A Repair Kit for Grading: Fifteen Fixes for Broken Grades / Edition 2

A Repair Kit for Grading: Fifteen Fixes for Broken Grades / Edition 2

5.0 2
by Ken O'Connor
     
 

Communicating about student achievement requires accurate, consistent and meaningful grades.

Educators interested in examining and improving grading practices should ask the following questions:

• Am I confident that students in my classroom receive consistent, accurate and meaningful grades that support learning?

• Am I

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Overview

Communicating about student achievement requires accurate, consistent and meaningful grades.

Educators interested in examining and improving grading practices should ask the following questions:

• Am I confident that students in my classroom receive consistent, accurate and meaningful grades that support learning?

• Am I confident that the grades I assign students accurately reflect my school or district’s published performance standards and desired learning outcomes?

In many schools, the answers to these questions often range from "not very" to "not at all." When that’s the case, grades are "broken" and teachers and schools need a "repair kit" to fix them. A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades, 2/e gives teachers and administrators 15 ways to make the necessary repairs.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780132488631
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
12/03/2010
Series:
Assessment Training Institute, Inc. Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
176
Sales rank:
103,416
Product dimensions:
8.76(w) x 6.06(h) x 0.38(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Setting the Stage 1

Key Definitions 6

Purpose(s) for Grades 6

Underpinning Issues 7

Fairness 7

Motivation 8

Objectivity and Professional Judgment 11

Student Involvement 12

The 15 Fixes 12

Chapter 2 Fixes for Practices That Distort Achievement 15

Fix 1 Don't include student behaviors (effort, participation, adherence to class rules, etc.) in grades; include only achievement 16

Student Involvement 20

Summary 22

Teacher Vignette 22

Policy Example 23

Fix 2 Don't reduce marks on "work" submitted late; provide support for the learner 24

Student Involvement 27

Summary 27

Teacher Vignette 28

Policy Example 30

Fix 3 Don't give points for extra credit or use bonus points; seek only evidence that more work has resulted in a higher level of achievement 32

Student Involvement 35

Summary 35

Teacher Vignette 36

Policy Examples 36

Fix 4 Don't punish academic dishonesty with reduced grades; apply other consequences and reassess to determine actual level of achievement 38

Student Involvement 43

Summary 43

Teacher Vignette 44

Policy Example 45

Fix 5 Don't consider attendance in grade determination; report absences separately 47

Summary 49

Teacher Vignettes 49

Policy Example 51

Fix 6 Don't include group scores in grades; use only individual achievement evidence 52

Summary 54

Teacher Vignette 55

Policy Example 56

Chapter 3 Fixes for Low-Quality or Poorly Organized Evidence 57

Fix 7 Don't organize information in grading records by assessment methods or simply summarize into a single grade; organize and report evidence by standards/learning goals 58

Summary 64

Teacher Vignettes 65

Policy Example 66

Fix 8 Don't assign grades using inappropriate or unclear performance standards; provide clear descriptions of achievement expectations 67

Student Involvement 75

Summary 75

Teacher Vignette 76

Policy Example 77

Fix 9 Don't assign grades based on a student's achievement compared to other students; compare each student's performance to preset standards 79

Summary 80

Teacher Vignette 81

Policy Example 81

Fix 10 Don't rely on evidence gathered using assessments that fail to meet standards of quality; rely only on quality assessments 82

Summary 85

Teacher Vignette 86

Policy Example 88

Chapter 4 Fixes for Inappropriate Grade Calculation 89

Fix 11 Don't rely only on the mean; consider other measures of central tendency and use professional judgment 90

Summary 93

Teacher Vignette 93

Policy Example 94

Fix 12 Don't include zeros in grade determination when evidence is missing or as punishment, use alternatives, such as reassessing to determine real achievement, or use "I" for Incomplete or Insufficient Evidence 95

Student Involvement 100

Summary 101

Teacher Vignette 102

Policy Example 103

Chapter 5 Fixes to Support Learning 105

Fix 13 Don't use information from formative assessments and practice to determine grades; use only summative evidence 106

Student Involvement 114

Summary 115

Teacher Vignette 115

Policy Examples 117

Fix 14 Don't summarize evidence accumulated over time when learning is developmental and will grow with time and repeated opportunities; in those instances, emphasize more recent achievement 120

Summary 122

Teacher Vignette 124

Policy Example 125

Fix 15 Don't leave students out of the grading process. Involve students; they can-and should-play key roles in assessment and grading that promote achievement 126

Summary 129

Teacher Vignette 130

Policy Example 131

Chapter 6 Summary 135

Discussion Guide 139

Appendix A Rubric for Evaluating Grading Practices 151

Appendix B Survey on Marking and Grading Practices 154

Instructions 154

Definitions 154

References 156

Index 159

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