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VOYAThese two series titles, Medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance Medicine, explain the daring challenges to prehistoric, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman scientific knowledge that birthed modern medicine. Middle Ages focuses on how travel, which brought the Black Death and competing eastern viewpoints, forced practitioners to reevaluate bleeding, pus generation, battlefield surgery, and the importance of cleanliness. Because this world blamed sickness on God and the devil, challenges to conventional thinking meant imprisonment. Renaissance Medicine describes increasing medical revolution fueled by the printing press, Leonardo da Vinci's marriage of art and science, the microscope, and inoculation. European expansion amplified epidemics, while war technology increased and worsened injuries. Medical scholars and practitioners continued struggling against establishment self-interest. Consequently important principles, such as cleanliness, could not be effectively implemented until the nineteenth century. The four reader-friendly volumes in this series, which also includes Prehistoric and Egyptian Medicine and Greek and Roman Medicine, are clearly sequenced but can also be read individually. Introductions explain each book's relationship to the previous period. Conclusions anticipate the next volume. All use clarifying sidebars, beautiful pictures, maps, and charts. A time line of events and people and a "Further Information" section that lists books, Web sites, and places to visit supplement the texts. An excellent companion to books such as Invisible Enemies (Farrar Straus Giroux, 2005/VOYA August 2005) and Plague and Pestilence: A Historyof Infectious Disease (Enslow, 1998), the series will fascinate young people with an interest in science, medicine, and history and motivate others readers to develop an interest. (The History of Medicine). VOYA CODES: 4Q 3P M J S (Better than most, marred only by occasional lapses; Will appeal with pushing; Middle School, defined as grades 6 to 8; Junior High, defined as grades 7 to 9; Senior High, defined as grades 10 to 12). 2005, Enchanted Lion, 64p.; Glossary. Index. Illus. Photos. Maps. Further Reading. Chronology., PLB . Ages 11 to 18.