Renal Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series / Edition 4

Renal Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series / Edition 4

by Bruce M. Koeppen, Bruce A. Stanton
     
 

ISBN-10: 0323034470

ISBN-13: 9780323034470

Pub. Date: 09/05/2006

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

This volume in the Mosby Physiology Monograph Series explains the fundamentals of renal physiology in a clear and concise manner. It provides you with a basic understanding of normal kidney function at the cellular and molecular level. Attractively illustrated with clear 2-color diagrams, this volume also facilitates study with learning objectives, overview boxes,

Overview

This volume in the Mosby Physiology Monograph Series explains the fundamentals of renal physiology in a clear and concise manner. It provides you with a basic understanding of normal kidney function at the cellular and molecular level. Attractively illustrated with clear 2-color diagrams, this volume also facilitates study with learning objectives, overview boxes, chapter summaries, and clinical cases with questions and explained answers. Plus, online access via STUDENT CONSULT makes this an even more powerful learning resource.

• Stay current with clear, accurate, and up-to-the-minute coverage of the physiology of normal renal function focusing on the needs of the student.
• Bridge the gap between normal function and disease with pathophysiology content throughout the book.
• Master the material more easily with learning objectives, overview boxes, key words and concepts, chapter summaries, and clinical cases with questions and explained answers.
• Understand complex concepts by examining more than 250 clear, 2-color diagrams.
• Apply what you've learned to real-life clinical situations using featured clinical commentaries.
• Includes STUDENT CONSULT access at no additional charge, enabling you to consult the book online, anywhere you go · perform quick searches · add your own notes and bookmarks · follow Integration Links to related bonus content from other STUDENT CONSULT titles—to help you see the connections between diverse disciplines · and more!

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780323034470
Publisher:
Elsevier Health Sciences
Publication date:
09/05/2006
Series:
Mosby's Physiology Monograph Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
248
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Kidney

1 Physiology of Body Fluids

OBJECTIVES
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS
Molarity and Equivalence
Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
Osmolarity and Osmolality
Tonicity
Oncotic Pressure
Specific Gravity
VOLUMES OF BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS
COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS
FLUID EXCHANGE BETWEEN BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS
Capillary Fluid Exchange
Cellular Fluid Exchange
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

2 Structure and Function of the Kidneys

OBJECTIVES
STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEYS
Gross Anatomy
Ultrastructure of the Nephron
Ultrastructure of the Renal Corpuscle
Ultrastructure of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Innervation of the Kidneys
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

3 Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow

OBJECTIVES
RENAL CLEARANCE
Glomerular Filtration Rate
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
Determinants of Ultrafiltrate Composition
Dynamics of Ultrafiltration
RENAL BLOOD FLOW
REGULATION OF RENAL BLOODS FLOW AND GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE
Sympathetic Nerves
Angiotensin II
Prostaglandins
Nitric Oxide
Endothelin
Bradykinin
Adenosine
Natriuretic Peptides
ATP
Glucocorticoids
Histamine
Dopamine
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

4 Renal Transport Mechanisms: NaCl and Water Transport Along the Nephron

OBJECTIVES
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TRANSEPITHELIAL SOLUTE AND WATER TRANSPORT
NaCl, SOLUTE, AND WATER REABSORPTION ALONG THE NEPHRON
Proximal Tubule
Henle’s Loop
Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct
REGULATION OF NaCL AND WATER REABSORPTION
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

5 Regulation of Body Fluid Osmolality: Regulation of Water Balance

OBJECTIVES
ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE
Osmotic Control of ADH Secretion
Hemodynamic Control of ADH Secretion
ADH Actions on the Kidneys
THIRST
RENAL MECHANISMS FOR DILUTION AND CONCENTRATION OF THE URINE
Medullary Interstitium
Vasa Recta Function
ASSESSMENT OF RENAL DILUTING AND CONCENTRATING ABILITY
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

6 Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Volume and NaCl Balance

OBJECTIVES
CONCEPT OF EFFECTIVE CIRCULATING VOLUME
VOLUME-SENSING SYSTEMS
Vascular Low-Pressure Volume Sensors
Vascular High-Pressure Volume Sensors
Hepatic Sensors
Central Nervous System Na+ Sensors
Volume Sensor Signals
Renal Sympathetic Nerves
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
Natriuretic Peptides
Antidiuretic Hormone
CONTROL OF RENAL NaCL EXCRETION DURING EUVOLEMIA
Mechanisms for Maintaining the Delivery of Na+ to the Distal Tubule Constant
Regulation of Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct Na+ Reabsorption
CONTROL OF Na+ EXCRETION WITH VOLUME EXPANSION
CONTROL OF Na+ EXCRETION WITH VOLUME CONTRACTION
EDEMA
Alterations in Starling Forces
The Role of the Kidneys
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

7 Regulation of Potassium Balance

OBJECTIVES
OVERVIEW OF K+ HOMEOSTASIS
REGULATION OF PLASMA [K+]
Epinephrine
Insulin
Aldosterone
ALTERATIONS OF PLASMA [K+]
Acid-Base Balance
Plasma Osmolality
Cell Lysis
Exercise
K+ EXCRETION BY THE KIDNEYS
CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF K+ SECRETION BY PRINCIPAL CELLS IN THE DISTAL TUBULE AND COLLECTING DUCT
REGULATION OF K+ SECRETION BY THE DISTAL TUBULE AND COLLECTING DUCT
Plasma [K+]
Aldosterone
Antidiuretic Hormone
FACTORS THAT PERTURB K+ EXCRETION
Flow of Tubular Fluid
Acid-Base Balance
Glucocorticoids
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

8 Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

OBJECTIVES
THE HCO3- BUFFER SYSTEM
OVERVIEW OF ACID-BASE BALANCE
NET ACID EXCRETION BY THE KIDNEYS
HCO3- REABSORPTION ALONG THE NEPHRON
REGULATION OF H+ SECRETION
Formation of New HCO3-
RESPONSE TO ACID-BASE DISORDERS
Extracellular and Intracellular Buffers
Respiratory Compensation
Renal Compensation
SIMPLE ACID-BASE DISORDERS
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
ANALYSIS OF ACID-BASE DISORDERS
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

9 Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

OBJECTIVES
CALCIUM
Overview of Ca++ Homeostasis
Ca++ Transport along the Nephron
Regulation of Urinary Ca++ Excretion
Calcium-Sensing Receptor
PHOSPHATE
Overview of Pi Homeostasis
Pi Transport along the Nephron
Regulation of Urinary Pi Excretion
INTEGRATIVE REVIEW OF PARATHYROID HORMONE, CALCITRIOL, AND CALCITONIN ON Ca++ AND PI HOMEOSTASIS
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

10 Physiology of Diuretic Action

OBJECTIVES
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DIURETIC ACTION
Sites of Action of Diuretics
Response of Other Nephron Segments
Adequate Delivery of Diuretics to Their Site of Action
Volume of the Extracellular Fluid
DIURETIC BRAKING PHENOMENON
MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF DIURETICS
Osmotic Diuretics
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Loop Diuretics
Thiazide Diuretics
K+-Sparing Diuretics
Aquaretics
EFFECT OF DIURETICS ON THE EXCRETION OF WATER AND OTHER SOLUTES
Solute-Free Water
K+ Excretion
HCO3- Excretion
Ca++ and Pi Excretion
SUMMARY
KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS
SELF-STUDY PROBLEMS

Additional Reading

APPENDIX A Integrative Case Studies

APPENDIX B Normal Laboratory Values

APPENDIX C Nephron Function

APPENDIX D Answers to Self-Study Problems

APPENDIX E Answers to Integrative Case Studies

APPENDIX F Review Examination

Index

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