ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age / Edition 1

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Overview

This book outlines and analyzes the global economy and its sectoral and regional division of labor and cyclical dynamic from 1400 to 1800. The evidence and argument are that within this global economy Asians and 20 particularly Chinese were preponderant, no more"traditional" than Europeans, and in fact largely far less so. The historical documentation poses an 'emperor has no clothes' challenge to all received Eurocentric historiography and social theory from Montesquieu, Marx and Weber, or 20 Toynbee and Polanyi, to Rostow, Braudel and Wallerstein.

The books's global economic analysis offers a more holistic theoretical alternative. 'The Rise of the West' was not due to any 'European Miracle exceptionalism' that allegedly permitted it to pull itself up by its own bootstraps as Weberians have contended. Nor did Europe build a 'European world-economy around itself" a la Braudel and thereby 20 as per Marx and Wallerstein [as well as Frank's own WORLD ACCUMULATION 1492-1789] initiating a European centered 'Modern Capitalist World-System' primarily by exploiting the wealth of its American and African colonies. Instead, Europe used its American silver to buy itself marginal entry into the long since existing world market in Asia, which was much larger, more productive and competitive, continued to expand much faster until 1800, and was able to support a rate of population growth in Asia that was than double that of Europe until 1750.

Then changing world economic/ demographic/ ecological relations and relative factor prices in the competitive global economy resulted in the temporary 'Decline of the East' and the opportunity for the also temporary 'The Rise of the West'. Europe took advantage of this world economic opportunity through import substitution, export promotion and technological change to become Newly Industrializing Economies after 1800, as is again happening today in East Asia. That region is now REgaining its 'traditional' dominance in the global economy, with the Chinese 'Middle Kingdom' again at its 'center.'

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Editorial Reviews

Harbans Mukhia
If challenging received wisdom is a trademark, this book is written as the mother of all challenges. The immense power of the book rests on the ability to provoke and force one to rethink many facets of history that have been taken for granted for a long long time. -- Harbans Mukhia
Saubhik Chakabarti
ReOrient's biggest virtue: it forces the reader to at least look differently at world history- This impressive and illuminating analysis 20 sets out to challenge the mother of all orthodoxies that Europe discovered capitalism and industrialisation and that what followed and is happening and will happen is essentially a fallout of this European preeminence. -- The Statesman
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780520214743
  • Publisher: University of California Press
  • Publication date: 7/31/1998
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 352
  • Sales rank: 1,405,852
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.88 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author


Andre Gunder Frank, of the University of Toronto, has published more than thirty books. Most recently he coedited, with Barry Gills, World System: Five Hundred Years or Five Thousand? (1996).
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Table of Contents

EPIGRAPHS


PREFACE


CHAPTER 1


INTRODUCTION TO REAL WORLD HISTORY VS. EUROCENTRIC SOCIAL THEORY

HOLISTIC METHODOLOGY AND OBJECTIVES

GLOBALISM, NOT EUROCENTRISM

CHAPTER OUTLINE OF A GLOBAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

ANTICIPATING AND CONFRONTING RESISTANCE AND OBSTACLES


CHAPTER 2


THE GLOBAL TRADE CAROUSEL 1400-1800

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD ECONOMY

Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century Antecedents
The Columbian Exchange and its Consequences
Some Neglected Features in the World Economy
WORLD DIVISION OF LABOR AND BALANCES OF TRADE 1400-1800
Mapping the Global Economy
The Americas
Africa
Europe
West Asia
The Ottoman Empire
Safavid Persia
India and the Indian Ocean
North India
Gujarat and Malabar
Coromandel
Bengal
Southeast Asia
Archipellago and Insular
Continental
Japan
China
Population, Production, Trade
China in the World Economy
Central Asia
Russia and the Baltics
A Sino-Centric World Economy Summary

CHAPTER 3


MONEY WENT AROUND THE WORLD AND MADE THE WORLD GO ROUND

WORLD MONEY: ITS PRODUCTION AND EXCHANGE

Micro- and Marco- Attractions in the World Casino
Dealing and Playing in the Casino
The Numbers Game
Silver
Gold
Credit
HOW DID THE WINNERS USE THEIR MONEY?
Spenders vs Hoarders
Inflation or Production in the Quantity Theory of Money
Money Expanded the Frontiers of Settlement and Production

CHAPTER 4


THE GLOBAL ECONOMY: COMPARISONS AND RELATIONS

QUANTITIES: POPULATION, PRODUCTION, PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND TRADE

Population, Production and Income
Productivity and Competitiveness
World Trade 1400-1800
QUALITIES: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Eurocentrism Regarding Science and Technology in Asia
Guns
Ships
Printing
Textiles
Metallurgy, Coal and Power
Transport
World Technological Development
MECHANISMS: ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
European - Asian Comparisons
Global Institutional Relations
In India
In China

CHAPTER 5


HORIZONTALLY INTEGRATIVE MACROHISTORY

SIMULTANEITY IS NO COINCIDENCE

DOING HORIZONTALLY INTEGRATIVE MACROHISTORY

Demographic/Structural Analysis
A "Seventeenth Century Crisis"?
Monetary Analysis and the Crises of 1640
Kondratieff Analysis
The 1762-1790 Kondratieff "B" Phase Crisis and Recessions
More Horizontally Integrative Macrohistory?

CHAPTER 6


WHY DID THE WEST WIN [TEMPORARILY] ?

UP AND DOWN THE LONG CYCLE ROLLICOASTER?

THE DECLINE OF THE EAST PRECEDED THE RISE OF THE WEST

The Decline in India
The Decline Elsewhere in Asia
HOW DID THE WEST RISE?
Climbing Up on Asian Shoulders
Supply and Demand for Technological Change in the World Economy
Supplies and Sources of Capital
A GLOBAL ECONOMIC/DEMOGRAPHIC ACCOUNTING FOR THE DECLINE OF THE EAST AND THE RISE OF THE WEST
A Demographic Economic Model
A High-Level Equilibrium Trap?
The Evidence 1500-1750
The 1750 Inflection
Past Conclusions and Future Implications

CHAPTER 7


HISTORIOGRAPHIC CONCLUSIONS AND THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS

HISTORIOGRAPHIC CONCLUSIONS: THE EUROCENTRIC EMPEROR HAS NO CLOTHES

1. The Asiatic Mode of Production [AMP]
2. European Exceptionalism
3. A European World-System or a Global Economy?
4. 1500: Continuity or Break?
5. Capitalism?
6. Hegemony?
7. The Rise of the West and the Industrial Revolution
8. Empty Categories and Procustean Beds

THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS: THROUGH THE GLOBAL LOOKING GLASS

1. Holism vs. Partialism
2. Commonality/Similarity vs. Specificity/Difference
3. Continuity vs. Dis-continuities
4. Horizontal Integration vs. Vertical Separation
5. Cycles vs. Linearity
6. Agency vs. Structure
7. Europe in a World Economic Nutshell
8. Jihad vs. McWorld in the Anarchy of the Clash of Civilizations?

REFERENCES CITED

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