Renewable Electricity and the Grid: The Challenge of Variability [NOOK Book]


Can renewable energy provide reliable power? Will it need extensive backup?

The energy available from wind, waves, tides and the sun varies in ways that may not match variations in energy demand. Assimilating these fluctuations can affect the operation and economics of electricity networks, markets and the output of other forms of generation. Is this a significant problem, or can these new sources be integrated into the grid system without the ...

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Renewable Electricity and the Grid: The Challenge of Variability

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Can renewable energy provide reliable power? Will it need extensive backup?

The energy available from wind, waves, tides and the sun varies in ways that may not match variations in energy demand. Assimilating these fluctuations can affect the operation and economics of electricity networks, markets and the output of other forms of generation. Is this a significant problem, or can these new sources be integrated into the grid system without the need for extensive backup or energy storage capacity?

This book examines the significance of the issue of variability of renewable electricity supplies, and presents technical and operational solutions to the problem of reconciling the differing patterns of supply and demand. Its chapters are authored by leading experts in the field, who aim to explain and quantify the impacts of variability in renewable energy, and in doing so, dispel many of the myths and misunderstandings surrounding the topic.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'Very timely.'
Sherkin Comment

'Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources like wind into electricity systems must be one of the most misunderstood issues in energy policy. This edited volume brings together a unique series of authoritative articles on the topic. There should be no excuse for misunderstanding from now on.'
Jim Skea, Research Director, UK Energy Research Centre

'The future design and operation of electric power systems with large injections of renewable energy generation is the subject of much debate, and some misunderstanding. This timely book, from a number of authors with expertise in the area, makes an important contribution to our understanding of this topic.'
Nick Jenkins, Professor of Energy Systems, University of Manchester

'We know the future will be different from the past. This book predicts how large proportions of renewable energy can be incorporated into electricity grids, without harm from the natural variability of these supplies. The chapter authors have different approaches and vision, yet the overall message is positive. Not only can we move to dominant use of renewable electricity, but we can do so utilizing many technological and efficiency improvements, with consumers benefiting from clean electricity at acceptable cost.'
Professor John Twidell, General Editor, Wind Engineering

'Anyone interested in renewable electricity will find this book an important reference. It answers many of the questions so often raised in public debates'
Sherkin Comment

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781136558740
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 5/4/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 244
  • File size: 6 MB

Meet the Author

Godfrey Boyle is Director of the Energy and Environment Research Unit at the UK Open University, where has chaired several renewable and sustainable energy course teams. He has published widely on these subjects, including the textbooks Energy Systems and Sustainability (2003) and Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future (2004). He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (formerly the Institution of Electrical Engineers) and a Trustee of the National Energy Foundation.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables ix

List of Contributors xiv

Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxi

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations xxii

1 Variable Renewables and the Grid: An Overview Michael Laughton 1

Introduction 1

Renewable energy source variability 2

Grid operational requirements 11

Base-load capacity displacement with increasing wind penetration 14

Conclusions 27

2 Wind Power on the Grid David Milborrow 31

Introduction 31

Electricity system operation 31

Wind characteristics 36

Managing a network with wind 38

Capacity credits 41

Total extra costs of wind energy 45

Wind energy penetration levels above 20 per cent 47

The influence of national and regional differences 49

Conclusions 51

3 Renewable Resource Characteristics and Network Integration Graham Sinden 55

Introduction 55

Renewable electricity generation in the UK 55

Characteristics 58

Renewable electricity supply and demand patterns 63

The role of wind power in providing capacity on electricity networks 67

Conclusions 71

4 The UK Energy Research Centre Review of the Costs and Impacts of Intermittency Robert Gross Philip Heptonstall Matthew Leach Jim Skea Dennis Anderson Tim Green 73

Introduction 73

Power system reliability and operation 74

Misconceptions and sources of controversy 77

Quantitative findings on impacts and costs 79

Summary of findings and conclusions 86

5 Wind Power Forecasting Bernhard Lange Kurt Rohrig Florian Schl&oumlet;gl &Uumlet;mit Cali Rene Jursa 95

Introduction 95

Applications of wind power forecasting 97

Steps in a forecasting system 97

Numerical weather prediction 98

Different approaches to the power output forecast 99

Forecasthorizon 101

Regional upscaling 103

Smoothing effect 105

Forecast accuracy 107

Example: The Wind Power Management System (WPMS) 110

'Learning curve' of forecasting accuracy 112

Examples of current research 113

Future challenges 117

6 Flexibility of Fossil Fuel plant in a Renewable Energy Scenario: Possible Implications for the UK Fred Starr 121

Introduction 121

The UK power plant system of today 123

Advanced generating plants, energy savings and the issue of climate change 124

Design and operation of coal- and natural gas-powered steam plants 125

Pseudo-intermittency with today's plants 130

Effects on plant components and reliability 132

Intermittency and power plants of the future 136

Conclusions 140

7 The Potential Contribution of Emergency Diesel Standby Generators in Dealing with the Variability of Renewable Energy Sources David Andrews 143

Introduction: Wessex Water 143

The National Grid Transco Frequency Service 143

The National Grid Transco Reserve Service 144

Reserve and standby generating capacity on the UK National Grid 144

'Triads': A revenue-earning opportunity 146

Other benefits: Testing diesels off load 147

8 Demand Flexibility, Micro-Combined Heat and Power and the 'Informated' Grid Bob Everett 151

Introduction 151

What is needed 152

What is on offer 153

Metering and the future 155

9 A Renewable Electricity System for the UK Mark Barrett 157

Introduction 157

Scenario context 159

A sustainable electricity system 162

System integration and optimization 167

Conclusions 178

10 Reliable Power, Wind Variability and Offshore Grids in Europe Brian Hurley Paul Hughes Gregor Giebel 181

Where are the wind resources? 181

What happens when the wind does not blow? 183

The reliability of dispersed offshore wind power 187

Effect of wind farm power output forecasting 190

Delivered cost estimates for new grid and wind farms 190

Results for Europe 193

A Project for Europe: European-wide Supergrid 194

Conclusions 198

11 Planning for Variability in the Longer Term: The Challenge of a Truly Sustainable Energy System David Infield Simon Watson 201

Introduction 201

Renewable source-dominated energy supply systems 202

Energy storage and demand-side management 204

Conclusions and further research 209

Index 211

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