and working in Buddhist and Muslim cultures forextended periods, and his experience  teaching thousands of undergraduates an introduction to religions of the world.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132240451
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 7/20/2006
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.94 (w) x 10.76 (h) x 0.64 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark Woodward is Associate Professor of religions in Southeast Asia, with special interest in religion and modernization. A Fullbright-Hays and Smithsonian Institution scholar, he has conducted extensive ethnographic research in Indonesia and Burma.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE
to the Eighth Edition

In preparing the eighth edition of Lewis Hopfe's text, I have drawn on my experience teaching the introductory course on world religions to thousands of students over the past decade and living and working in Buddhist and Muslim societies for extended periods. I have updated the chapters on Asian religions, particularly Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam, and also the one on African religions. I have attempted to leave the style of presentation and the comparative focus of the text intact. Living in Arizona for more than a decade, I have also had the good fortune to encounter a variety of Native American religious traditions and have drawn on this experience in revising Chapter 2.

Mark R. Woodward

PREFACE
to the Sixth Edition

Wherever people are found, there too religion resides.

The study of world religions has become increasingly important in this last decade of the twentieth century. As a result of mass communications and ease of travel, individuals of varied backgrounds are coming into contact more than ever before. The Middle East is a cauldron of emotions involving Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Headlines are being made by devotees of Hinduism and Islam in India. Some of the conflicts in areas of the former Soviet Bloc nations have religious undertones. A knowledge of world religions is now essential to understanding people of various world cultures, their political systems, and the quest for world peace.

World religions is never a simple subject and can be incredibly complex and intricate for the beginning student. Religions of the World iswritten for the student who wants a concise introduction to the historical and philosophical foundations of the major living religions of the world. While this text makes no conscious effort to shortcut or simplify religions, neither does it go out of its way to delve too deeply into the technicalities. This new edition follows the same narrative style and approach that has met with such a positive response in previous editions.

Readers are first introduced to the basic vocabulary of the field and to some of the theories of the origin of religion. The text then goes on to explore the major living religions: the historical and cultural factors that produced them, the lives of their founders, their basic teachings, and their historical development and current status in the world. Selected readings from source material are included to give the student a feel for the literature of the world religions, a glossary to define difficult and foreign terms, and a suggested reading list of available, current texts which can further instruct the student. Study questions are included at the end of each chapter in order to focus the attention of the reader on the central themes of the chapter.

Changes within this new edition include a partial revision of the Judaism chapter, with the addition of a section on medieval Judaism. A new section on myths and rituals has been added to the Basic Religions chapters. Each religion chapter, other than Basic Religions, includes a new section on the major holy days and festivals celebrated by adherents of that religion.

This edition is the result of the combined efforts of many people. Before the untimely death of Dr. Lewis M. Hopfe on September 2, 1992, he had completed all of the major changes and additions, leaving the editing and final completion of the Sixth Edition to his wife, Lavinia R. Hopfe, and his son, Lewis M. Hopfe, Jr. Many thanks to Maggie Barbieri, our editor at Macmillan, Sharon Lee and Connie Geldis, also at Macmillan, Laurie Thomas for copyediting, Catherine Howard, and others who made this text possible.

Lavinia R. Hopfe
Lewis M. Hopfe, Jr.
for Lewis M. Hopfe

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Table of Contents

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION/OVERVIEW

A Definition of Religion

The Universality of Religion

Theories of the Origin of Religions

Animistic Theories   • The Nature-Worship Theory   •

The Theory of Original Monotheism   • The Magic Theory   •

Theories of Religion as Projections of Human Needs

Types of Religions

Basic Religions   • Religions Originating in India   •

Religions Originating in China and Japan   •

Religions Originating in the Middle East

Study Questions

 

BASIC RELIGIONS

 

1 Characteristics of Basic Religions

Sources of Information Concerning Basic Religions

Prehistoric Beginnings of Basic Religions

Neanderthal Religion   • Cro-Magnon Religion   •

Neolithic Religion

Common Features of Basic Religions

Animism   • Magic   • Divination

Taboo   • Totems   • Sacrifice   • Myth

Rituals   • Rites of Passage   • Ancestor Veneration

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

 

2 Native American Religions

The Spirit World

Animism

Contacts with the Spirit World

Sacrifice   • Taboos   • Ceremonies and Rituals   •

The Vision Quest   • Religious Leadership   •

Other Means of Contact with the Spirit World

Deathand Life After Death

Native American Religions Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Native American Myths   • Sioux Legend of the Buffalo Maiden   •

Wooing Wohpe

 

3 African Religions

Native Religions

The High God   • The Lesser Spirits   • Ancestors   •

Sacrifice   • Rites of Passage   • Religious Leaders

Non-native African Religions

African Religions Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

An African Divine King   • An African Creation Story

 

RELIGIONS ORIGINATING IN INDIA

 

4 Hinduism

The Origins of Hinduism

Pre—Aryan India   • The Coming of the Aryans   • Aryan Religion

The Vedic Era

The Vedas   • The Upanishads   • The Law of Manu   •

Jainism and Buddhism   • Bhagavad Gita

Postclassical Hinduism

Devotion to Three Major Gods   • Devotion to Knowledge

Muslim Influences in India

Modern Hinduism

Hindu Holy Days

Holi   • Divali   • Dasehra

Hinduism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Selections from the Rig-Veda   • Varunda and Indra   • “What God

Shall We Adore with Our Oblation?”   • Selections from Upanishads   •

Selections from the Law of Manu   • Selections from the Bhagavad Gita   •

Shankara on the Nature of the Brahman

 

5 JAINISM

The Life of Mahavira

The Teachings of Jainism

Jain Sects

Jain Festivals

Paijusana   • Divali

Jainism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

A Jain Parable: The Man in the Well   • Jain Respect for Life

 

6 BUDDHISM

The Life of Gautama

The Teachings of the Buddha

The Development of Buddhism

Theravada Buddhism

Mahayana Buddhism

The Principles of Mahayana   • The Spread of Mahayana Buddhism

Mahayanist Sects   • Tibetan Buddhism

Buddhist Festivals and Holy Days

New Year   • Buddha’s Birthday   •

The Festival of Souls (Ullambana)   • The Robe Offering

Buddhism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Gautama Speaks of His Ascetic Practices   • The Buddha Explains

the Eightfold Path   • The Infinite Compassion of the Bodhisattva   •

The Importance of Sitting

 

7 SIKHISM

The Life of Nanak

The Teachings of Nanak

The Historical Development of Sikhism

Divisions within Sikhism

Sikh Religious Life

Sikh Holy Days

Sikhism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

The Japji

 

RELIGIONS ORIGINATING IN CHINA AND JAPAN

 

8 Chinese Religions

Basic Chinese Religious Concepts

Recognition of Multiple Gods and Spirits   • Yin and Yang

Filial Piety and Ancestor Worship   • Divination

Development of Belief in the Shang Ti   • Decline of the Feudal System

Taoism

The Life of Lao—tzu   • The Tao Tê Ching   •

Teachings of the Taoist Philosophers   •

Schools that Rivaled the Early Taoists   • Later Development of Taoism

Confucianism

The Life of Confucius   • The Teachings of Confucius

The Development of Confucianism

Traditional Chinese Holidays

Chinese New Year   • Pure and Bright Festival   •

The Dragon Boat Festival   • All Soul’s Day   •

Autumn Harvest Festival   • Winter Holidays

Taoism and Confucianism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Selections from Sacred Chinese Literature   • Tao Tê Ching

The Analects of Confucius   • The Meaning and Value of Rituals

 

9 SHINTO

Japanese Mythology

The History of Shinto

Shinto Prior to   C.E.   • Chinese Influence on Shinto

The Revival of Shinto   • The Modern Era

Three Forms of Shinto

State Shinto   • Sectarian Shinto   • Domestic Shinto

Japanese Festivals

New Year (Shogatsu)   • Buddha’s Birthday

All Soul’s Day (Ullambana)   • Autumn Festival (Niiname—sai)

Shinto Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Shinto Myths   • Myths Regarding the Plain of High Heaven

 

RELIGIONS ORIGINATING IN THE MIDDLE EAST

 

10 Zoroastrianism

Pre—Zoroastrian Persian Religion

The Life of Zoroaster

The Teachings of Zoroaster

The Nature of God   • The God of Evil   •

The Nature of Humankind   • The Destiny of Humankind   •

Zoroastrian Ethics   • Zoroastrian Worship

Historical Development of Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrian Holy Days

The Jasans   • New Year’s Day (N R z)

Seasonal Feasts (Gahambars)   • All Souls’ Day (Muktad)

Zoroastrianism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Zoroastrian Eschatology   • Zoroastrian Dualism

 

11 JUDAISM

Biblical Patriarchs

Exodus

Sinai and the Law

Post-Sinai Religious Institutions

Religion in the Time of the Hebrew Monarchy

The Temple   • The Prophetic Movement

Exile and Return

Diaspora

The Synagogue   • The Mishnah   • The Talmud

Medieval Judaism

Judaism and Islam   • Judaism in Spain   • Judaism in Other

European Nations   • The Crusades   • The Kabbalah

Judaism and the Modern World

Responses to Modernity

Shabbatai Zevi   • Mendelssohn   • Baal Shem Tov

Reform Judaism   • Zionism   • The Holocaust

The State of Israel   • Current Variations in Judaism

Jewish Festivals and Holy Days

Sabbath (Shabbat)   • Passover (Pesach)   •

The Feast of Weeks (Shavuot)   • New Year (Rosh Hashanah)

The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)   • The Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)

The Feast of Dedication (Chanukah)   • The Feast of Lots (Purim)

The Son of the Commandment (Bar Mitzvah)

Judaism Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Selections from Hebrew Scriptures   • Deuteronomy

The Psalms Book I   • Micah   •

The Mishnah: Pesahim (The Feast of Passover)

 

12 CHRISTIANITY

The World of the First Century C.E.

The Life and Teachings of Jesus

Early Christianity

The Jerusalem Church   • The Life of Paul   •

The Worship of the Early Church   • Leadership in the Early Church   •

The Production of the New Testament   • Early Theological Controversies

Growth of the Church of Rome

Emergence of Christianity as the Religion of the Roman Empire

Augustine   • The Monastic Movement

Medieval Christianity

Division Between Eastern and Western Christianity   •

The Medieval Papacy   • Thomas Aquinas

The Protestant Reformation

Early Reform Movements   • Martin Luther   • Ulrich Zwingli   •

John Calvin   • Other Reformation Leaders and Movements

Modern Christianity

The Catholic Counter-Reformation   •

Catholic Dogmas Since the Counter-Reformation   • Vatican II

Modern Movements

Modern Protestant Movements   • The Missionary Movement   •

The Ecumenical Movement

The Christian Calendar and Holy Days

Sunday   • Advent Christmas and Epiphany   •

Easter   • Pentecost

Christianity Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Selections from the New Testament

Sermon on the Mount   • Romans   • I Corinthians   •

Revelations   • The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas

 

13 ISLAM

Pre-Islamic Arab Religion

The Life of Muhammad

The Qur’an

The Nature of God   • Predestination   • Eschatology

Religious Institutions

The Mosque   • The Five Pillars   • Islam and Women   •

Islamic Taboos   • Jihad

The Spread of Islam

The Caliphate

Variations Within Islam

The Sunnis   • The Shi’ites   • The Mystical Element

Islam in the Modern World

Muslim Calendar and Holy Days

Feast of Fast-Breaking (‘Id al-Fitr)   • Feast of Sacrifice (‘Id al-Adha)

New Year   • Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (Mawlid an-Nabi)

Islam Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

The Muslim Vision of Allah   • The Prescriptions of Islam   •

On the Day of Judgment

 

14 BAHA’I

Origin and Development of Baha’i

The Teachings of Baha’i

Baha’i Practices

Baha’i Calendar and Holy Days

Baha’i Today

Study Questions

Suggested Reading

Source Material

Selections from the Writings of Bahaullah

 

GLOSSARY

 

CREDITS

 

INDEX

 

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Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE
to the Eighth Edition

In preparing the eighth edition of Lewis Hopfe's text, I have drawn on my experience teaching the introductory course on world religions to thousands of students over the past decade and living and working in Buddhist and Muslim societies for extended periods. I have updated the chapters on Asian religions, particularly Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam, and also the one on African religions. I have attempted to leave the style of presentation and the comparative focus of the text intact. Living in Arizona for more than a decade, I have also had the good fortune to encounter a variety of Native American religious traditions and have drawn on this experience in revising Chapter 2.

Mark R. Woodward

PREFACE
to the Sixth Edition

Wherever people are found, there too religion resides.

The study of world religions has become increasingly important in this last decade of the twentieth century. As a result of mass communications and ease of travel, individuals of varied backgrounds are coming into contact more than ever before. The Middle East is a cauldron of emotions involving Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Headlines are being made by devotees of Hinduism and Islam in India. Some of the conflicts in areas of the former Soviet Bloc nations have religious undertones. A knowledge of world religions is now essential to understanding people of various world cultures, their political systems, and the quest for world peace.

World religions is never a simple subject and can be incredibly complex and intricate for the beginning student. Religions of the Worldiswritten for the student who wants a concise introduction to the historical and philosophical foundations of the major living religions of the world. While this text makes no conscious effort to shortcut or simplify religions, neither does it go out of its way to delve too deeply into the technicalities. This new edition follows the same narrative style and approach that has met with such a positive response in previous editions.

Readers are first introduced to the basic vocabulary of the field and to some of the theories of the origin of religion. The text then goes on to explore the major living religions: the historical and cultural factors that produced them, the lives of their founders, their basic teachings, and their historical development and current status in the world. Selected readings from source material are included to give the student a feel for the literature of the world religions, a glossary to define difficult and foreign terms, and a suggested reading list of available, current texts which can further instruct the student. Study questions are included at the end of each chapter in order to focus the attention of the reader on the central themes of the chapter.

Changes within this new edition include a partial revision of the Judaism chapter, with the addition of a section on medieval Judaism. A new section on myths and rituals has been added to the Basic Religions chapters. Each religion chapter, other than Basic Religions, includes a new section on the major holy days and festivals celebrated by adherents of that religion.

This edition is the result of the combined efforts of many people. Before the untimely death of Dr. Lewis M. Hopfe on September 2, 1992, he had completed all of the major changes and additions, leaving the editing and final completion of the Sixth Edition to his wife, Lavinia R. Hopfe, and his son, Lewis M. Hopfe, Jr. Many thanks to Maggie Barbieri, our editor at Macmillan, Sharon Lee and Connie Geldis, also at Macmillan, Laurie Thomas for copyediting, Catherine Howard, and others who made this text possible.

Lavinia R. Hopfe
Lewis M. Hopfe, Jr.
for Lewis M. Hopfe

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Introduction

The world has changed since the last edition of this book was published. After September 11, 2001, it was no longer necessary to question the need for the academic study of religion. Policymakers, students, and the public at large came to understand very quickly that religion had replaced economics as the most ideologically potent force in the post-Cold War world. Just as religions include the seeds of peace, they offer the potential for hatred and violence. It is naive to believe that understanding alone will lead to tolerance and acceptance of the basic humanity of others. Some interpretations of most religions are inherently intolerant and incline toward violence. Understanding the dark side is, however, essential in the struggle to overcome it. Understanding religions other than our own, even if our own is none, is also necessary if we are to avoid stereotyping all members of a faith because of the violent acts of a few. In preparing the ninth edition of Lewis Hopfe's text, I have drawn on my experience teaching the introductory course on world religions to thousands of students over the past decade and living and working in Buddhist and Muslim societies for extended periods. I have tried to bring the book and the study of world religions into the post-September 11 era. There is expanded coverage of "new religions" and new variants of established traditions. Some of these traditions, including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and the new Chinese religion Falun Dafa, have been the victims of persecution. Others, including the version of Islam promoted by Usama bin Laden and his associates and Hindu fundamentalist in India, encourage acts of violence.

My thanks to the reviewers of the ninth edition: Barry R. Sang, Catawba College, and Pamela Jean Owen, University of Nebraska.

This edition of Religions of the World is dedicated to the survivors and victims of the tragedies of September 11, 2001.

Mark R. Woodward

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